- Non-invasive Management Options for Erectile Dysfunction When a Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Fails. [Review]
- DADrugs Aging 2018 Feb 20
- Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are the drug of choice for medical management of erectile dysfunction (ED). On-demand PDE5Is have an overall efficacy of 60-70% for ED; 30-35% of patients...
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are the drug of choice for medical management of erectile dysfunction (ED). On-demand PDE5Is have an overall efficacy of 60-70% for ED; 30-35% of patients fail to respond to a PDE5I, and 30-50% of non-responders can be salvaged with detailed counseling on proper use and physician follow-up to ensure that the patient has been prescribed an appropriate and full PDE5I clinical trial. True non-responders may be offered intracavernosal injections of erectogenic drugs, intraurethral alprostadil, or surgical insertion of a penile prosthesis. Such options are not discreet and are associated with more adverse effects than PDE5Is. Thus patients may request additional non-invasive medical management options. This review describes published literature on patients who failed to respond to an on-demand PDE5I regimen and were treated with a non-invasive PDEI-based regimen, including switching from one PDE5I to another; increasing the dose of PDE5I above the labeled dosage range; using two PDE5Is concurrently; using a daily PDE5I regimen; or combining a PDE5I with a testosterone supplement, α-adrenergic antagonist, intraurethral or intracavernosal alprostadil, vacuum erection device, or low-intensity shock wave therapy. The limitations of published clinical trials do not allow for sufficient evidence to recommend one option over another. Therefore, in PDE5I-refractory patients, the choice of a specific next step should be individualized based on the preference of the patient and his sexual partner, the advantages and disadvantages of the various options, the concurrent medical illnesses and medications of the patient, and the patient's response to treatment.
- [Effect of acidic oligosaccharides on P-selectin of pulmonary hypertensive rats induced by monocrotaline]. [Journal Article]
- ZJZhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2018 Feb 12; 41(2):90-94
- Objective: To observe the effects of acidic oligosaccharides (AOS) on P-selectin levels in the serum and the pulmonary arteries of pulmonary hypertensive rats induced by monocrota...
Objective: To observe the effects of acidic oligosaccharides (AOS) on P-selectin levels in the serum and the pulmonary arteries of pulmonary hypertensive rats induced by monocrotaline.Methods:Sixty healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10), model group (n=10), Alprostadil group (n=10), low-dose AOS group (AOS-L,n=10), medium-dose AOS group (AOS-M,n=10) and high-dose AOS group (AOS-H,n=10). The rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension was made by a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline(60 mg/kg). Five weeks after injection, pulmonary arterial (PA) acceleration time (PAT) and ejection time (ET) were measured by color Doppler ultrasound. Then, the Alprostadil group was treated by Alprostadil 5 μg·kg(-1)·d(-1)intraperitoneally. Acidic oligosaccharides was administered by intraperitoneal injection to rats in the AOS-L group(5 kg(-1)·d(-1)), AOS-M group (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1))and AOS-H group (20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). Control group and model group were given normal saline instead. At the end of experiments, the death rate was recorded and PAT/ET was measured. We calculated the right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) of all rats sacrificed under anesthesia. Precision-cut lung slices were stained with HE for observation of the structure of middle and small arteries. The expression level of P-selectin in serum and pulmonary arterial tissues were detected by ELISA and Western blot respectively.Results:AOS significantly increased the level of PAT/ET (P<0.01), and attenuated RVHI (P<0.01). AOS significantly improved intima-media proliferation in small-to medium-sized pulmonary arteries, and attenuated perivascular inflammation. AOS and Alprostadil significantly down-regulated the protein expression of P-selectin in serum and pulmonary arteries (P<0.01).Conclusion:In this rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension, AOS decreased the expressions of P-selectin in serum and pulmonary arteries in a dose-dependent manner.
- Inhibition of insulin resistance by PGE1 via autophagy-dependent FGF21 pathway in diabetic nephropathy. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jan 08; 8(1):9
- Insulin resistance is a critical process in the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Alprostadil (Prostaglandin E1, PGE1) had protective effects on renal function. However, it is ...
Insulin resistance is a critical process in the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Alprostadil (Prostaglandin E1, PGE1) had protective effects on renal function. However, it is unknown whether PGE1 inhibited insulin resistance in renal tubule epithelial cells via autophagy, which plays a protective role in DN against insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was induced by palmitic acid (PA) in human HK-2 cells, shown as the decrease of insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation, glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), glucose uptake and enhanced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS-1) at site serine 307 (pIRS-1ser307) and downregulated expression of IRS-1. Along with less abundance of p62, autophagy markers LC3B and Beclin-1 significantly increased in HK-2 cells exposed to PA. Such abnormal changes were significantly reversed by PGE1, which mimicked the role of autophagy gene 7 small interfering RNA (ATG7 siRNA). Furthermore, PGE1 promoted the protein expression of autophagy-related fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), which alleviated insulin resistance. Results from western blotting and immunohistochemistry indicated that PGE1 remarkably restored autophagy, insulin resistance and the FGF21 expression in rat kidney of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Collectively, we demonstrated the potential protection of PGE1 on insulin resistance in renal tubules via autophagy-dependent FGF21 pathway in preventing the progression of DN.
- Penile Glans Necrosis Developing after Internal Pudendal Arterial Embolization: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- UJUrol J 2017 Dec 26
- Penile glans ischemia or necrosis developing after internal pudendal arterial embolization is very rare; no relevantreport has yet appeared. A 53-year-old male who visited our emergency room because ...
Penile glans ischemia or necrosis developing after internal pudendal arterial embolization is very rare; no relevantreport has yet appeared. A 53-year-old male who visited our emergency room because of massive urethral bleedingwas diagnosed with an internal pudendal artery-urethral fistula; he underwent selective embolization of the internalpudendal artery. However, unexpected penile glans ischemic necrosis developed after embolization. We successfullytreated the patients with intravenous infusion of alprostadil, oral pentoxifylline and tadalafil.
- Combined treatment of diabetic nephropathy with alprostadil and calcium dobesilate. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2017; 14(5):5012-5016
- This study investigated the effects of alprostadil combined with calcium dobesilate on the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. We recruited 80 patients with diabetic nephropathy, who were randomly div...
This study investigated the effects of alprostadil combined with calcium dobesilate on the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. We recruited 80 patients with diabetic nephropathy, who were randomly divided into experimental (n=40) and control (n=40) groups. Patients received high-quality low-protein diabetic diet intervention and subcutaneous injection of insulin to adjust blood glucose, combined with antihypertensive, antiplatelet drugs, and other comprehensive treatments. The control group received alprostadil and the experimental group received alprostadil combined with calcium dobesilate. Both groups were treated for 12 weeks as one treatment cycle. The time to remission of clinical symptoms such as mental fatigue and weakness, limb edema, soreness and swelling of waist and knee, cold limbs and limb numbness and pain was significantly shorter in the experimental group than that in the control group (p<0.05). After intervention, the blood levels of small molecular weight proteins, such as β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), cystatin C (CysC), and retinol binding protein (RBP), were significantly lower in the experimental group than those in the control group (p<0.05). The levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly lower in the experimental group than those in the control group (p<0.05). The levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control group (p<0.05). The level of angiotensin II was lower in the experimental group than that in the control group (p<0.05) and the level of fasting serum insulin was significantly higher in the experimental group than that in the control group (p<0.05). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was lower in the experimental group than that in the control group (p<0.05). The levels of renal function indexes, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid, in experimental group were lower than those in control group (p<0.05). The levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were significantly higher in both groups after the intervention than those before the intervention (p<0.05). The levels of BDNF and IGF-1 were higher in the experimental group than that in control group after intervention (p<0.05). The application of alprostadil combined with calcium dobesilate in patients with diabetic nephropathy can effectively relieve clinical symptoms, improve renal functions, reduce blood levels small proteins, alleviate the inflammatory response, and regulate the levels of BDNF and IGF-1, thus improving the clinical treatment effect.
- Use of prostaglandins in duct-dependent congenital heart conditions. [Journal Article]
- ADArch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2017 Nov 21
- Congenital heart disease (CHD) remains a leading cause of infant mortality, which is even higher in infants with undiagnosed duct-dependent CHDs. Up to 39%-50% of infants with critical CHD are being ...
Congenital heart disease (CHD) remains a leading cause of infant mortality, which is even higher in infants with undiagnosed duct-dependent CHDs. Up to 39%-50% of infants with critical CHD are being discharged undiagnosed from the hospital. Infants with duct-dependent critical CHD remain well during the fetal period and may deteriorate when the ductus arteriosus (commonly called 'duct') closes after birth. It is critical to open or maintain ductus arteriosus patent in infants with duct-dependent CHDs. Prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil marketed as 'Prostin VR ') and prostaglandin E2 (dinoprostone) are used to maintain a patent ductus arteriosus and the dose of medication depends on the clinical presentation. Delay in starting prostaglandin infusion can have deleterious effects on infants and can even lead to death. These infants often present as an emergency, and professionals caring for these infants need to have a good understanding of these conditions and medications used for ductal patency.
- Unreliability of the Duplex Scan in Diagnosing Corporeal Venous Occlusive Disease in Young Healthy Men With Erectile Deficiency. [Journal Article]
- UUrology 2017 Nov 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Repeated CDDU + ICI and counseling strongly diminished the percentage of patients meeting the CVOD criteria, leading to the suspicion that CVOD is linked to psychological issues in highly selected young healthy men with ED.
- Preventive Effects of Alprostadil Against Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Inpatients With Renal Insufficiency Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. [Journal Article]
- AAngiology 2017 Jan 01; :3319717730942
- We investigated the preventive effect of alprostadil on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 300 pat...
We investigated the preventive effect of alprostadil on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 300 patients with creatinine clearance (crCl) ≤60 mL/min undergoing PCI were randomly assigned to alprostadil or a control group. The primary end point was the incidence of CIN defined as an increase in serum creatinine (Scr) levels by ≥0.5 mg/dL or≥ 25% after administration of the contrast media within 72 hours. The secondary end points were (1) changes in Scr and crCl within 72 hours and (2) the incidence of major adverse events during hospitalization. The incidence of CIN was 2.7% (4/150) in the alprostadil group, and 8.7% (13/150) in the control group (χ2= 5.05, P = .043).There was no difference regarding the incidence of major adverse events during hospitalization between the alprostadil group and control groups (2.7% vs 4.0%, P = .750). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that alprostadil was an independent protective factor for CIN (odds ratio = 0.136, 95% confidence interval: 0.020-0.944, P = .044). Prophylactic administration of alprostadil may prevent CIN in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing PCI.
- Clinical Efficacy of Alprostadil Combined with α-lipoic Acid in the Treatment of Elderly Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy. [Journal Article]
- OMOpen Med (Wars) 2017; 12:323-327
- CONCLUSIONS: Alprostadil combined with α-lipoic acid may improve renal function in patients with diabetic nephropathy by decreasing the levels of serum inflammatory factors.
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- Efficacy of alprostadil in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- CCCatheter Cardiovasc Interv 2017 Oct 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic administration of alprostadil may prevent against CIN in coronary heart disease patients undergoing elective PCI, particularly in high-risk patients with diabetes mellitus.