- Propofol attenuates osteoclastogenesis by lowering RANKL/OPG ratio in mouse osteoblasts. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Med Sci 2018; 15(7):723-729
- Bone remodeling plays an important role in the bone healing process; for example, following fracture. The relative ratio of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/ osteoprote...
Bone remodeling plays an important role in the bone healing process; for example, following fracture. The relative ratio of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/ osteoprotegerin (OPG) controls osteoclast differentiation, thereby playing a pivotal role in the regulation of bone remodeling. Propofol, a widely used anesthetic agent in orthopedic procedures, is considered to possess potential antioxidant properties owing to its structural similarity to α-tocopherol. Antioxidants are known to enhance bone healing. Accordingly, in the present study, we aimed to investigate osteoblastic differentiation and RANKL/OPG expression following propofol administration, in order to assess the potentially beneficial effects of this drug on the bone remodeling process, using calvarial primary osteoblasts from newborn mice. Calvarial pre-osteoblast cells were cultured in media containing clinically relevant concentrations of propofol, and cytotoxicity, effects on cell proliferation, osteogenic activity, and osteoclastogenesis were examined. The present findings indicated that propofol did not exert cytotoxic effects or alter cell proliferation in primary calvarial osteoblasts. Further, propofol did not affect osteoblast differentiation. The RANKL/OPG ratio was found to be decreased following propofol administration, and osteoclastogenesis was significantly reduced, indicating that propofol attenuated the osteoclastogenesis-supporting activity of osteoblasts. The results demonstrate that propofol, at clinically relevant concentrations, exerts beneficial effects on bone remodeling by attenuating osteoclastogenesis via suppression of the RANKL/OPG expression axis.
- Dried tomato pomace supplementation to reduce lamb concentrate intake: Effects on growth performance and meat quality. [Journal Article]
- MSMeat Sci 2018 Jun 09; 145:63-70
- The effect of dried tomato pomace (DTP) was tested on lamb performances, meat fatty acids and oxidative stability. For 36 days, one group of lambs (n = 7; CON) was fed a commercial concentrate, while...
The effect of dried tomato pomace (DTP) was tested on lamb performances, meat fatty acids and oxidative stability. For 36 days, one group of lambs (n = 7; CON) was fed a commercial concentrate, while the other group (n = 7; DTP) received DTP in addition to CON diet. The administration of DTP reduced (P < .05) concentrate intake, with no effect on animal performances. The DTP treatment tended to increase total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; P = .075), PUFA n-6 (P = .071), α-linolenic acid (P = .096) and increased linoleic acid (P < .05), γ-tocopherol (P < .001) and retinol (P < .001) in meat. In raw meat, DTP treatment increased L* (P = .059), b* (P < .05), C* (P = .052) and H* (P < .05) values compared to CON, while lipid oxidation was not affected. In meat homogenates incubated with pro-oxidants, DTP tended to reduce 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; P = .088). Therefore, DTP supplementation decreased the consumption of commercial concentrate without detrimental effects on animal performances and meat quality traits.
- Effect of vitamin E supplementation in milk replacer and Shiga toxoid vaccination on serum α-tocopherol, performance, haematology and blood chemistry in male Holstein calves. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2018 Jun 15
- Vitamin E (vit E), an essential antioxidant for maintaining the stability of biological membranes and the function of the immune system, is considered to support adaptive immune responses and perform...
Vitamin E (vit E), an essential antioxidant for maintaining the stability of biological membranes and the function of the immune system, is considered to support adaptive immune responses and performance in cattle. The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. Active and passive immunization of calves with Shiga toxoids (rStxMUT ) was recently shown to reduce the STEC shedding. Here, we examined the influence of vit E on calves' serum α-tocopherol, performance, haematology, blood chemistry and its interaction with rStxMUT immunization. Data from calves having received passive (colostrum from immunized cows) and active (intramuscularly at 5th and 8th weeks of life) vaccination with rStxMUT (n = 24) were compared to unvaccinated controls (n = 24; fed with low anti-Stx colostrum, placebo injected). For each vaccination group, data were analysed according to the level of vit E supplementation offered by milk replacer (188 IU all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate daily [VitEM ] vs. 354 IU [VitEH ]). An increase by 79% in daily vit E supplementation led to slightly higher serum α-tocopherol level and earlier concentrate intake at the beginning of the experiment without significant differences in live weight gain, haematology, blood chemistry parameters and peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subpopulations. rStxMUT vaccination modulated the CD4+ /CD8+ ratio irrespective of vit E supplementation but decreased concentrate intake in VitEH in a time-dependent manner. Results of our study indicate that an increase in daily vit E supplementation vastly fails to exert effects on laboratory parameters and growth performance. However, observed interactive effects of vit E supply and vaccination on the regulation of feed intake deserves further attention.
- Oxidation of squalene by singlet oxygen and free radicals results in different compositions of squalene monohydroperoxide isomers. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jun 14; 8(1):9116
- Oxidation of squalene (SQ) causes a decline in the nutritional value of SQ in foods, as well as an accumulation of SQ oxidation products in skin lipids which lead to adverse skin conditions. However,...
Oxidation of squalene (SQ) causes a decline in the nutritional value of SQ in foods, as well as an accumulation of SQ oxidation products in skin lipids which lead to adverse skin conditions. However, mechanistic insights as to how SQ is oxidized by different oxidation mechanisms have been limited, and thus effective measures towards the prevention of SQ oxidation have not been identified. In this study, we oxidized SQ by either singlet oxygen oxidation or free radical oxidation, and monitored the formation of the six SQ monohydroperoxide (SQOOH) isomers, the primary oxidation products of SQ, at the isomeric level. While singlet oxygen oxidation of SQ resulted in the formation of similar amounts of the six SQOOH isomers, free radical oxidation of SQ mainly formed two types of isomers, 2-OOH-SQ and 3-OOH-SQ. The addition of β-carotene during singlet oxygen oxidation, and the addition of α-tocopherol during free radical oxidation lead to a dose-dependent decrease in the formation of SQOOH isomers. Such results suggest that the analysis of SQOOH at the isomeric level allows for the determination of the cause of SQ oxidation in various samples, and provides a foothold for future studies concerning the prevention of SQ oxidation.
- [Selenium deficiency in an organic extensive water buffalo farm]. [Journal Article]
- TPTierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2018; 46(3):191-195
- This case report presents investigations of muscle problems in three male water buffaloes (1-2 years) kept extensively (loose housing, pasture). The bulls were presented because of listlessness and i...
This case report presents investigations of muscle problems in three male water buffaloes (1-2 years) kept extensively (loose housing, pasture). The bulls were presented because of listlessness and increased lying periods. They displayed difficulties to stand up, a stilted gait, and tremor in the legs. The determination of the selenium concentration by the measurement of glutathione peroxidase activity in whole blood samples (EDTA) demonstrated selenium deficiency in all three buffaloes. This confirmed the tentative diagnosis of nutritive myodystrophy due to selenium deficiency. Following a single injection of 1500 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate and 11 mg sodium selenite, the bulls recovered clinically. The whole blood samples taken subsequently from seven adult water buffaloes on the farm showed selenium deficiency in all animals. Consequently, slow-release multi-trace element boluses were administered once orally - as far as possible - to all adult animals of the herd. After 1 year, a good to very good selenium supply was observed in all these buffaloes, except for one cow, in which bolus application had failed.
- Effect of alpha tocopherol acetate and ascorbic acid on performance, carcass traits and incidence and severity of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Sci 2018 Jun 09
- Liver abscesses (LA) in cattle negatively affect feedlot performance by decreasing ADG, feed intake, and G:F ratio. Abscessed livers are condemned and abdominal adhesions associated with LA can resul...
Liver abscesses (LA) in cattle negatively affect feedlot performance by decreasing ADG, feed intake, and G:F ratio. Abscessed livers are condemned and abdominal adhesions associated with LA can result in extensive carcass trimming during harvest, further compounding adverse economic impact. Given regulatory changes pertaining to the use of in-feed antibiotics in cattle production, there is growing interest in alternatives to antibiotics for LA control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of antioxidants, crystalline ascorbate and alpha tocopherol acetate, for mitigation of LA in feedlot cattle. Yearling crossbred heifers (n=392; initial BW 481 ± 9.4 kg) were blocked by previous treatment and allocated randomly to 24 dirt-surfaced feedlot pens (10 m x 35 m) with 14 heifers/pen. Heifers were weighed, implanted with Component® TE-200 implants, and placed into feeding pens. Finishing diets consisted of 60% steam-flaked corn, 30% wet corn gluten feed, 8% alfalfa, and 2% supplement (DM basis) that provided 300 mg/d monensin, and either 200 IU/d alpha tocopherol acetate (CTL) or 2000 IU/d alpha tocopherol acetate plus 500 mg/d crystalline ascorbate (AOX). Heifers were fed once daily ad libitum for 94 d, then weighed and transported 450 km to a commercial abattoir for harvest. Hot carcass weight and incidence/severity of LA were determined the day of harvest, and carcass traits were evaluated following 36 h of refrigeration. Compared to CTL, feeding AOX tended to decrease DMI (10.66 vs. 10.31 kg/d; P = 0.08) and improve G:F (0.1204 vs. 0.1254; P = 0.12), but did not impact ADG, incidence of LA (25.6 vs 23.5% for CTL and AOX, respectively), HCW (828.4 vs 830.5 kg for CTL and AOX, respectively), or other carcass traits (P>0.20). In conclusion, feeding antioxidants is not a viable alternative to decrease incidence of liver abscesses in finishing cattle.
- Characteristics of Chamaerops humilis L. var. humilis seed oil and study of the oxidative stability by blending with soybean oil. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci Technol 2018; 55(6):2170-2179
- Herein we examine the characteristics of date seed oil extracted from Chamaerops humilis L. var. humilis seeds (HSO) cultivated in a gardening zone in Tunisia. Its physicochemical properties, fatty a...
Herein we examine the characteristics of date seed oil extracted from Chamaerops humilis L. var. humilis seeds (HSO) cultivated in a gardening zone in Tunisia. Its physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, and thermal and antioxidant properties were evaluated and compared with those of seed oil from another variety of Chamaerops humilis. The results showed that HSO possessed higher contents of oleic (44%) and linoleic (20%) acids than the other seed oil. The total tocopherol and tocotrienol content was 88 mg/100 g oil, where α-tocotrienol (64%) was the major isomer. The total phenolic (91 μg/g oil) and flavonoid contents (18 μg/g oil) of the HSO were determined, and its antioxidant capacities, measured in terms of ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging capacities, were 210 µM TEAC/g DW and 4.3 mM TEAC/g DW, respectively. The oxidative stability index (OSI) of the oil was 16 h at 110 °C. Furthermore, the OSI of soybean oil was significantly enhanced upon blending with HSO. HSO exhibited higher thermal stability than the other oils and significantly different thermal behavior. The determination of fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, bioactive content, oxidative stability, and thermal behavior of HSO demonstrated that this renewable resource can be used for edible purposes.
- β-carotene Supplementation and Lung Cancer Incidence in the ATBC Study: the Role of Tar and Nicotine. [Journal Article]
- NTNicotine Tob Res 2018 Jun 08
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the conclusion that supplementation with β-carotene increases the risk of lung cancer in smokers regardless of the tar or nicotine content of cigarettes smoked. Our data suggest that all smokers should continue to avoid β-carotene supplementation.
- Supplementation with Alpha-Tocopherol and Ascorbic Acid to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease's Statin Therapy in Men. [Journal Article]
- APAdv Pharmacol Sci 2018; 2018:4673061
- Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the control of lipid status by statins may help to stop the progressi...
Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the control of lipid status by statins may help to stop the progression of NAFLD. We hypothesized that the addition of antioxidant vitamins C and E to atorvastatin therapy is associated with improved serum enzyme antioxidant status. NAFLD-related serum parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, before and after 3 months of treatment, were determined in patients receiving atorvastatin alone or atorvastatin plus antioxidants. Compared to healthy controls, the patients, before receiving therapy, had increased catalase and glutathione reductase, with no significant difference in glutathione peroxidase activity. After the treatment, the levels of all three antioxidant markers were reduced to the same degree in both groups of patients, indicating therapy-induced lower level of reactive oxygen species production and/or improved nonenzymatic antioxidant mechanisms. Both therapies led to the normalization of the serum lipid profile and aminotransferase levels in the patients, but the reduction in CRP, although significant, did not reduce levels to those of the controls. The obtained results favor the notion that therapy with atorvastatin alone is equally efficient during the early stages of NAFLD, regardless of the addition of antioxidant vitamins. This trial is registered with TCTR20180425001.
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- Technical note: Development and validation of an HPLC method for the quantification of tocopherols in different types of commercial cow milk. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2018 Jun 06
- In the present study, a methanol-fluorescence-based HPLC method was validated for its use to quantify α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in raw milk, whole UHT milk, partially skimmed UHT milk, whole past...
In the present study, a methanol-fluorescence-based HPLC method was validated for its use to quantify α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in raw milk, whole UHT milk, partially skimmed UHT milk, whole pasteurized milk, and partially skimmed pasteurized milk. Repeatability and reproducibility, calculated as relative standard deviation of 10 measurements within the same day and 30 measurements across 3 d, respectively, were always below 5% for both tocopherols concentrations and retention times. Recovery was assessed through 3 spiking levels and it ranged from 89 to 107%. The method was able to detect the expected declines in tocopherols in milk exposed to UHT or skimming treatments. Vitamin E, calculated as the sum of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, was similar in whole pasteurized and raw milk, averaging 1.57 and 1.56 mg/L, respectively, followed by whole UHT (1.33 mg/L), partially skimmed pasteurized (0.77 mg/L), and partially skimmed UHT milk (0.61 mg/L).