- Preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of an H5N8 vaccine candidate (IDCDC-RG43A) in mouse and ferret models for pandemic preparedness. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2018 Nov 27
- Because H5N1 influenza viruses continuously threaten the public health, the WHO has prepared various clades of H5N1 mock-up vaccines as one of the measures for pandemic preparedness. The recent world...
Because H5N1 influenza viruses continuously threaten the public health, the WHO has prepared various clades of H5N1 mock-up vaccines as one of the measures for pandemic preparedness. The recent worldwide outbreak of H5Nx virus which belongs to clade 22.214.171.124 and of which H5N6 subtype belongs and already caused human infection also increases the need of pandemic vaccine for such novel emerging viruses. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an egg-based and inactivated whole-virus H5N8 (IDCDC-RG43A) developed by CDC containing HA and NA gene of the parent virus A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014. Mice vaccinated two times elicited low to moderate antibody titer in varying amount of antigen doses against the homologous H5N8 vaccine virus and heterologous intra-clade 126.96.36.199 H5N6 (A/Sichuan/26221/2014) virus. Mice immunized with at least 3.0 µg/dose of IDCDC-RG43A with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant were completely protected from lethal challenge with the mouse-adapted H5N8 (A/Environment/Korea/ma468/2015, maH5N8) as well as cleared the viral replication in tissues including lung, brain, spleen, and kidney. Vaccinated ferrets induced high antibody titers against clade 188.8.131.52 H5N8/H5N6 viruses and the antibody showed high cross-reactivity to clade 2.2 H5N1 but not to clade 1 and 2.3.4 viruses as measured by hemagglutinin inhibition and serum neutralization assays. Furthermore, administration of the vaccine in ferrets resulted in attenuation of clinical disease signs and virus spread to peripheral organs including lung, spleen, and kidney from high dose challenge with maH5N8 virus. The protective and immunogenic characteristic of the candidate vaccine are essential attributes to be considered for further clinical trials as a pre-pandemic vaccine for a potential pandemic virus.
- DAMP-Inducing Adjuvant and PAMP Adjuvants Parallelly Enhance Protective Type-2 and Type-1 Immune Responses to Influenza Split Vaccination. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:2619
- Recently, it was reported that 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD), a common pharmaceutical additive, can act as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance protective type-2 immunogenicity to co-administere...
Recently, it was reported that 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD), a common pharmaceutical additive, can act as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance protective type-2 immunogenicity to co-administered seasonal influenza split vaccine by inducing host-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, like most other DAMP-inducing adjuvants such as aluminum hydroxide (Alum), HP-β-CyD may not be sufficient for the induction of protective type-1 (cellular) immune responses, thereby leaving room for improvement. Here, we demonstrate that a combination of HP-β-CyD with a humanized TLR9 agonist, K3 CpG-ODN, a potent pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), enhanced the protective efficacy of the co-administered influenza split vaccine by inducing antigen-specific type-2 and type-1 immune responses, respectively. Moreover, substantial antigen-specific IgE induction by HP-β-CyD, which can cause an allergic response to immunized antigen was completely suppressed by the addition of K3 CpG-ODN. Furthermore, HP-β-CyD- and K3 CpG-ODN-adjuvanted influenza split vaccination protected the mice against lethal challenge with high doses of heterologous influenza virus, which could not be protected against by single adjuvant vaccines. Further experiments using gene deficient mice revealed the unique immunological mechanism of action in vivo, where type-2 and type-1 immune responses enhanced by the combined adjuvants were dependent on TBK1 and TLR9, respectively, indicating their parallel signaling pathways. Finally, the analysis of immune responses in the draining lymph node suggested that HP-β-CyD promotes the uptake of K3 CpG-ODN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, which may contributes to the activation of these cells and enhanced production of IgG2c. Taken together, the results above may offer potential clinical applications for the combination of DAMP-inducing adjuvant and PAMP adjuvant to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy by enhancing both type-2 and type-1 immune responses in a parallel manner.
- Sulfated archaeol glycolipids: Comparison with other immunological adjuvants in mice. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(12):e0208067
- Archaeosomes are liposomes traditionally comprised of total polar lipids (TPL) or semi-synthetic glycerolipids of ether-linked isoprenoid phytanyl cores with varied glyco- and amino-head groups. As a...
Archaeosomes are liposomes traditionally comprised of total polar lipids (TPL) or semi-synthetic glycerolipids of ether-linked isoprenoid phytanyl cores with varied glyco- and amino-head groups. As adjuvants, they induce robust, long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and enhance protection in murine models of infectious disease and cancer. Traditional total polar lipid (TPL) archaeosome formulations are relatively complex and first generation semi-synthetic archaeosomes involve many synthetic steps to arrive at the final desired glycolipid composition. We have developed a novel archaeosome formulation comprising a sulfated disaccharide group covalently linked to the free sn-1 hydroxyl backbone of an archaeal core lipid (sulfated S-lactosylarchaeol, SLA) that can be more readily synthesized yet retains strong immunostimulatory activity for induction of cell-mediated immunity following systemic immunization. Herein, we have evaluated the immunostimulatory effects of SLA archaeosomes when used as adjuvant with ovalbumin (OVA) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and compared this to various other adjuvants including TLR3/4/9 agonists, oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions and aluminum hydroxide. Overall, we found that semi-synthetic sulfated glycolipid archaeosomes induce strong Ag-specific IgG titers and CD8 T cells to both antigens. In addition, they induce the expression of a number of cytokines/chemokines including IL-6, G-CSF, KC & MIP-2. SLA archaeosome formulations demonstrated strong adjuvant activity, superior to many of the other tested adjuvants.
- Aluminum (oxy) Hydroxide Nanorods Activate an Early Immune Response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vaccine. [Journal Article]
- AAACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Nov 27
- Bacterial vaccines have been widely used to prevent infectious diseases, especially in veterinary medicine. Although there are many reports on bacterin adjuvants, only a few contain innovations in ba...
Bacterial vaccines have been widely used to prevent infectious diseases, especially in veterinary medicine. Although there are many reports on bacterin adjuvants, only a few contain innovations in bacterin adjuvants. Taking this into consideration, in this study, we designed and synthesized a new aluminum (oxy) hydroxide (AlOOH) nanorod (Al-NR) with a diameter of 200 ± 80 nm and a length of 1.1 ± 0.6 μm. Using whole-Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as antigens, we showed that the bacterial antigens of P. aeruginosa PAO1 adsorbed on the Al-NRs induced a quick and stronger antigen-specific antibody response than those of the other control groups, especially in the early stage of immunization. Furthermore, the level of antigen-specific IgG was approximately 4-fold higher than that of the no adjuvant group and 2.5-fold higher than those of other adjuvant groups in the first week after the initial immunization. The potent adjuvant activity of the Al-NRs was attributed to the rapid presentation of antigen adsorbed on them by APCs. Additionally, Al-NRs induced a milder local inflammation than the other adjuvants. In short, we confirmed that Al-NRs, enhancing both humoral and cellular immune responses, are a potentially promising vaccine adjuvant delivery system for inhibiting the whole-pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.
- Efficacy of Montanide (IMS 3015) as an adjuvant for an inactivated Rift Valley fever (RVF) vaccine in sheep. [Journal Article]
- ATActa Trop 2018 Nov 22; 190:193-203
- This study was conducted to evaluate an adjuvant, Montanide (IMS 3015), in improving the quality of Rift Valley fever (RVF) vaccine relative to the traditional adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide gel. Vacci...
This study was conducted to evaluate an adjuvant, Montanide (IMS 3015), in improving the quality of Rift Valley fever (RVF) vaccine relative to the traditional adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide gel. Vaccinated sheep were evaluated using biochemical analysis, kidney function tests, liver function tests, and immunological tests. Sheep vaccinated with Montanide (IMS 3015) adjuvant showed significantly higher total protein, total globulin, and gamma globulin concentrations from the second week until the fifth month than the controls. Conversely, albumin concentration and the A/G ratio significantly decreased during this period. Kidney function and liver function tests revealed no differences among any of the groups. There was a significant increase in lymphocyte proportion and a decrease in neutrophil proportion in sheep vaccinated with the Montanide (IMS 3015) adjuvant. Lymphocyte cell proliferation was significantly different in sheep vaccinated with the Montanide (IMS 3015) adjuvant from that in controls. Neutralizing indices were significantly higher in sheep vaccinated with the Montanide (IMS 3015) adjuvant than in controls. The current study showed that sheep vaccinated with inactivated RVF virus with Montanide (IMS 3015) as an adjuvant were protected and no pathological symptoms or biochemical changes were detected. Moreover, the vaccine induced rapid onset of immunological responses with long durations unlike inactivated RVF vaccine with aluminum hydroxide gel.
- Antimicrobial Compounds Effective against Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Discovered via Graft-based Assay in Citrus. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Nov 23; 8(1):17288
- Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease, is caused by three species of phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter. Chemical control is a critical short-term strategy against Candidatus L...
Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease, is caused by three species of phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter. Chemical control is a critical short-term strategy against Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Currently, application of antibiotics in agricultural practices is limited due to public concerns regarding emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and potential side effects in humans. The present study screened 39 antimicrobials (non-antibiotics) for effectiveness against Las using an optimized graft-based screening system. Results of principal component, hierarchical clustering and membership function analyses demonstrated that 39 antimicrobials were clustered into three groups: "effective" (Group I), "partly effective" (Group II), and "ineffective" (Group III). Despite different modes of action, 8 antimicrobials (aluminum hydroxide, D,L-buthionine sulfoximine, nicotine, surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, SilverDYNE, colloidal silver, EBI-601, and EBI-602), were all as highly effective at eliminating or suppressing Las, showing both the lowest Las infection rates and titers in treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The ineffective group, which included 21 antimicrobials, did not eliminate or suppress Las, resulting in plants with increased titers of Candidatus Liberibacter. The other 10 antimicrobials partly eliminated/suppressed Las in treated and graft-inoculated plants. These effective antimicrobials are potential candidates for HLB control either via rescuing infected citrus germplasms or restricted field application.
- Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational tetravalent recombinant subunit vaccine for dengue: results of a Phase I randomized clinical trial in flavivirus-Naïve adults. [Journal Article]
- HVHum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 14
- There is an unmet medical need for vaccines to prevent dengue. V180 is an investigational recombinant subunit vaccine that consists of truncated dengue envelope proteins (DEN-80E) for all 4 serotypes...
There is an unmet medical need for vaccines to prevent dengue. V180 is an investigational recombinant subunit vaccine that consists of truncated dengue envelope proteins (DEN-80E) for all 4 serotypes. Three dosage levels of the tetravalent DEN-80E antigens were assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase I dose-escalation, first-in-human proof-of-principle trial in healthy, flavivirus-naïve adults in Australia (NCT01477580). The 9 V180 formulations that were assessed included either ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant (2 dosage levels), aluminum-hydroxide adjuvant, or were unadjuvanted, and were compared to phosphate-buffered saline placebo. Volunteers received 3 injections of assigned product on a 0, 1, 2 month schedule, and were followed for safety through 1 year after the last injection. Antibody levels were assessed at 6 time-points: enrollment, 28 days after each injection, and 6 and 12 months Postdose 3 (PD3). Of the 98 randomized participants, 90 (92%) received all 3 injections; 83 (85%) completed 1-year follow-up. Immunogenicity was measured by a qualified Focus Reduction Neutralization Test with a 50% neutralization cutoff (FRNT50). All 6 V180 formulations with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant showed robust immunogenicity, while the 1 aluminum-adjuvanted and 2 unadjuvanted formulations were poorly immunogenic. Geometric mean antibody titers generally declined at 6 months and 1 year PD3. All 9 V180 formulations were generally well tolerated. Formulations with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant were associated with more adverse events than aluminum-adjuvanted or unadjuvanted formulations.
- Adjuvants in allergen-specific immunotherapy: modulating and enhancing the immune response. [Review]
- JIJ Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2018 Nov 12; :0
- Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that may affect the natural course of allergic diseases such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and IgEmediated food allergy. Adjuvants...
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that may affect the natural course of allergic diseases such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and IgEmediated food allergy. Adjuvants are used to induce a quicker, more potent, and longer-lasting AIT immune response. Up to now, only four compounds are used as adjuvants in currently marketed AIT products: aluminum hydroxide, calcium phosphate, microcrystalline tyrosine (MCT), and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). The three first adjuvants are delivery systems with depot effect, although they also may have immunomodulatory properties. These firstgeneration adjuvants are still widely used, especially aluminum hydroxide. However, aluminum has some limitations. MCT is the depot formulation of L-tyrosine; it enhances IgG production withoutinducing a significant IgE increase, is biodegradable and has good local and systemic tolerability. In turn, MPL is an immunostimulatory agent that is the only second-generation adjuvant currently used for AIT. In addition, there are multiple adjuvants under research, including immunostimulatory sequences (ISS), nanoparticles (liposomes, virus-like particlesand biodegradable polymers), and phosphatidylserine derivatives. In a murine model of allergic bronchial inflammation by sensitization to olive pollen, specific IgE level was significantly higher in sensitized mice treated with olive pollen and aluminum hydroxide. However, sensitized mice treated with olive pollen and bacterial derivatives (MPL or ISS) showed a significant reduction of specific IgE levels and a significant improvement of bronchial hyperreactivity.
- Molecular Signature of Aluminum Hydroxide Adjuvant in Ovine PBMCs by Integrated mRNA and microRNA Transcriptome Sequencing. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:2406
- There have been few in vivo studies on the effect of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and its influence on the immune response to vaccination. In this study, lambs received a parallel subcutaneous treatme...
There have been few in vivo studies on the effect of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and its influence on the immune response to vaccination. In this study, lambs received a parallel subcutaneous treatment with either commercial vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide or an equivalent dose of this compound only with the aim of identifying the activated molecular signature. Blood samples were taken from each animal at the beginning and at the end of the experiment and PBMCs isolated. Total RNA and miRNA libraries were prepared and sequenced. After alignment to the Oar3.1 reference genome and differential expression with 3 programs, gene enrichment modeling was performed. For miRNAs, miRBase and RNAcentral databases were used for detection and characterization. Three expression comparisons were made: vaccinated animals at the beginning and at the end of the treatment, adjuvanted animals at the same times, and animals of both treatments at the end of the experiment. After exposure to both treatments, a total of 2,473; 2,980 and 429 differentially expressed genes were identified in vaccinated animals, adjuvanted animals and animals at the end of both treatments, respectively. In both adjuvant and vaccine treated animals the NF-κB signaling pathway was enriched. On the other hand, it can be observed a downregulation of cytokines and cytokine receptors in the adjuvanted group compared to the vaccinated group at the final time, suggesting a milder induction of the immune response when the adjuvant is alone. As for the miRNA analysis, 95 miRNAs were detected: 64 previously annotated in Ovis aries, 11 annotated in Bos taurus and 20 newly described. Interestingly, 6 miRNAs were differentially expressed in adjuvant treated animals, and 3 and 1 in the other two comparisons. Lastly, an integrated miRNA-mRNA expression profile was developed, in which a miRNA-mediated regulation of genes related to DNA damage stimulus was observed. In brief, it seems that aluminum-containing adjuvants are not simple delivery vehicles for antigens, but also induce endogenous danger signals that can stimulate the immune system. Whether this contributes to long-lasting immune activation or to the overstimulation of the immune system remains to be elucidated.
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- Maternal Separation as Early-Life Stress Causes Enhanced Allergic Airway Responses by Inhibiting Respiratory Tolerance in Mice. [Journal Article]
- TJTohoku J Exp Med 2018; 246(3):155-165
- Epidemiologic studies indicate that exposure to psychosocial stress in early childhood is a risk factor of adult-onset asthma, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood. Therefore...
Epidemiologic studies indicate that exposure to psychosocial stress in early childhood is a risk factor of adult-onset asthma, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined whether early-life stress increases susceptibility to adult-onset asthma by inhibiting the development of respiratory tolerance. Neonatal BALB/c female mice were aerosolized with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce immune tolerance prior to immune sensitization with an intraperitoneal injection of OVA and the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide. Maternal separation (MS) was applied as an early-life stressor during the induction phase of immune tolerance. The mice were challenged with OVA aerosol in adulthood, and allergic airway responses were evaluated, including airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, inflammatory cell infiltration, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and serum OVA-specific IgE. We then evaluated the effects of MS on the development of regulatory T (Treg) cells in bronchial lymph nodes (BLN) and on splenocyte proliferation and cytokine expression. In mice that underwent MS and OVA tolerization, the allergic airway responses and OVA-induced proliferation and IL-4 expression of splenocytes were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, exposure to MS was associated with a lower number of Treg cells in the BLN. These findings suggest that exposure to early-life stress prevents the acquisition of respiratory tolerance to inhaled antigen due to insufficient Treg cell development, resulting in Th2-biased sensitization and asthma onset. We provide the evidence for inhibitory effects of early-life stress on immune tolerance. The present findings may help to clarify the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma.