- The formation of aluminium hydroxide-doped surface passivating layers on pyrite for acid rock drainage control. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2018 Sep 19
- The aim of this study was to test the performance of a novel method for acid rock drainage (ARD) control through the formation of Al(OH)3-doped passivating surface layers on pyrite. At pH 2.0 and 4.0...
The aim of this study was to test the performance of a novel method for acid rock drainage (ARD) control through the formation of Al(OH)3-doped passivating surface layers on pyrite. At pH 2.0 and 4.0, there was no obvious inhibition of the pyrite oxidation rate on addition of 20 mg L-1 Al3+ (added as AlCl3•6H2O). In comparison, the pyrite oxidation rate at circum-neutral pH (7.4 ± 0.4) decreased with increasing added Al3+ with ≈98% reduction in long-term (282 days) dissolution rates in the presence of 20 mg L-1 Al3+. Al3+ was added to the solution and allowed to equilibrate prior to pyrite addition (2 g L-1). Consequently almost all Al3+ (> 99.9%) was initially present as aluminium hydroxide precipitates at pH 7.4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed a significant concentration of Al3+ (20.3 at.%) on the pyrite surface reacted at pH 7.4 with 20 mg L-1 added Al3+, but no Al3+ on pyrite surfaces reacted at pH 2.0 and 4.0 with added Al3+. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy analyses indicated that compact surface layers containing both goethite and amorphous or nano-crystalline Al(OH)3 formed in the presence of 20 mg L-1 Al3+ at circum-neutral pH, in contrast to the porous goethite surface layers formed on pyrite dissolved in the absence of Al3+ under otherwise identical conditions. This work demonstrates the potential for novel Al-based pyrite passivation of relevance to the mining industry where suitable Al-rich waste materials are available for ARD control interventions.
- Improving the stability of recombinant anthrax protective antigen vaccine. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2018 Sep 15
- Development of recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccines has been hindered by a lack of stability of the vaccines associated with spontaneous deamidation of asparagine (Asn) residue...
Development of recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccines has been hindered by a lack of stability of the vaccines associated with spontaneous deamidation of asparagine (Asn) residues of the rPA antigen during storage. In this study, we explored the role that two deamidation-prone Asn residues located directly adjacent to the receptor binding site of PA, Asn713 and Asn719, play in the stability of rPA-based anthrax vaccines. We modified these residues to glutamine (Gln) and generated rPA(N713Q/N719Q), since Gln would not be expected to deamidate on a time scale relevant to vaccine storage. While wild-type rPA vaccine formulated with aluminum hydroxide lost immunogenicity upon storage, as measured by induction of toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice, the rPA(N713Q/N719Q) vaccine did not exhibit a significant loss in immunogenicity. This finding suggests that modification of Asn713 and Asn719 of rPA to deamidation-resistant amino acids may improve the stability of rPA-based anthrax vaccines.
- Virus-like particles presenting flagellin exhibit unique adjuvant effects on eliciting T helper type 1 humoral and cellular immune responses to poor immunogenic influenza virus M2e protein vaccine. [Journal Article]
- VVirology 2018 Sep 07; 524:172-181
- Current licensed adjuvants including aluminum hydroxide (alum) bias immune responses toward T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses. We tested whether virus-like particles presenting flagellin (Flag V...
Current licensed adjuvants including aluminum hydroxide (alum) bias immune responses toward T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses. We tested whether virus-like particles presenting flagellin (Flag VLP) exhibit adjuvant effects on eliciting Th1 type immune responses and improving the efficacy of poor immunogenic tandem repeat M2e (M2e5x) protein vaccine against influenza virus. Co-immunization of mice with Flag VLP and M2e5x protein vaccine induced significantly higher levels of IgG2a isotype (Th1) antibodies in sera and mucosal sites, effector CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and granzyme B, and more effective lung viral clearance and protection compared to alum adjuvant. Flag VLP stimulated primary macrophages and dendritic cells to secrete inflammatory cytokines, which is partially dependent on the Toll-like receptor 5. This study provides insight into developing effective vaccine adjuvants.
- Superhydrophobic plasmonic nanoarchitectures based on aluminum hydroxide nanotemplates. [Journal Article]
- NNanoscale 2018 Sep 05
- The combined characteristics of non-wettabililty and strong plasmonic resonances make superhydrophobic plasmonic nanostructures an appealing tool for ultrasensitive detection in surface-enhanced Rama...
The combined characteristics of non-wettabililty and strong plasmonic resonances make superhydrophobic plasmonic nanostructures an appealing tool for ultrasensitive detection in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). However, inducing superhydrophobic surfaces on originally hydrophilic metals (e.g., gold, silver) while achieving high plasmonic enhancement requires sophisticated surface engineering and often involves complex fabrication processes. In this article, we design and fabricate cost effective and scalable plasmonic nanostructures with both superhydrophobicity (a water contact angle >160°) and high SERS signal (enhancement factor ≈106). Silver-coated aluminum hydroxide nanotemplates are obtained from a simple wet process, followed by thermal evaporation of silver nanoparticles. We find that the largest SERS enhancement is obtained when the contact angle is maximum. This confirms that the control of surface wettability is an effective way to improve detection sensitivity in SERS measurements. The nanotemplates developed in this study could be applied further in various applications, including microfluidic biomolecular optical sensors, photocatalysts, and optoelectronic devices.
- Immunization with Salmonella Abortusequi phage lysate protects guinea pig against the virulent challenge of SAE-742. [Journal Article]
- BBiologicals 2018 Sep 01
- Salmonella Abortusequi causes important clinical diseases in horses possibly leading to abortion. In the present investigation, the protective efficacy of both plain and aluminum hydroxide gel adjuva...
Salmonella Abortusequi causes important clinical diseases in horses possibly leading to abortion. In the present investigation, the protective efficacy of both plain and aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvanted phage lysate was evaluated in guinea pig model. Broad host range bacteriophage PIZ-SAE-2, was characterized and used for generation of lysates. Three different lysate batches, produced through separate cycles and characterized, were pooled together for immunization study. Plain and adjuvanted phage lysate preparations elicited both humoral and cellmediated immunity. The adjuvanted lysate at a dose of 50 μl elicited the highest protective efficacy against direct challenge at 28th DPI. Thus, the present study describes a new method of bacterial inactivation for producing a new class of better & safe immunprophylactic agents. This is the first report of producing an inactivated vaccine candidate using a new approach against equine salmonellosis.
- An adjuvant compound that enhances immunogenicity at fractional doses of the Sabin-inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (sIPV) with a long duration of protection in a rat model. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Virol 2018 Aug 31
- CONCLUSIONS: Our research team developed KML05 adjuvant, which combined carbopol971P with MF59, increased antibody responses to sIPV for a longer duration of protection in a rat model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- A novel composite system composed of zirconia and LDHs film grown on plasma electrolysis coating: Toward a stable smart coating. [Journal Article]
- USUltrason Sonochem 2018; 49:316-324
- A novel composite system composed of zirconia and double hydroxide layers (LDHs) was successfully fabricated on the plasma electrolysis (PE) coating. For this aim, the molybdate-loaded LDHs film grow...
A novel composite system composed of zirconia and double hydroxide layers (LDHs) was successfully fabricated on the plasma electrolysis (PE) coating. For this aim, the molybdate-loaded LDHs film grown on the PE film of aluminum alloy was modified additionally by zirconia nanoparticles via a facile dip-coating method. The MoO42- anions which were obtained by anion exchange process from the precursor CeMgAl-LDH film, led to decrease the distance between the flakes of LDHs film where a flower-like structure was successfully developed. Moreover, the inclusion of zirconia helped to decrease the size of pores present in the LDHs films. Accordingly, a superior smart protective film was obtained due to the possible synergetic effects between the MoO42- and Ce3+ ions released from LDHs film as well as the high chemical stability of zirconia. The LDHs film modified by zirconia can be regarded as a stable smart coating, meaning that it has the ability to control the release of corrosion inhibitors and providing an excellent long-term electrochemical performance as well.
- Fluoxetine protects against OVA induced bronchial asthma and depression in rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Aug 23; 837:25-32
- Depression is very common in asthmatic patients and may increases risk for morbidity and mortality. The present work aimed to investigate the protective effect of fluoxetine, on behavioral and bioche...
Depression is very common in asthmatic patients and may increases risk for morbidity and mortality. The present work aimed to investigate the protective effect of fluoxetine, on behavioral and biochemical changes, associated with ovalbumin (OVA) - induced bronchial asthma and depression in rats. Rats were sensitized with intraperitoneal administration of OVA plus aluminum hydroxide for 3 consecutive days then at day 11 followed by OVA intranasal challenge at days 19, 20, 21. Rats were either pretreated with dexamethasone, fluoxetine10mg/kg or fluoxetine 20 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, various tests were performed, including open field, forced swimming and respiratory function tests. Blood was drawn for serum IgE detection. Finally, rats were euthanized, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was estimated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung content of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) were determined. Histopathological study was also performed. The results showed that fluoxetine significantly ameliorated OVA- induced biochemical and behavioral changes. Fluoxetine may protect against OVA-induced asthma and depression in rats. This effect may be mediated at least in part by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effect.
- Aluminum in vaccines: Does it create a safety problem? [Review]
- VVaccine 2018 Sep 18; 36(39):5825-5831
- For almost a century, aluminum (Al) in the form of Al oxyhydroxide (a crystalline compound), Al hydroxyphosphate (an amorphous Al phosphate hydroxide), Al phosphate, and Al potassium sulfate has been...
For almost a century, aluminum (Al) in the form of Al oxyhydroxide (a crystalline compound), Al hydroxyphosphate (an amorphous Al phosphate hydroxide), Al phosphate, and Al potassium sulfate has been used to improve the immunogenicity of vaccines. Al is currently included in vaccines against tetanus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Official health authorities consider the inclusion of Al in most of the presently recommended vaccines to be extremely effective and sufficiently safe. However, the inclusion of Al salts in vaccines has been debated for several years because of studies that seem to indicate that chronic Al exposure through vaccine administration can interfere with cellular and metabolic processes leading to severe neurologic diseases. Children, who in their first years of life receive several vaccine doses over a reduced period of time, would be most susceptible to any risk that might be associated with vaccines or vaccine components. The main aim of this paper was to discuss the data presently available regarding Al neurotoxicity and the risk for children receiving vaccines or other pharmaceutical preparations containing Al. Analysis of the literature showed that no apparent reason exists to support the elimination of Al from vaccines for fear of neurotoxicity. The only problem that deserves attention is the suggested relationship between Al oxyhydroxide-containing vaccines and macrophagic myofaciitis or myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. Currently, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn on these risks and further studies must be conducted. Until then, Al remains the best solution to improve vaccine efficacy.
New Search Next
- Phosphate binders for preventing and treating chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Aug 22; 8:CD006023
- CONCLUSIONS: In studies of adults with CKD G5D treated with dialysis, sevelamer may lower death (all causes) compared to calcium-based binders and incur less treatment-related hypercalcaemia, while we found no clinically important benefits of any phosphate binder on cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, fracture or coronary artery calcification. The effects of binders on patient-important outcomes compared to placebo are uncertain. In patients with CKD G2 to G5, the effects of sevelamer, lanthanum, and iron-based phosphate binders on cardiovascular, vascular calcification, and bone outcomes compared to placebo or usual care, are also uncertain and they may incur constipation, while iron-based binders may lead to diarrhoea.