Did you mean: (aMILoride)?
- Oleanolic acid promotes orofacial antinociception in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) through TRPV1 receptors. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Interact 2018 Nov 26; 299:37-43
- This study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of oleanolic acid using adult zebrafish models of orofacial pain. Acute nociception was induced by formalin, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, menthol...
This study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of oleanolic acid using adult zebrafish models of orofacial pain. Acute nociception was induced by formalin, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, menthol, acidified saline or glutamate (cutaneous modes) and hypertonic saline (corneal model). In another set of experiments, animals were pre-treated with naloxone, L-NAME, methylene blue, ketamine, camphor, HC-030031, mefenamic acid, ruthenium red or amiloride to investigate the mechanism of antinociception. The involvement of central afferent C-fibers was also investigated. A molecular docking was performed using the TRPV1 channel. Motor activity was evaluated with the open field test. Pre-treatment with oleanolic acid significantly reduced nociceptive behavior associated with acute pain. Antinociception was effectively inhibited by ruthenium red and capsaicin-induced desensitization. Presence of trpv1 was confirmed by RT-PCR in cerebral tissue of zebrafish. In line with in vivo experiments, docking studies indicated that oleanolic acid may interact with TRPV1. Results confirm the potential pharmacological relevance of oleanolic acid as an inhibitor of orofacial nociception mediated by TRPV1.
- Liddle syndrome misdiagnosed as primary aldosteronism resulting from a novel frameshift mutation of SCNN1B. [Journal Article]
- ECEndocr Connect 2018 Nov 01
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study emphasizes the importance of considering LS in the differential diagnosis of secondary hypertension. And it indicates that genetic testing is confirmatory evidence in management of suspected LS patients. The identification of a novel frameshift mutation of SCNN1B enriches the genetic spectrum of LS, and has allowed treatment of this affected family to prevent complications.
- The role of Ca2+ in acid-sensing ion channel 1a-mediated chondrocyte pyroptosis in rat adjuvant arthritis. [Journal Article]
- LILab Invest 2018 Nov 28
- Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease with a poor prognosis. Pyroptosis is a type of proinflammatory programmed cell death that is characterised by the activation of caspase-1 and secretion o...
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease with a poor prognosis. Pyroptosis is a type of proinflammatory programmed cell death that is characterised by the activation of caspase-1 and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β/18. Previous reports have shown that pyroptosis is closely related to the development of some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The decrease in the pH of joint fluid is a main pathogenic feature of RA and leads to excessive apoptosis in chondrocytes. Acid-sensitive ion channels (ASICs) are extracellular H+-activated cation channels that mainly influence Na+ and Ca2+ permeability. In this study, we investigated the role of Ca2+ in acid-sensing ion channel 1a-mediated chondrocyte pyroptosis in an adjuvant arthritis rat model. The expression of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, NLRP3, caspase-1, ASIC 1a, IL-1β and IL-18 was upregulated in the joints of rats compared with that in normal rats, but the expression of Col2a in cartilage was decreased. However, these changes were reversed by amiloride, which is an inhibitor of ASIC1a. Extracellular acidosis significantly increased the expression of ASIC1a, IL-1β, IL-18, ASC, NLRP3 and caspase-1 and promoted the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Interestingly, Psalmotoxin-1 (Pctx-1) and BAPTA-AM inhibited these effects. These results indicate that ASIC1a mediates pyroptosis in chondrocytes from AA rats. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the ability of ASIC1a to promote [Ca2+]i and upregulate the expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
- Exploring the quinone/inhibitor-binding pocket in mitochondrial respiratory complex I by chemical biology approaches. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2018 Nov 13
- NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I) couples NADH-to-quinone electron transfer to the translocation of protons across the membrane. Even though the architectures of the quinone-access ...
NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I) couples NADH-to-quinone electron transfer to the translocation of protons across the membrane. Even though the architectures of the quinone-access channel in the enzyme have been modeled by X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM, conflicting findings raise the question whether the models fully reflect physiologically relevant states present throughout the catalytic cycle. To gain further insights into the structural features of the binding pocket for quinone/inhibitor, we performed chemical biology experiments using bovine heart sub-mitochondrial particles. We synthesized ubiquinones that are oversized (SF-UQs) or lipid-like (PC-UQs) and are highly unlikely to enter and transit the predicted narrow channel. We found that SF-UQs and PC-UQs can be catalytically reduced by complex I, albeit only at moderate or low rates. Moreover, quinone-site inhibitors completely blocked the catalytic reduction and the membrane potential formation coupled to this reduction. Photoaffinity-labeling experiments revealed that amiloride-type inhibitors bind to the interfacial domain of multiple core subunits (49 kDa, ND1, and PSST) and 39 kDa supernumerary subunit, although the latter does not make up the channel cavity in the current models. The binding of amilorides to the multiple target subunits was remarkably suppressed by other quinone-site inhibitors and SF-UQs. Taken together, the present results are difficult to reconcile with the current channel models. On the basis of comprehensive interpretations of the present results and of previous findings, we discuss the physiological relevance of these models.
- Extracellular calcium influx through L-type calcium channels, intracellular calcium currents and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling are involved in the abscisic acid-induced precognitive and anti-anxiety effects. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018 Nov 03; 109:582-588
- Abscisic acid (ABA), a critical phytohormone, is also produced in animal tissues. It has been reported that ABA has pro-cognitive and anti-anxiety effects in rats. However, its detailed mechanism has...
Abscisic acid (ABA), a critical phytohormone, is also produced in animal tissues. It has been reported that ABA has pro-cognitive and anti-anxiety effects in rats. However, its detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. Here, the possible roles of extracellular and intracellular calcium store and ERK signaling were evaluated in pro-cognitive and anti-anxiety effects of ABA. Morris water maze (MWM) and plus maze tests were used to evaluate the learning and memory and anxiety-like behavior, respectively, in rats. The inhibitors of L- (nifedipine) and T-type (amiloride) calcium channels and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (thapsigargin) were centrally (i.c.v.) injected 15 min before ABA. Hippocampal and prefrontal lobe levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated Kinase (p-ERK) were assessed by immunoblotting. The data showed that ABA has promoting effect on rat's performance in MWM task and induced anti-anxiety effect. In addition, nifedipine and thapsigargin significantly prevented while, amiloride had no effect on the mentioned effects of ABA. Furthermore, p-ERK levels were significantly increased in ABA-treated rats which were inhibited by nifedipine and thapsigargin pretreatment. It seems that the extracellular calcium influx through L-type calcium channels, intracellular calcium storage and ERK signaling are involved, at least in part, in the pro-cognitive and anti-anxiety effects of ABA.
- Intracellular Delivery of Rapamycin From FKBP Elastin-Like Polypeptides Is Consistent With Macropinocytosis. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:1184
- Rapamycin (Rapa) is a highly potent drug; however, its clinical potential is limited by poor solubility, bioavailability, and cytotoxicity. To improve Rapa delivery, our team has fused the cognate pr...
Rapamycin (Rapa) is a highly potent drug; however, its clinical potential is limited by poor solubility, bioavailability, and cytotoxicity. To improve Rapa delivery, our team has fused the cognate protein receptor for Rapa, FKBP12, to high molecular weight elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs). One construct, FAF, includes an FKBP domain at each termini of an ELP. In a recent report, FAF/Rapa outperformed a family of related carriers with higher tumor accumulation and efficacy. Despite apparent efficacy, an explanation for how FAF carries Rapa into cells has not been elucidated. This manuscript explores the intracellular fate of FAF in MDA-MB-468, a triple negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) breast cancer line. Based on a lack of displacement by excess unlabeled FAF, no evidence was found for the involvement of a receptor in cell-surface binding. Cellular association showed no dose-dependent saturation at concentrations up to 100 μM, which is consistent with uptake through fluid phase endocytosis. FAF does colocalize with dextran, a marker of fluid phase endocytosis. Upon internalization, both FAF and dextran target low pH intracellular compartments similarly. Despite likely exposure to lysosomal pH and proteolytic activity, intracellular FAF is eliminated from cells with a relatively long half-life of 17.7 and 19.0 h by confocal microscopy and SDS-PAGE respectively. A split luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that FAF delays the cytosolic access of Rapa in comparison to free drug by 30 min. A specific macropinocytosis inhibitor, amiloride, completely inhibits the cytosolic delivery of Rapa from FAF. Each of these results are consistent with macropinocytosis as the mechanism of cellular uptake necessary for the hand-off of Rapa from FKBP-based drug carriers like FAF to endogenous FKBP12 in the cytosol.
- Nitric oxide mediates anomalous tubuloglomerular feedback in rats fed high NaCl diet after subtotal nephrectomy. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Oct 31
- Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) responses become anomalous in rats fed high NaCl diet after subtotal nephrectomy (STN) such that stimulating TGF causes single nephron GFR (SNGFR) to increase rather t...
Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) responses become anomalous in rats fed high NaCl diet after subtotal nephrectomy (STN) such that stimulating TGF causes single nephron GFR (SNGFR) to increase rather than decrease. Micropuncture experiments were performed to determine whether this anomaly results from heightened nitric oxide response to distal delivery, which is a known mechanism for resetting TGF, or from connecting tubule TGF (cTGF), which is a novel amiloride-inhibitable system for offsetting TGF responses. Micropuncture was done in Wistar Froemter rats fed high NaCl diet (HS) for 8-10 days after STN or sham nephrectomy. TGF was manipulated by orthograde microperfusion of Henle's loop with artificial tubular fluid with or without NOS inhibitor, LNMMA, or the cell-impermeant amiloride analog, benzamil. SNGFR was measured by inulin clearance in tubular fluid collections from the late proximal tubule. TGF responses were quantified as the increase in SNGFR that occurred when the perfusion rate was reduced from 50 to 8 nl/min in STN or 40 to 8 nl/min in shams. The baseline TGF response was anomalous in STN HS (-4±3 vs 14±3 nl/min, P<0.001). TGF response was normalized by perfusing STN nephron with LNMMA (14±3 nl/min, p<0.005 for ANOVA cross term) but not with benzamil (-3±4 nl/min, p=0.4 for ANOVA cross term). Anomalous TGF occurs in STN HS due to heightened effect of tubular flow on nitric oxide signaling, which increases to the point of overriding the normal TGF response. There is no role for cTGF in this phenomenon.
- Influence of Platelet Aggregation Modulators on Cyclic AMP Production in Human Thrombocytes. [Journal Article]
- FMFolia Med (Plovdiv) 2018 Jun 01; 60(2):241-247
- CONCLUSIONS: Wortmannin, quercetin, ouabain and amiloride increase cyclic AMP level in human platelets. Lactoferrin also increases cyclic AMP level, but the effect is statistically insignificant, which shows that lactoferrin does not participate directly in the cyclic AMP signaling. Lactoferrin additionally augments the stimulating action of wortmannin, quercetin, ouabain and amiloride on the cyclic AMP production. This probably shows a synergetic interference of lactoferrin in signal pathways along with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (wortmannin), quercetin (control over protein kinases, the redox state of the cell and ion transport), ouabain and amiloride (mechanisms of ion transport and phosphorylation).
- Tubeimoside 1 Acts as a Chemotherapeutic Synergist via Stimulating Macropinocytosis. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:1044
- Macropinocytosis is a highly conserved endocytic process which characterizes the engulfment of extracellular fluid and its contents into cells via large, heterogeneous vacuoles known as macropinosome...
Macropinocytosis is a highly conserved endocytic process which characterizes the engulfment of extracellular fluid and its contents into cells via large, heterogeneous vacuoles known as macropinosomes. Tubeimoside-1 (TBM1) is a low toxic triterpenoid saponin extracted from a traditional Chinese herb Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.). TBM1 stimulates a quick accumulation of numerous phase-lucent cytoplasmic vacuoles in multiple colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. These vacuoles can be termed as macropinosomes that efficiently engulf lucifer yellow. These vesicles are not overlaps with endocytic organelle tracers, such as ERTracker, LysoTracker and mitoTracker. These vacuoles induced by TBM1 partially incorporate into lysosomes. Transmission electron microscope indicates membrane ruffling to form lamellipodia. Protrusions collapse onto and then fuse back with the plasma membrane to generate these large endocytic vacuoles. Notably, TBM1 efficiently trafficks dextrans into heterotopic xenografts in vivo, thus provide consolidated evidence that the vacuolization can be mainly defined as macropinocytosis. TBM1 downregulates cell viability and increases PI-positive, but not highlighted Hoechst 33342-positive cells. TBM1 induced cell death can be ascribed as methuosis by hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis which can be compromised by amiloride derivative 5-(Nethyl-N-isopropyl). Light chain 3 II is recruited to these vesicles to stimulate macropinocytosis. The cell death and vacuoles can be significantly neutralized by chloroquine, but can not be the inhibited by 3-methyladenine. TBM1 can coordinate with 5-FU to exert toxicity reducing and efficacy enhancing effects in vivo by increasing the uptake of the latter without hepatic injury. In conclusion, TBM1 effectively induces in vitro and in vivo macropinocytosis which can traffick small molecules into CRC cells. It is an attractive drug transporter and can be harnessed as a chemotherapeutic synergist with translational potential.
New Search Next
- Intracellular acidosis via activation of Akt-Girdin signaling promotes post ischemic angiogenesis during hyperglycemia. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cardiol 2018 Aug 10
- CONCLUSIONS: IA promotes ischemia-induced angiogenesis via Akt-dependent Girdin phosphorylation in diabetic mice.