- The ambivert: A failed attempt at a normal personality. [Historical Article]
- JHJ Hist Behav Sci 2017; 53(4):313-331
- Recently, attention has been drawn toward an overlooked and nearly forgotten personality type: the ambivert. This paper presents a genealogy of the ambivert, locating the various contexts it traverse…
Recently, attention has been drawn toward an overlooked and nearly forgotten personality type: the ambivert. This paper presents a genealogy of the ambivert, locating the various contexts it traversed in order to highlight the ways in which these places and times have interacted and changed-ultimately elucidating our current situation. Proposed by Edmund S. Conklin in 1923, the ambivert only was meant for normal persons in between the introvert and extravert extremes. Although the ambivert could have been taken up by early personality psychologists who were transitioning from the study of the abnormal to the normal, it largely failed to gain traction. Whether among psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, or applied and personality psychologists, the ambivert was personality non grata. It was only within the context of Eysenck's integrative view of types and traits that the ambivert marginally persisted up to the present day and is now the focus of sales management and popular psychology.
- How Much We Think of Ourselves and How Little We Think of Others: An Investigation of the Neuronal Signature of Self-Consciousness between Different Personality Traits through an Event-Related Potential Study. [Journal Article]
- MJMalays J Med Sci 2016; 23(6):70-82
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that self-relevant pronouns are psychologically more important to extraverts than to ambiverts; hence, they have more self-awareness. This may be due to large amount of dopamine in the brains of extraverts, which is more concentrated in the frontal lobe.
- The Sex Differences in Regulating Unpleasant Emotion by Expressive Suppression: Extraversion Matters. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2016; 7:1011
- Males are known for more suppression of emotional displays than females. However, when the emotion regulation effect of expressive suppression is greater in males, and how this sex difference varies …
Males are known for more suppression of emotional displays than females. However, when the emotion regulation effect of expressive suppression is greater in males, and how this sex difference varies with emotion display-related personality (e.g., extraversion), are undetermined. Event-related potentials were recorded while male and female participants different in extraversion were required to attend to or suppress emotional expression to negative pictures. Sex and extraversion did not modulate self-reported emotional experience. However, late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes showed an extraversion-moderated sex difference in the 2000-3000 ms and the 3000-4000 ms time epochs. LPP amplitudes were decreased during suppression versus viewing conditions in ambivert males, while this effect was absent in ambivert females. However, the LPP amplitudes of extraverts were similar for suppression and viewing conditions, irrespective of sex and timing. Regardless of early, middle, or late time windows, LPP amplitudes were positively related to self-reported emotion. These results suggest a male advantage for using expressive suppression for emotion regulation in non-extraverted, ambivert individuals.
- Rethinking the extraverted sales ideal: the ambivert advantage. [Journal Article]
- PSPsychol Sci 2013; 24(6):1024-30
- Despite the widespread assumption that extraverts are the most productive salespeople, research has shown weak and conflicting relationships between extraversion and sales performance. In light of th…
Despite the widespread assumption that extraverts are the most productive salespeople, research has shown weak and conflicting relationships between extraversion and sales performance. In light of these puzzling results, I propose that the relationship between extraversion and sales performance is not linear but curvilinear: Ambiverts achieve greater sales productivity than extraverts or introverts do. Because they naturally engage in a flexible pattern of talking and listening, ambiverts are likely to express sufficient assertiveness and enthusiasm to persuade and close a sale but are more inclined to listen to customers' interests and less vulnerable to appearing too excited or overconfident. A study of 340 outbound-call-center representatives supported the predicted inverted-U-shaped relationship between extraversion and sales revenue. This research presents a fresh perspective on the personality traits that facilitate successful influence and offers novel insights for people in choosing jobs and for organizations in hiring and training employees.
- The assessment of a psychosocial treatment with chronic schizophrenic patients using neuropsychopharmacological indices. [Journal Article]
- PNProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1985; 9(5-6):593-7
- The current investigation explored and compared the genotypic neuropsychopharmacological indices of eight chronic schizophrenic patients and four therapists on an inductive paradigm. Patients and nor…
The current investigation explored and compared the genotypic neuropsychopharmacological indices of eight chronic schizophrenic patients and four therapists on an inductive paradigm. Patients and normals were screened with clinical interviews, psychometric and psychophysiological tests and neuroleptic availability radioreceptor assays were monitored within a three month pre-post treatment design. Results revealed that clinical, psychometric and psychophysiological parameters failed to reach statistical significance in a three month pre-post treatment structure and functional comparison. The implications for future schizophrenia research are discussed and illustrated using actual neuropsychophysiological phenotypic and genotypic profiles of introverted, extroverted and ambivert schizophrenic patients.