- An Experimental Study of Diazepam and Alprazolam Kinetics in Urine and Oral Fluid Following Single Oral Doses. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anal Toxicol 2018 Dec 05
- Benzodiazepines are commonly seen in samples submitted for drug testing of patients, people involved in child welfare cases, work-place drug testing, as well as in drug-facilitated assaults. Limited ...
Benzodiazepines are commonly seen in samples submitted for drug testing of patients, people involved in child welfare cases, work-place drug testing, as well as in drug-facilitated assaults. Limited previous experimental studies are available regarding the excretion of benzodiazepines in urine and oral fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of diazepam and alprazolam in oral fluid and urine for up to 2 weeks after ingestion of a single oral dose in healthy volunteers. A total of 11 healthy volunteers ingested 10 mg diazepam at the start of the study and 0.5 mg alprazolam on Day 3 of the study. A total number of 10 oral fluid samples and 17 urine samples were collected from each participant. The samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. The median detection time was 252 h for the longest detected diazepam metabolite in urine (oxazepam, range 203-322) and 132 h in oral fluid (N-desmethyldiazepam, range 109-136). For alprazolam, the median detection time was 36 h (metabolite α-OH-alprazolam, range 26-61) in urine and 26 h (alprazolam, range 4-37) in oral fluid. These results show that detection times are only 36 h for alprazolam in urine after intake of a single therapeutic oral dose. For diazepam in urine, detection times were 11 days. Detection times were generally shorter in oral fluid compared to urine. The results could be helpful in the interpretation of diazepam or alprazolam findings in drug testing cases involving urine or oral fluid.
- Environmental risk assessment of psychoactive drugs in the aquatic environment. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Nov 05
- The consumption of psychoactive pharmaceuticals has increased worldwide, and wastewater treatment plants are not able to eliminate them from the effluent. An extensive review was carried out to asses...
The consumption of psychoactive pharmaceuticals has increased worldwide, and wastewater treatment plants are not able to eliminate them from the effluent. An extensive review was carried out to assess the environmental risk (ERA model) based on secondary data about potential impacts on non-target organisms of seven psychoactive drugs consumed worldwide (alprazolam, bromazepam, citalopram, clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, and oxazepam). Risk quotients (RQs) were calculated according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on ERA of Medicinal Products For Human Use based on (i) the predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC and MEC, respectively) of the psychoactive drug in surface water, groundwater, and wastewater effluent and (ii) the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) derived from ecotoxicological assays or ECOSAR software. Furthermore, this study reviews and discusses non-standardized ecotoxicity assays, such as sublethal and behavioral effects on different organisms. In total, 903 MEC entries of psychoactive drugs and 162 data on ecotoxicological assays were gathered from the literature survey addressing behavioral effects (115), acute/chronic effects (35), and sublethal effects (12). Citalopram and diazepam were the only substances that are likely to pose an environmental risk (RQ > 1) to surface waters. Even though there is considerable amount of data on behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs to aquatic species, results are currently not integrated into the EMA risk assessment framework. The large amount of data on psychoactive drug concentrations and effects on non-target organisms collected, interpreted, and discussed in the present study should be used as a baseline for future improvement of ERA strategies.
- Use of multiple data sources to identify specific drugs and other factors associated with drug and alcohol screening of fatally injured motor vehicle drivers. [Journal Article]
- AAAccid Anal Prev 2019; 122:287-294
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that FARS drug information data may be strengthened through increased autopsy and consultation with medical examiners to better understand and interpret decedent toxicology testing results, and that states with low driver drug testing rates should consider mandatory driver drug testing in fatal crashes.
- Detection of Drugs in Simultaneously Collected Samples of Oral Fluid and Blood. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anal Toxicol 2018 Oct 06
- Simultaneously collected samples of oral fluid and blood in a naturalistic setting could provide a qualitative impression of the relative detection times of drugs in oral fluid compared to blood. The...
Simultaneously collected samples of oral fluid and blood in a naturalistic setting could provide a qualitative impression of the relative detection times of drugs in oral fluid compared to blood. The aim of this study was to compare detections of different drugs in oral fluid and blood from a large material of paired samples. The study included results from 930 paired oral fluid and blood samples collected from drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs. Oral fluid was collected using the Intercept device. Blood samples were screened using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) method and positive results were confirmed and quantified with a different analytical method. Oral fluid samples were analyzed using UHPLC-MS-MS. The drugs included in the study were: amphetamine, methamphetamine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, clonazepam, alprazolam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), methadone and buprenorphine. The drugs detected more frequently in oral fluid compared to blood were amphetamine (497 positive in oral fluid/408 positive in blood), methamphetamine (332/232), oxazepam (106/36), morphine (65/31) and 6-MAM (19/0). The drugs detected less frequently in oral fluid compared to blood were THC (224 positive in oral fluid/407 positive in blood), diazepam (137/160), N-desmethyldiazepam (183/188), clonazepam (148/307), alprazolam (47/68), nitrazepam (16/29) and buprenorphine (31/59). For methadone, the number of detections was the same in oral fluid and in blood (23/23). The results indicate that for amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine and 6-MAM, relative detection time is longer in oral fluid than in blood, while for benzodiazepines, the results indicate that relative detection time is shorter in oral fluid than in blood. For oxazepam and buprenorphine, the results were dependent on the cut-off limits used. Regarding THC, the detection time in oral fluid depends on the sampling method. The relative detection time was shorter than in blood when using the Intercept device.
- Abuse potential assessment of cannabidiol (CBD) in recreational polydrug users: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- EBEpilepsy Behav 2018; 88:162-171
- CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a therapeutic dose of CBD (750 mg) showed significantly low abuse potential in a highly sensitive population of polydrug users. Although high and supratherapeutic doses of CBD (1500 mg and 4500 mg, respectively) had detectable subjective effects compared with placebo; the effects were significantly lower than those observed with alprazolam and dronabinol.
- Comparison of Effects of Oral Melatonin with Oral Alprazolam used as a Premedicant in Adult Patients Undergoing Various Surgical Procedures under General Anesthesia: A Prospective Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study. [Journal Article]
- AEAnesth Essays Res 2018 Jul-Sep; 12(3):657-662
- CONCLUSIONS: Oral melatonin (6 mg) when used as a premedicant is an effective alternative to alprazolam regarding providing better anxiolysis, lesser sedation along with maintenance of cognitive, and psychomotor function.
- Presentations to the emergency department with non-medical use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs: profiling and relation to sales data. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Sep 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Presentations to the emergency department associated with the non-medical use of benzodiazepines and/or Z-drugs are common, with variation in the benzodiazepines and/or Z-drugs between countries. There was a moderate to high correlation with sales data, with higher correlation in countries with higher ED presentation rates. However, this is not the only explanation for the variation in non-medical use and in the harm associated with the non-medical use of benzodiazepines/Z-drugs.
- Rescue therapies for seizure emergencies: New modes of administration. [Journal Article]
- EEpilepsia 2018; 59 Suppl 2:207-215
- A subgroup of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy have seizure clusters, which are a part of the continuum of seizure emergencies that includes prolonged episodes and status epilepticus. When the p...
A subgroup of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy have seizure clusters, which are a part of the continuum of seizure emergencies that includes prolonged episodes and status epilepticus. When the patient or caregiver can identify the beginning of a cluster, the condition is amenable to certain treatments, an approach known as rescue therapy. Intravenous drug administration offers the fastest onset of action, but this route is usually not an option because most seizure clusters occur outside of a medical facility. Alternate routes of administration have been used or are proposed including rectal, buccal, intrapulmonary, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intranasal. The objective of this narrative review is to describe the (1) anatomical, physiologic, and drug physicochemical properties that need to be considered when developing therapies for seizure emergencies and (2) products currently in development. New therapies must consider parameters of Fick's law such as absorptive surface area, blood flow, membrane thickness, and lipid solubility, because these factors affect both rate and extend of absorption. For example, the lung has a 50 000-fold greater absorptive surface area than that associated with a subcutaneous injection. Lipid solubility is a physicochemical property that influences the absorption rate of small molecule drugs. Among drugs currently used or under development for rescue therapy, allopregnanolone has the greatest lipid solubility at physiologic pH, followed by propofol, midazolam, diazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, and brivaracetam. However, greater lipid solubility correlates with lower water solubility, complicating formulation of rescue therapies. One approach to overcoming poor aqueous solubility involves the use of a water-soluble prodrug coadministered with a converting enzyme, which is being explored for the intranasal delivery of diazepam. With advances in seizure prediction technology and the development of drug delivery systems that provide rapid onset of effect, rescue therapies may prevent the occurrence of seizures, thus greatly improving the management of epilepsy.
- Effects of Alprazolam and Melatonin Used for Premedication on Oxidative Stress, Glicocalyx Integrity and Neurocognitive Functions. [Journal Article]
- TJTurk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2018; 46(3):233-237
- CONCLUSIONS: In light of positive effects on oxidatif stress parameters, melatonin may be considered as a good and safe premedication agent with its anxiolytic, antioxidant and minimal haemodynamic and respiratory effects.
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- Alprazolam and Zolpidem in Skeletal Tissue of Decomposed Body Confirms Exposure. [Case Reports]
- JFJ Forensic Sci 2018 Aug 21
- In several medico-legal cases, bone samples analysis may provide the only source of toxicological information. This case study reports the analysis of a human bone specimen, belonging to a 46-year-ol...
In several medico-legal cases, bone samples analysis may provide the only source of toxicological information. This case study reports the analysis of a human bone specimen, belonging to a 46-year-old man, found 3 months after his death due to cervical-thoracic injuries in a motorcycle accident. Bone specimen was the only available material for toxicological analysis, among few skull hair and rotten skin. Analysis was performed by a newly developed and validated ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method, following simple and efficient sample pretreatment. The results were in accordance with the man's medical record: Alprazolam and zolpidem were found at 2.2 and 5.4 ng/g of bone, respectively. Both these drugs were prescribed to the deceased.