- The effect of exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compounds on antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Infect Control 2018 May 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of suboptimal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and didecyldimonium chloride can lead to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas strains.
- Polymeric nanoparticles as a platform for permeability enhancement of class III drug amikacin. [Journal Article]
- CSColloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 May 16; 169:206-213
- Amikacin (A), a water soluble aminoglycoside antibiotic is commercially available for intravenous administration only. Present investigation is aimed at the development of poly-lactic-co-glycolic aci...
Amikacin (A), a water soluble aminoglycoside antibiotic is commercially available for intravenous administration only. Present investigation is aimed at the development of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (A-NPs).1 for oral permeability enhancement of amikacin. The pharmaceutical attributes of the A-NPs revealed particle size, 260.3 ± 2.05 nm, zeta potential, -12.9 ± 1.12 mV and drug content, 40.10 ± 1.87 μg/mg with spherical shape and smooth surface. In vitro antibacterial studies showed that the A-NPs were active against P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. The permeation study across rat ileum showed 2.6-fold improvement in Papp for A-NPs than A-S2 This increase in permeability is due to the uptake of nanoparticles by Peyer's patches of intestinal epithelium and endocytic uptake via enterocytes. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated 2.2-fold higher uptake of Rh B-NPs3 than Rh B-S4 and elucidated the dominance of enterocytes mediated endocytosis of nanoparticles. Furthermore, stability data collected as per ICH guidelines for three months under accelerated conditions had shown that the A-NPs were stable. The purported drug delivery system hence, seems a promising tool to replace successfully the current intravenous therapy and is used to support relevant patient compliance thereby, adding value to the "patient care at home".
- Is MIC increase of meropenem against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae correlated with the increase of resistance rates against some other antibiotics with Gram-negative activity? [Journal Article]
- JGJ Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 May 15
- CONCLUSIONS: The overall susceptibility rates of antibiotics with Gram-negative activity may greatly vary among KPC-Kp clinical isolates. A tight relationship between meropenem MIC increase and the resistance rate for amikacin was documented.
- Cefepime vs. cefoperazone/sulbactam in combination with amikacin as empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia. [Journal Article]
- SCSupport Care Cancer 2018 May 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Cefepime monotherapy and CS + A had similar efficacy as first-line therapy for FN. Discontinuation of empirical antibiotics is safe and feasible approach in selected group of FUO patients.
- Distribution of virulence-associated genes and antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2018 Apr 24; 9(31):21663-21673
- Acinetobacter baumannii is undoubtedly one of the most clinically significant pathogens. The multidrug resistance and virulence potential of A. baumannii are responsible for hospital-acquired nosocom...
Acinetobacter baumannii is undoubtedly one of the most clinically significant pathogens. The multidrug resistance and virulence potential of A. baumannii are responsible for hospital-acquired nosocomial infections. Unlike numerous investigations on the drug-resistant epidemiology of A. baumanni, virulence molecular epidemiology is less studied. Here, we collected 88 A. baumannii clinical isolates, tested their antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 commonly used antibiotics and analyzed the distribution of 9 selected virulence-associated genes, aims to investigate the primary characteristics of the virulence-associated genes that exist in clinically multidrug resistant (MDR) and non-MDR isolates of A. baumannii. The MIC results showed the resistance rates of ciprofloxacin (68.2%, 60/88), gentamicin (67.0%, 59/88), amikacin (58.0%, 51/88), tobramycin (58.0%, 51/88), doxycycline (67.0%, 59/88), meropenem (54.5%, 48/88) and imipenem (65.9%, 58/88) were all above 50%, except for levofloxacin (34.1%, 30/88), minocycline (1.1%, 1/88) and polymyxin B (0%, 0/88). The Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed that the resistance rate of MDR A. baumannii isolates in the Epidemic group was predominant (79.5%, 44/58), but in the Sporadic group was only 6.7% (2/30). Further investigation on the distribution of virulence genes showed the virulence genes bap (95.5%), surA1 (92.0%), BasD (92.0%), paaE (88.6%), pld (87.5%), BauA (62.5%), omp33-36 (59.1%) and pglC (53.4%) were accounted for high proportion, except for traT (0%). Overall, our results revealed that MDR isolates predominated in the Epidemic A. baumannii isolates, and contained a very high proportion of virulence genes, which may lead to high risk, high pathogenicity and high treatment challenge.
- Acromioclavicular joint septic arthritis in an immunocompetent child: A case report. [Journal Article]
- CJChin J Traumatol 2018 Mar 23
- Septic arthritis of acromioclavicular (AC) joint is a rare entity. It is generally seen in patients who are immunocompromised. Only 15 cases have been reported till now, with only one case series of ...
Septic arthritis of acromioclavicular (AC) joint is a rare entity. It is generally seen in patients who are immunocompromised. Only 15 cases have been reported till now, with only one case series of 6 patients. We report a case of septic arthritis of AC joint in an immunocompetent child. A 9 years old girl presented with history of pain in left shoulder for 4 days associated with fever. No history suggestive of any immunocompromised state was complained. On local examination, a swelling of around 3 cm in diameter was found over left AC joint region with raised local temperature, tenderness on palpation and positive response in fluctuation test. Total leukocyte count was 18.7 × 109/L with 80% of neutrophils. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 28 mm/1 h. C-reactive protein (CRP) was 12 mg/L. X-ray showed enlarged left AC joint space. Ultrasound revealed hypoechoic collection in the AC joint and the surrounding area. The aspirate was thick and purulent in nature, revealing Gram positive cocci at staining. Arthrotomy and thorough lavage of AC joint was done. Culture of the aspirate showed Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) after 48 hours that was sensitive to amikacin, gentamicin, erythromycin and teicoplanin. Patient was symptom-free at 2 months of follow-up with no signs of osteomyelitis on the radiographs. Thus this is the first case of AC joint septic arthritis in healthy individual. Being proximal to the shoulder joint, AC joint septic arthritis can be confused with the shoulder joint septic arthritis. Thus, high index of suspicion is required for accurate diagnosis.
- Stopping the effective non-fluoroquinolone antibiotics at day 7 vs continuing until day 14 in adults with acute pyelonephritis requiring hospitalization: A randomized non-inferiority trial. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(5):e0197302
- CONCLUSIONS: Stopping the effective non-FQ antibiotics following clinical improvement at Day 7 is non-inferior to continued treatment until Day 14 in selected patients with APN requiring hospitalization.
- Susceptibility of ruminal bacteria isolated from large and small ruminant to multiple conventional antibiotics. [Journal Article]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2018 May 12; 121:93-99
- The pivotal aim of the present context was to isolate diversified group of bacteria from the ruminants and to evaluate their antibiogram pattern against 22 antibiotics of 14 different classes. The ba...
The pivotal aim of the present context was to isolate diversified group of bacteria from the ruminants and to evaluate their antibiogram pattern against 22 antibiotics of 14 different classes. The bacterial isolates from small and large ruminant (sheep, cattle and calves) were isolated from the rumen based on various colonies morphology, and subjected for preliminary antibiotics susceptibility assay using disc diffusion method. The most sensitive isolates (based on zone of inhibition) were selected for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antibiotic ranging from 1 to 256 μg/mL. Results revealed the concentration dependent growth inhibitory property of antibiotics a species-specific process. The maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) of each antibiotic was further determined using disc diffusion method, and results exhibited that the tolerance nature of ruminal isolates to antibiotics is a species-specific mechanism. Based on the MIC and MTC values of antibiotics, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicilline were observed to be the most potent antibiotics in terms of inhibiting the growth of ruminal isolates. In brief, the findings of the current study showed that despite the overexploitation of antibiotics as additives in the animal's feed, most of the ruminal isolates are sensitive to multiple conventional antibiotics tested. The growth inhibitory trait of antibiotics proves these antimicrobials a propitious agent against the pathogenesis of ruminal isolates in livestock.
- Rifabutin acts in synergy and is bactericidal with frontline Mycobacterium abscessus antibiotics clarithromycin and tigecycline, suggesting a potent treatment combination. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 May 14
- Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) is a rapidly emerging mycobacterial pathogen causing dangerous pulmonary infections. Because these bacteria are intrinsically multidrug resistant, treatment options are ...
Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) is a rapidly emerging mycobacterial pathogen causing dangerous pulmonary infections. Because these bacteria are intrinsically multidrug resistant, treatment options are limited and have questionable efficacy. The current treatment regimen relies on a combination of antibiotics including clarithromycin paired with amikacin and either imipenem or cefoxitin. Tigecycline may be added when triple therapy is ineffective. We initially screened a library containing the majority of clinically available antibiotics for anti-MAB activity. The screen identified rifabutin, which was then investigated for its interactions with MAB antibiotics used in drug regimens. Combination of rifabutin with either clarithromycin or tigecycline generated synergistic anti-MAB activity, dropping the rifabutin minimum inhibitory concentration below concentrations found in the lung. Importantly, these combinations generated bactericidal activity. The triple combination of clarithromycin, tigecycline, and rifabutin was also synergistic, and clinically relevant concentrations had a sterilizing effect on MAB cultures. We suggest that combinations including rifabutin should be further investigated for treatment of MAB pulmonary infections.
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- Mycobacterium simiae: clinical, radiological and microbiological characteristics in 97 patients. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 May 14
- Mycobacterium simiae is a rare species of slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM).From 2002 to 2017, we conducted a retrospective study that included all patients with NTM-positive respiratory...
Mycobacterium simiae is a rare species of slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM).From 2002 to 2017, we conducted a retrospective study that included all patients with NTM-positive respiratory samples detected in two university hospitals of the French overseas department of Reunion Island. We recorded the prevalence of M. simiae in this cohort, as well as the clinical, radiological, and microbiological features of patients with at least one sample positive for M. simiaeIn our cohort, 97 patients (15.1%) were positive for M. simiae Twenty-one patients (21.6%) met the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for infection. M. simiae infection was associated with bronchiectasis, micronodular lesions and weight loss. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed in 60 patients and the isolates were found to have low susceptibility to antibiotics, except for amikacin, fluoroquinolones, and clarithromycin. Treatment failed in 4 of the 8 patients treated for M. simiae infection.Here, we describe a specific cluster corresponding to a large cohort of patients with M. simiae, a rare nontuberculous mycobacteria associated with low pathogenicity and a poor susceptibility to antibiotics.