- Necrostatin-1 ameliorates adjuvant arthritis rat articular chondrocyte injury via inhibiting ASIC1a-mediated necroptosis. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Sep 12
- Necroptosis, a necrotic cell death pathway regulated by receptor interacting protein (RIP) 1 and 3, plays a key role in pathophysiological processes, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, whe...
Necroptosis, a necrotic cell death pathway regulated by receptor interacting protein (RIP) 1 and 3, plays a key role in pathophysiological processes, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, whether necroptosis is involved in RA articular cartilage damage processes remain unclear. The aim of present study was to investigate the dynamic changes in arthritic chondrocyte necroptosis and the effect of RIP1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) inhibitor amiloride on arthritic cartilage injury and acid-induced chondrocyte necroptosis. Our results demonstrated that the expression of RIP1, RIP3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein phosphorylation (p-MLKL) were increased in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rat articular cartilage in vivo and acid-induced chondrocytes in vitro. High co-expression of ASIC1a and RIP1 showed in AA rat articular cartilage. Moreover, Nec-1 and amiloride could reduce articular cartilage damage and necroinflammation in AA rats. In addition, acid-induced increase in necroptosis markers RIP1/RIP3 were inhibited by Nec-1, ASIC1a-specific blocker psalmotoxin-1 (PcTx-1) or ASIC1a-short hairpin RNA respectively, which revealed that necroptosis is triggered in acid-induced chondrocytes and mediated by ASIC1a. These findings indicated that blocking ASIC1a-mediated chondrocyte necroptosis may provide potential therapeutic strategies for RA treatment.
- TASK1 and TASK3 Are Coexpressed With ASIC1 in the Ventrolateral Medulla and Contribute to Central Chemoreception in Rats. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Neurosci 2018; 12:285
- The ventrolateral medulla (VLM), including the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi) and rostral VLM (RVLM), is commonly considered to be a chemosensitive region. However, the specific mechanism...
The ventrolateral medulla (VLM), including the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi) and rostral VLM (RVLM), is commonly considered to be a chemosensitive region. However, the specific mechanism of chemoreception in the VLM remains elusive. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), a family of voltage-independent proton-gated cation channels, can be activated by an external pH decrease to cause Na+ entry and induce neuronal excitability. TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channels (TASKs) are members of another group of pH-sensitive channels; in contrast to AISICs, they can be stimulated by pH increases and are inhibited by pH decreases in the physiological range. Our previous study demonstrated that ASICs take part in chemoreception. The aims of this study are to explore whether TASKs participate in the acid sensitivity of neurons in the VLM, thereby cooperating with ASICs. Our research demonstrated that TASKs, including TASK1 and TASK3, are colocalized with ASIC1 in VLM neurons. Blocking TASKs by microinjection of the non-selective TASK antagonist bupivacaine (BUP), specific TASK1 antagonist anandamide (AEA) or specific TASK3 antagonist ruthenium red (RR) into the VLM increased the integrated phrenic nerve discharge (iPND), shortened the inspiratory time (Ti) and enhanced the respiratory drive (iPND/Ti). In addition, microinjection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) at a pH of 7.0 or 6.5 prolonged Ti, increased iPND and enhanced respiratory drive, which were inhibited by the ASIC antagonist amiloride (AMI). By contrast, microinjection of alkaline ACSF decreased iPND and respiratory drive, which were inhibited by AEA. Taken together, our data suggest that TASK1 and TASK3 are coexpressed with ASIC1 in the VLM. Moreover, TASK1 and TASK3 contribute to the central regulation of breathing by coordinating with each other to perceive local pH changes; these results indicate a novel chemosensitive mechanism of the VLM.
- Extracellular protease trypsin activates amiloride-insensitive sodium channels in human leukemia cells. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2018 Sep 11
- Sodium influx is tightly regulated in the cells of blood origin. Amiloride-insensitive sodium channels were identified as one of the main sodium-transporting pathways in leukemia cells. To date, all ...
Sodium influx is tightly regulated in the cells of blood origin. Amiloride-insensitive sodium channels were identified as one of the main sodium-transporting pathways in leukemia cells. To date, all known regulatory pathways of these channels are coupled with intracellular actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Here, to search for physiological mechanisms controlling epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)-like channels, we utilized leukemia K562 cells as a unique model to examine single channel behavior in a whole-cell patch-clamp experiments. We have shown for the first time that extracellular serine protease trypsin directly activates sodium channels in plasma membrane of K562 cells. The whole-cell single current recordings clearly demonstrate no inhibition of trypsin-activated channels by amiloride or benzamil. Involvement of proteolytic cleavage in channel opening was confirmed in experiments with soybean trypsin inhibitor. More importantly, stabilization of F-actin with intracellular phalloidin did not prevent trypsin-induced channel activation indicating no implication of cytoskeleton rearrangements in stimulatory effect of extracellular protease. Our data reveals a novel mechanism modulating amiloride-insensitive ENaC-like channel activity and integral sodium permeability in leukemia cells.
- The role of acid-sensitive ion channels in panic disorder: a systematic review of animal studies and meta-analysis of human studies. [Review]
- TPTransl Psychiatry 2018 Sep 07; 8(1):185
- Acid-sensitive ion channels, such as amiloride-sensitive cation channel (ACCN), transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), and T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) are highly related to the ...
Acid-sensitive ion channels, such as amiloride-sensitive cation channel (ACCN), transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), and T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) are highly related to the expression of fear and are expressed in several regions of the brain. These molecules can detect acidosis and maintain brain homeostasis. An important role of pH homeostasis has been suggested in the physiology of panic disorder (PD), with acidosis as an interoceptive trigger for panic attacks. To examine the effect of acid-sensitive channels on PD symptoms, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of these chemosensors in rodents and humans. Following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the Web of Science, Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, and SciELO databases. The review included original research in PD patients and animal models of PD that investigated acid-sensitive channels and PD symptoms. Studies without a control group, studies involving patients with a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, and in vitro studies were excluded. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The majority of the studies showed an association between panic symptoms and acid-sensitive channels. PD patients appear to display polymorphisms in the ACCN gene and elevated levels of TDAG8 mRNA. The results showed a decrease in panic-like symptoms after acid channel blockade in animal models. Despite the relatively limited data on this topic in the literature, our review identified evidence linking acid-sensitive channels to PD in humans and preclinical models. Future research should explore possible underlying mechanisms of this association, attempt to replicate the existing findings in larger populations, and develop new therapeutic strategies based on these biological features.
- -Gingerol Induces Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Absorption in the Rat Colon via the Capsaicin Receptor TRPV1 in Colonic Mucosa. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2018; 64(4):287-291
- -Gingerol possesses various beneficial pharmacological and therapeutic properties, including anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to regulate intestinal contraction. ...
-Gingerol possesses various beneficial pharmacological and therapeutic properties, including anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to regulate intestinal contraction. Recently, our group observed that the serosal administration of -gingerol stimulated electrogenic sodium absorption in the rat colon via the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. TRPV1 is known to be expressed in both the mucosal epithelium and the muscle layers in the colon. In the present study, we assessed whether -gingerol stimulated sodium absorption via TRPV1 in the colonic mucosal epithelium. We compared the effect of -gingerol on TRPV1-dependent colonic sodium absorption in the colon preparation with or without muscle layer. All experiments were performed by measuring the transmural potential difference (ΔPD) in an Ussing chamber system. -Gingerol induced positive ΔPD when administered to the serosal side of the colon, and this effect was significantly larger in the colon preparation without muscle layer than in that with the muscle layer. In the colon preparation without muscle layer, the -gingerol-dependent induction of ΔPD was markedly suppressed by mucosal addition of amiloride, a selective inhibitor of epithelial sodium channel. ΔPD induction by -gingerol was considerably diminished by capsazepine, an inhibitor of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, but not by AP-18, an inhibitor of TRPA1. These results suggest that -gingerol induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption in the rat colon via TRPV1 expressed in the colonic mucosal epithelium, and that this effect is independent of TRPV1 in the colonic muscle layer.
- Multiple Sclerosis-Secondary Progressive Multi-Arm Randomisation Trial (MS-SMART): a multiarm phase IIb randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing the efficacy of three neuroprotective drugs in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2018 Aug 30; 8(8):e021944
- The major unmet need in multiple sclerosis (MS) is for neuroprotective therapies that can slow (or ideally stop) the rate of disease progression. The UK MS Society Clinical Trials Network (CTN) was i...
The major unmet need in multiple sclerosis (MS) is for neuroprotective therapies that can slow (or ideally stop) the rate of disease progression. The UK MS Society Clinical Trials Network (CTN) was initiated in 2007 with the purpose of developing a national, efficient, multiarm trial of repurposed drugs. Key underpinning work was commissioned by the CTN to inform the design, outcome selection and drug choice including animal models and a systematic review. This identified seven leading oral agents for repurposing as neuroprotective therapies in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). The purpose of the Multiple Sclerosis-Secondary Progressive Multi-Arm Randomisation Trial (MS-SMART) will be to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of three of these drugs, selected with distinct mechanistic actions and previous evidence of likely efficacy, against a common placebo arm. The interventions chosen were: amiloride (acid-sensing ion channel antagonist); fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and riluzole (glutamate antagonist).
- ENaC in Cholinergic Brush Cells. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Dev Biol 2018; 6:89
- Cholinergic polymodal chemosensory cells in the mammalian urethra (urethral brush cells = UBC) functionally express the canonical bitter and umami taste transduction signaling cascade. Here, we aimed...
Cholinergic polymodal chemosensory cells in the mammalian urethra (urethral brush cells = UBC) functionally express the canonical bitter and umami taste transduction signaling cascade. Here, we aimed to determine whether UBC are functionally equipped for the perception of salt through ENaC (epithelial sodium channel). Cholinergic UBC were isolated from ChAT-eGFP reporter mice (ChAT = choline acetyltransferase). RT-PCR showed mRNA expression of ENaC subunits Scnn1a, Scnn1b, and Scnn1g in urethral epithelium and isolated UBC. Scnn1a could also be detected by next generation sequencing in 4/6 (66%) single UBC, two of them also expressed the bitter receptor Tas2R108. Strong expression of Scnn1a was seen in some urothelial umbrella cells and in 65% of UBC (30/46 cells) in a Scnn1a reporter mouse strain. Intracellular [Ca2+] was recorded in isolated UBC stimulated with the bitter substance denatonium benzoate (25 mM), ATP (0.5 mM) and NaCl (50 mM, on top of 145 mM Na+ and 153 mM Cl- baseline in buffer); mannitol (150 mM) served as osmolarity control. NaCl, but not mannitol, evoked an increase in intracellular [Ca2+] in 70% of the tested UBC. The NaCl-induced effect was blocked by the ENaC inhibitor amiloride (IC50 = 0.47 μM). When responses to both NaCl and denatonium were tested, all three possible positive response patterns occurred in a balanced distribution: 42% NaCl only, 33% denatonium only, 25% to both stimuli. A similar reaction pattern was observed with ATP and NaCl as test stimuli. About 22% of the UBC reacted to all three stimuli. Thus, NaCl evokes calcium responses in several UBC, likely involving an amiloride-sensitive channel containing α-ENaC. This feature does not define a new subpopulation of UBC, but rather emphasizes their polymodal character. The actual function of α-ENaC in cholinergic UBC-salt perception, homeostatic ion transport, mechanoreception-remains to be determined.
- Hyperkalemic Forms of Renal Tubular Acidosis: Clinical and Pathophysiological Aspects. [Review]
- ACAdv Chronic Kidney Dis 2018; 25(4):321-333
- In contrast to distal type I or classic renal tubular acidosis (RTA) that is associated with hypokalemia, hyperkalemic forms of RTA also occur usually in the setting of mild-to-moderate CKD. Two path...
In contrast to distal type I or classic renal tubular acidosis (RTA) that is associated with hypokalemia, hyperkalemic forms of RTA also occur usually in the setting of mild-to-moderate CKD. Two pathogenic types of hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis are frequently encountered in adults with underlying CKD. One type, which corresponds to some extent to the animal model of selective aldosterone deficiency (SAD) created experimentally by adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid replacement, is manifested in humans by low plasma and urinary aldosterone levels, reduced ammonium excretion, and preserved ability to lower urine pH below 5.5. This type of hyperkalemic RTA is also referred to as type IV RTA. It should be noted that the mere deficiency of aldosterone when glomerular filtration rate is completely normal only causes a modest decline in plasma bicarbonate which emphasizes the importance of reduced glomerular filtration rate in the development of the hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis associated with SAD. Another type of hyperkalemic RTA distinctive from SAD in which plasma aldosterone is not reduced is referred to as hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis because urine pH cannot be reduced despite acidemia or after provocative tests aimed at increasing sodium-dependent distal acidification such as the administration of sodium sulfate or loop diuretics with or without concurrent mineralocorticoid administration. This type of hyperkalemic RTA (also referred to as voltage-dependent distal renal tubular acidosis) has been best described in patients with obstructive uropathy and resembles the impairment in both hydrogen ion and potassium secretion that are induced experimentally by urinary tract obstruction and when sodium transport in the cortical collecting tubule is blocked by amiloride.
- 6-Substituted hexamethylene amiloride (HMA) derivatives as potent and selective inhibitors of the human urokinase plasminogen activator for use in cancer. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Chem 2018 Aug 21
- Metastasis is the cause of death in the majority (~90%) of malignant cancers. The oral potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride and its 5-substituted derivative 5-N,N-(hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA) repor...
Metastasis is the cause of death in the majority (~90%) of malignant cancers. The oral potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride and its 5-substituted derivative 5-N,N-(hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA) reportedly show robust anti-tumor/metastasis effects in multiple in vitro and animal models. These effects are likely due, at least in part, to inhibition of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), a key protease determinant of cell invasiveness and metastasis. This study reports the discovery of 6-substituted HMA analogs that show nanomolar potency against uPA, high selectivity over related trypsin-like serine proteases and minimal inhibitory effects against epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), the diuretic and anti-kaliuretic target of amiloride. Reductions in lung metastases were demonstrated for two analogs in a late-stage experimental mouse metastasis model and one analog completely inhibited formation of liver metastases in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer. The results support further evaluation of 6-substituted HMA derivatives as uPA-targeting anticancer drugs.
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- The Heptahelical Domain of the Sweet Taste Receptor T1R2 Is a New Allosteric Binding Site for the Sweet Taste Modulator Amiloride That Modulates Sweet Taste in a Species-Dependent Manner. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Neurosci 2018 Aug 17
- The activity of sweet taste receptor (heterodimeric T1R2 and T1R3) can be modulated by sweet regulators. The compound amiloride can inhibit the sweet sensitivity of the human sweet taste receptor. Th...
The activity of sweet taste receptor (heterodimeric T1R2 and T1R3) can be modulated by sweet regulators. The compound amiloride can inhibit the sweet sensitivity of the human sweet taste receptor. This study describes the species-dependent regulation of the response of sweet taste receptors by this sweet inhibitor. Amiloride inhibited the sweet taste response of humans and mice but not that of squirrel monkeys. Using human/squirrel monkey/mouse chimeric T1R2 and T1R3 receptors as well as the agonist perillartine (which can activate the single heptahelical domain of T1R2), we found that the heptahelical domain of T1R2 is the molecular determinant that mediates the species-dependent sensitivity to this sweet regulator. Compared to the sweet inhibitor lactisole (which acts on T1R3), amiloride has a different allosteric binding site on the sweet receptor, which is important new information for the design of novel sweet taste modulators that act on T1R2.