- Acupuncture for Diarrhoea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Network Meta-Analysis. [Review]
- EBEvid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018; 2018:2890465
- CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture may improve diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome better than drugs and has the fewest side effects. Sham acupuncture may have curative effect except for placebo effect. In the future, it is necessary to perform highly qualified research to prove this result. Pinaverium bromide also has good curative effects with fewer side effects than other drugs.
- [Establishment of a canine slow transit constipation model and evalution of defecation, gastrointestinal transit and pathological sections]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Jun 12; 98(22):1786-1791
- Objective: To establish a canine model of slow transit constipation (STC), and to test the changes in defecation, gastrointestinal transit time and pathology sections. Methods: Baseline information...
Objective: To establish a canine model of slow transit constipation (STC), and to test the changes in defecation, gastrointestinal transit time and pathology sections. Methods: Baseline information was measured in 8 beagle dogs, and these dogs were randomly divided into the control group and the model group. The dogs in model group were given a diet of canned meat, as well as a combination of compound diphenoxylate and alosetron hydrochloride for 5 weeks. Dogs in control group were given normal diet with no special intervention. Stool frequency and consistency were observed and recorded daily, and the gastrointestinal transit time (GITT) were measured every week. All animals underwent the midline laparotomy and the colonic tissues were taken from the rectosigmoid colon, then investigated by light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate changes of protein gene product 9.5(PGP9.5), synaptophysin and c-kit between two groups. Results: 8 beagle dogs underwent all experiment items successfully.Both of the stool frequency and scores of stool consistency decreased in model group(F=6.568, P=0.043; F=25.954, P=0.002). GITT delayed in model group(F=42.573, P=0.001). After 5 weeks of intervention, in the model group, the myenteric neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal showed damage such as swelling of mitochondria under electron microscopy, and both of the PGP9.5 and synaptophysin integrated option density of rectosigmoid colon were decreased (t=3.471, P=0.013; t=2.506, P=0.046)under immunohistochemistry. The c-kit integrated option density showed no statistically significant differences between two groups(t=1.709, P=0.138). Conclusions: The canine model of STC which was consistent with clinical symptoms and pathological changes was successfully established, and it can be used to observe and evaluate the therapeutic effect of electrical stimulation, surgery and so on.
- Alosetron use in clinical practice: significant improvement in irritable bowel syndrome symptoms evaluated using the US Food and Drug Administration composite endpoint. [Journal Article]
- TATherap Adv Gastroenterol 2018; 11:1756284818771674
- CONCLUSIONS: In a clinical practice setting study, alosetron demonstrated treatment success using a rigorous FDA composite endpoint and also improved multiple other IBS symptoms, including fecal urgency and incontinence in women with severe IBS-D [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01257477].
- Implications of Pharmacogenomics to the Management of IBS. [Review]
- CGClin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Apr 27
- The objectives are to review the role of pharmacogenomics in drug metabolism of medications typically used in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focusing predominantly on cytochrome P450 me...
The objectives are to review the role of pharmacogenomics in drug metabolism of medications typically used in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focusing predominantly on cytochrome P450 metabolism. Other aims are to provide examples of genetic variation of receptors or intermediary pathways that are targets for IBS drugs and to critically appraise the situations where precision medicine is impacting health in IBS. Pharmacogenomics impacts both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Although large clinical trials have not incorporated testing for genetic variations that could impact the efficacy of medications in IBS, there are therapeutic advantages to inclusion of pharmacogenomics testing for individual patients, as has been demonstrated particularly in the treatment with central neuromodulators in psychiatry practice. Clinical practice in IBS is moving in the same direction with the aid of commercially available tests focused on drug metabolism. Specific mechanisms leading to pathophysiology of IBS are still poorly characterized, relative to diseases such as cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, and, therefore, pharmacogenomics related to drug pharmacodynamics is still in its infancy and requires extensive future research. With increased attention to pharmacogenomics affecting drug metabolism, it is anticipated that pharmacogenomics will impact care of IBS.
- Evidence-based management of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Manag Care 2018; 24(3 Suppl):S35-S46
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a complex disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, is characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation or changes in stool form or frequency. IBS is associate...
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a complex disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, is characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation or changes in stool form or frequency. IBS is associated with substantial burden, including direct medical costs and indirect costs. Direct costs associated with IBS in the United States have been estimated to exceed $1 billion. However, indirect costs, such as negative effect on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity, are difficult to quantify. There are 3 main subtypes: IBS with prominent diarrhea (IBS-D), IBS with constipation, and IBS with mixed symptoms of both constipation and diarrhea. A number of pharmacologic agents have been used to treat IBS-D despite lack of approval by the FDA for this indication. The pharmacologic agents that are indicated by the FDA for the treatment of IBS-D include alosetron, eluxadoline, and rifaximin. The negative impact of IBS-D symptoms on QOL reported by patients indicate there is an unmet need for therapies that effectively treat and manage the symptoms of this condition. Addressing gaps in treatment is an important priority.
- Medical Therapies in the Pipeline for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- GHGastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) 2017; 13(9):550-552
- Toluene exposure enhances acute and chronic formalin-induced nociception in rats: Participation of 5-HT3 receptors. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotoxicology 2017; 63:97-105
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute toluene exposure on formalin (0.5% and 1%)-induced acute and long-lasting nociceptive hypersensitivity in rats. In addition, we sought to...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute toluene exposure on formalin (0.5% and 1%)-induced acute and long-lasting nociceptive hypersensitivity in rats. In addition, we sought to investigate the role of peripheral 5-HT3 receptors in the pronociceptive effect of toluene. Toluene exposure (6000ppm) for 30min enhanced 0.5% or 1% formalin-induced acute nociception and long-lasting secondary allodynia and hyperalgesia. In contrast, exposition to toluene for 30min in rats previously injected (six days before) with 1% formalin did not affect long-lasting hypersensitivy. Local peripheral pre-treatment with alosetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 10-100 nmol) reduced the pronociceptive effect of toluene in acute nociception and long-lasting secondary allodynia and hyperalgesia. Alosetron (100nmol) was also able to reduce the nociceptive effects of 1% formalin in absence of toluene. Moreover, local peripheral injection of m-CPBG (5-HT3 receptor agonist, 300 nmol) enhanced 0.5% formalin-induced acute and long-lasting nociception in air- and toluene-exposed rats. Alosetron (10nmol) blocked the pronociceptive effects of m-CPBG (300nmol) on 0.5% formalin-induced acute and long-lasting hypersensitivity in rats exposed to toluene. Alosetron (at 10nmol) did not modify formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors. Finally, local peripheral pre-treatment with methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, 1.5nmol), did not affect the pronociceptive effect of toluene on 1% formalin-induced acute and long-lasting hypersensitivity. Our data demonstrate that acute exposure to toluene has pronociceptive effects in formalin-induced acute nociception and long-lasting hypersensitivity. Our data suggest that this pronociceptive effect depend on activation of peripheral 5-HT3, but not methiothepin-sensitive 5-HT, receptors.
- The place of eluxadoline in the management of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. [Review]
- TATherap Adv Gastroenterol 2017; 10(9):715-725
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation with altered stool frequency or stool form. The global preva...
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation with altered stool frequency or stool form. The global prevalence of IBS ranges from 10% to 15% and total healthcare cost attributable to IBS is significant. Among individuals with IBS, the condition has dramatic effects on health-related quality of life, work and school productivity, and activities of daily living. It may be diagnosed with confidence, based on symptom-based diagnostic criteria, exclusion of alarm features and directed diagnostic testing. Management of IBS typically begins with dietary and lifestyle modifications, progressing to over-the-counter therapies, and then to prescription medications, both approved and nonapproved for IBS. This narrative summarizes the efficacy and safety of three US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved prescription therapies for IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), with a focus on the most recently marketed agent, eluxadoline, and its role in the treatment IBS-D.
- Review of Rifaximin: Latest Treatment Frontier for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Mechanism of Action and Clinical Profile. [Journal Article]
- CMClin Med Insights Gastroenterol 2017; 10:1179552217728905
- Irritable bowel syndrome is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder with the primary symptom of abdominal pain in conjunction with bloating and bowel movement disorder. It affects up to ...
Irritable bowel syndrome is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder with the primary symptom of abdominal pain in conjunction with bloating and bowel movement disorder. It affects up to 15% of the world's population. Among its subtypes, the most common is diarrhoea predominant. However, the current treatment options for diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have had not very promising results; most, such as antispasmodics, only provide partial symptomatic relief. Treatment with antidepressants and alosetron (a 5HT3 antagonist) has shown the most promise to date. The latest drug to be approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea is rifaximin, which was approved in May 2015. It is a minimally absorbed antibiotic that is used to change the gut microbiota. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is one of the causes suggested for irritable bowel syndrome, particularly for the diarrhoea-predominant type. There are various methods for detecting bacterial overgrowth, the simplest of which is breath tests. Rifaximin has been shown to be of benefit to these patients.
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- Palladium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Difunctionalization of Aminoalkenes with Aminals as Oxidants and Electrophiles. [Journal Article]
- OLOrg Lett 2017 09 01; 19(17):4600-4603
- A novel palladium-catalyzed aminomethylamination of aminoalkenes with an aminal, functioning not only as an aminomethylation reagent but also as an oxidant, was developed. This direct and operational...
A novel palladium-catalyzed aminomethylamination of aminoalkenes with an aminal, functioning not only as an aminomethylation reagent but also as an oxidant, was developed. This direct and operationally simple protocol provides a fundamentally novel and unique approach toward the synthesis of 2-(2-aminoethyl)indoles and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyrrolidines, which are important building blocks in synthetic organic chemistry. The unity of this method was highlighted by the rapid synthesis of Alosetron, a drug used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.