- Histopathological efficiency of amifostine in radiation‑induced heart disease in rats. [Journal Article]
- BLBratisl Lek Listy 2018; 119(1):54-59
- CONCLUSIONS: The development of vascular damage and vasculitis were prevented by the use of amifostine. There was a correlation between vascular damage and fibrosis development. According to histopathological results, amifostine could be used as a protective agent against the side effects of radiotherapy (Tab. 4, Fig. 2, Ref. 22).
- SMER28 is a mTOR-independent small molecule enhancer of autophagy that protects mouse bone morrow and liver against radiotherapy. [Journal Article]
- INInvest New Drugs 2018 Jan 31
- Effective cytoprotectors that are selective for normal tissues could decrease radiotherapy and chemotherapy sequelae and facilitate the safe administration of higher radiation doses. This could impro...
Effective cytoprotectors that are selective for normal tissues could decrease radiotherapy and chemotherapy sequelae and facilitate the safe administration of higher radiation doses. This could improve the cure rates of radiotherapy for cancer patients. Autophagy is a cytoplasmic cellular process that is necessary for the clearance of damaged or aged proteins and organelles. It is a strong determinant of post-irradiation cell fate. In this study, we investigated the effect of the mTOR-independent small molecule enhancer of autophagy (SMER28) on mouse liver autophagy and post-irradiation recovery of mouse bone marrow and liver. SMER28 enhanced the autophagy flux and improved the survival of normal hepatocytes. This effect was specific for normal cells because SMER28 had no protective effect on hepatoma or other cancer cell line survival in vitro. In vivo subcutaneous administration of SMER28 protected mouse liver and bone marrow against radiation damage and facilitated survival of mice after lethal whole body or abdominal irradiation. These findings open a new field of research on autophagy-targeting radioprotectors with clinical applications in oncology, occupational, and space medicine.
- Interventions to reduce acute and late adverse gastrointestinal effects of pelvic radiotherapy for primary pelvic cancers. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 23; 1:CD012529
- CONCLUSIONS: Conformal radiotherapy techniques are an improvement on older radiotherapy techniques. IMRT may be better than 3DCRT in terms of GI toxicity, but the evidence to support this is uncertain. There is no high-quality evidence to support the use of any other prophylactic intervention evaluated. However, evidence on some potential interventions shows that they probably have no role to play in reducing RT-related GI toxicity. More RCTs are needed for interventions with limited evidence suggesting potential benefits.
- Nicaraven reduces cancer metastasis to irradiated lungs by decreasing CCL8 and macrophage recruitment. [Journal Article]
- CLCancer Lett 2018 Apr 01; 418:204-210
- Radiotherapy for cancer patients damages normal tissues, thereby inducing an inflammatory response and promoting cancer metastasis. We investigated whether nicaraven, a compound with radioprotective ...
Radiotherapy for cancer patients damages normal tissues, thereby inducing an inflammatory response and promoting cancer metastasis. We investigated whether nicaraven, a compound with radioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, could attenuate radiation-induced cancer metastasis to the lungs of mice. Nicaraven and amifostine, another commercial radioprotective agent, had limited effects on both the radiosensitivity of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vitro and radiation-induced tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Using experimental and spontaneous metastasis models, we confirmed that thorax irradiation with 5 Gy X-rays dramatically increased the number of tumors in the lungs. Interestingly, the number of tumors in the lungs was significantly reduced by administering nicaraven but not by administering amifostine daily after radiation exposure. Furthermore, nicaraven administration effectively inhibited CCL8 expression and macrophage recruitment in the lungs 1 day after thorax irradiation. Our data suggest that nicaraven attenuates radiation-induced lung metastasis, likely by regulating the inflammatory response after radiation exposure.
- Amifostine reduces gastro-intestinal toxicity after autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma. [Journal Article]
- LLLeuk Lymphoma 2018 Jan 02; :1-8
- High-dose melphalan (HDM) followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) remains the standard-of-care therapy for multiple myeloma (MM) even with the availability of proteasome ...
High-dose melphalan (HDM) followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) remains the standard-of-care therapy for multiple myeloma (MM) even with the availability of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is the main cause of morbidity after HDM. Amifostine, a cytoprotective agent, may reduce HDM-associated GI toxicity. We conducted a case control study comparing HDM + auto-HCT with or without amifostine for MM patients. One hundred and seven patients treated at University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center who received pre-transplant amifostine were compared to 114 patients treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center without use of this agent. Amifostine 740 mg/m2was administered as a bolus infusion at 24 h and 15 min before HDM. Patients' characteristics were similar in both the groups. Amifostine therapy was well tolerated without any significant adverse effects. Grade II or greater oral mucositis (27.1% vs 47.4%; p = .002), nausea (31.8% vs. 86.0%; p = .0001), vomiting (18.7% vs. 52.6%; p = .0001) and diarrhea (56.1% vs. 72.7%; p = .006) occurred less frequently in the amifostine-treated group. There was no discernable effect of amifostine on engraftment, progression-free or overall survival. Our results indicate that amifostine decreases GI toxicity while preserving anti-myeloma efficacy of HDM and auto-HCT.
- Effects of yak-activated protein on hematopoiesis and related cytokines in radiation-induced injury in mice. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2017; 14(6):5297-5304
- The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of yak-activated protein on hematopoiesis and cytokine function in radiation-induced injury in mice. A total of 180 Kunming mice...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of yak-activated protein on hematopoiesis and cytokine function in radiation-induced injury in mice. A total of 180 Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C). Of these, 60 were randomly divided into a normal control group, a radiation model group, a positive control group and 3 yak-activated protein groups (high, medium and low dose groups; 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively). The other 120 mice were used for the subsequent experiments on days 7 and 14 following radiation. Yak-activated protein was administered orally to mice in the treatment groups and an equal volume of saline was administered orally to mice in the normal control and radiation model groups for 14 days. The positive control group received amifostine (150 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection. With the exception of the control group, the groups of mice received a 5 Gy quantity of X-radiation evenly over their whole body once. Changes in the peripheral hemogram, thymus and spleen indices, DNA content in the bone marrow, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 levels, and the expression levels of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) following irradiation were assessed. The low dose of yak-activated protein significantly increased Spleen indices in mice 14 days after irradiation and the high and middle dose of yak-activated protein significantly increased Thymus indices in mice 14 days after irradiation (P<0.05) compared with the control group. In addition, hemogram results increased gradually in the low-yak-activated protein dose group and were significantly higher 7 days after irradiation compared with the radiation model group (P<0.05). The DNA content in the bone marrow was markedly increased in the yak-activated protein groups, and increased significantly in the low dose group at 7 days post-irradiation compared with the radiation model group (P<0.05). The IL-2 content was significantly increased in the yak-activated protein groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, Bcl-2 expression was increased and Bax expression was decreased (P<0.05). These results suggest that yak-activated protein exerts protective effects against radiation-induced injury in mice. The optimal effects of yak-activated protein were observed in the medium dose group 14 days after irradiation.
- Amifostine Protects Mouse Liver Against Radiation-induced Autophagy Blockage. [Journal Article]
- ARAnticancer Res 2018; 38(1):227-238
- CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that amifostine, aside to DNA protection activity, exerts its cytoprotective function by preventing radiation-induced blockage of autophagy, lysosomal biogenesis and lipophagy.
- Regimens of Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Colorectal Cancer. [Review]
- ARAnticancer Res 2018; 38(1):15-22
- Although systemic chemotherapy has been improved, peritoneal carcinomatosis remains a factor of poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. In order to achieve a higher drug concentration in t...
Although systemic chemotherapy has been improved, peritoneal carcinomatosis remains a factor of poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. In order to achieve a higher drug concentration in the peritoneal cavity, intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been performed. However, the optimal regimen for intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not been determined. In this review of intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, we summarize regimens of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and other intraperitoneal chemotherapy modalities, such as early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) and sequential postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (SPIC). Mitomycin C and oxaliplatin are the most common chemotherapeutic agents used for HIPEC. Some combination therapies such as those involving bevacizumab, H2O2, and amifostine have potential to increase HIPEC efficacy. 5-Fluorouracil is used mainly for EPIC and SPIC. Some new agents such as paclitaxel, melphalan, and various nanoparticles have been developed. These novel chemotherapeutic agents may achieve clinical implementation in the future.
- Role of drugs in the prevention and amelioration of radiation induced toxic effects. [Review]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Jan 15; 819:207-216
- As the use of radiation technology for nuclear warfare or for the benefits of mankind (e.g. in radiotherapy or radio-diagnosis) is increasing tremendously, the risk of associated side effects is beco...
As the use of radiation technology for nuclear warfare or for the benefits of mankind (e.g. in radiotherapy or radio-diagnosis) is increasing tremendously, the risk of associated side effects is becoming a cause of concern. These effects, ranging from nausea/vomiting to death, may result from accidental or deliberate exposure and begin in seconds. Through this review paper, efforts have been done to critically review different compounds which have been investigated as radioprotectors and radiation mitigators. Radioprotectors are compounds which are administered just before or at the time of irradiation so as to minimize the radiation induced damage to normal tissues. And radiation mitigators are the compounds which can even minimize or ameliorate post irradiaion-toxicity provided they are administered before the onset of toxic symptoms. A variety of agents have been investigated for their preventive and ameliorative potential against radiation induced toxic effects. This review article has focused on various aspects of the promising representative agents belonging to different classes of radioprotectors and mitigators. Many compounds have shown promising results, but till date only amifostine and palifermin are clinically approved by FDA. To fill this void in pharmacological armamentarium, focus should be shifted towards novel approaches.
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- Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Cancer. [Review]
- IJInt J Prev Med 2017; 8:76
- Children with cancer treated with cytotoxic drugs are frequently at risk of developing renal dysfunction. The cytotoxic drugs that are widely used for cancer treatment in children are cisplatin (CPL)...
Children with cancer treated with cytotoxic drugs are frequently at risk of developing renal dysfunction. The cytotoxic drugs that are widely used for cancer treatment in children are cisplatin (CPL), ifosfamide (IFO), carboplatin, and methotrexate (MTX). Mechanisms of anticancer drug-induced renal disorders are different and include acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease, vascular damage, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and intrarenal obstruction. CPL nephrotoxicity is dose-related and is often demonstrated with hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and impaired renal function with rising serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. CPL, mitomycin C, and gemcitabine treatment cause vascular injury and HUS. High-dose IFO, streptozocin, and azacitidine cause renal tubular dysfunction manifested by Fanconi syndrome, rickets, and osteomalacia. AKI is a common adverse effect of MTX, interferon-alpha, and nitrosourea compound treatment. These strategies to reduce the cytotoxic drug-induced nephrotoxicity should include adequate hydration, forced diuresis, and urinary alkalization. Amifostine, sodium thiosulfate, and diethyldithiocarbamate provide protection against CPL-induced renal toxicity.