- Synthesis and pharmaceutical characterization of site specific mycophenolic acid-modified Xenopus glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs. [Journal Article]
- MMedchemcomm 2018 Jan 01; 9(1):67-80
- To develop novel long-acting antidiabetic agents, mycophenolic acid (MPA) was used to modify Xenopus glucagon-like peptide-1 analog (GLP-1) (1) at three Lys residues through a γ-glutamyl linker. Simi...
To develop novel long-acting antidiabetic agents, mycophenolic acid (MPA) was used to modify Xenopus glucagon-like peptide-1 analog (GLP-1) (1) at three Lys residues through a γ-glutamyl linker. Similarly, 6-aminocaproic acid and 12-aminolauric acid with different lengths of fatty chain were used as MPA derivatives which were then conjugated with 1. By using proper protection and deprotection strategies, the synthetic process was completed directly on the resin to minimize the side reactions, and nine MPA-modified 1 derivatives (2a-2i) were obtained. Compounds 2b and 2c, which showed high GLP-1 receptor activation potencies and glucose lowering activities, were selected for further C-terminal modification to improve their stabilities and bioactivities, giving compounds 3a-3d. The receptor activation potencies and hypoglycemic activities of 3a-3d were comparable to that of liraglutide. Physicochemical and in vitro stability tests revealed that MPA conjugation led to enhanced albumin binding abilities as reflected by the improved stabilities of 3a-3d. In particular, at a dose of 25 nmol kg-1, the in vivo antidiabetic and insulinotropic activities of 3d were comparable to those of semaglutide. Finally, long-term administration of 3d achieved beneficial effects on glucose tolerance normalization and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) lowering, and no hepatotoxicity was observed. In conclusion, this research demonstrated that MPA derivatization was a practical way to develop long-acting antidiabetic peptides.
- The Perioperative Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytics in Adult Spinal Fusion Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- SSpine (Phila Pa 1976) 2018; 43(16):E949-E958
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on the highest level comparative evidence available, the possibility for blood loss reduction in adult spinal fusion surgery with the use of perioperative antifibrinolytics is not unreasonable, as it appears both efficacious and safe. In addition to further, larger investigations to validate the associations found in this study, practical aspects such as cost-benefit analysis, and long-term follow-up will further enhance our understanding.
- There seems to be no benefit from using ε-aminocaproic acid in addition to routine postextraction advice in patients receiving anticoagulation therapy. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Dent Assoc 2018 Jul 07
- [Effects of Gui Zhi Fu Ling Jiao Nang on Hemorheology and Expression of Phenotypic Proteins in Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells in Rats with An Intrauterine Device]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2018 Jun 28; 40(3):315-320
- Objective To observe the effect of Gui Zhi Fu Ling Jiao Nang (GZFLJN) on the expressions of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in uterine vascular smooth ...
Objective To observe the effect of Gui Zhi Fu Ling Jiao Nang (GZFLJN) on the expressions of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in uterine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of rat models with an intrauterine device (IUD) and to determine the thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) levels in peripheral blood. Methods Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups:normal group (n=16,with normal breed without treatment),model group (n=18,drenching 0.9% normal saline after modeling of IUD),GZFLJN group (n=18),and aminocaproic acid tablets group (n=17). Immunohistochemical SP method was used to detect the expressions of α-SMA and PCNA in uterine VSMC.ELISA was served to detect the levels of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α in peripheral blood. Results The positive rate of α-SMA were (50.89±9.41)%,(26.93±6.80)%,(48.92±6.80)%,and (34.63±7.26)%,respectively,in normal group,model group,GZFLJN group,and aminocaproic acid tablets group;obviously,it was significantly higher in normal group (t=14.43,P=0.00) and GZFLJN group (t=11.37,P=0.00) than that in model group and it was significantly lower in aminocaproic acid tablets group than in normal group (t=9.96,P=0.00) and GZFLJN group (t=8.23,P=0.00). The positive rate of PCNA were (25.66±7.24)%,(61.26±9.98)%,(28.36±9.17)%,and (50.23±8.71)%,respectively,in these four groups;obviously,it was significantly lower in the normal group (t=20.86,P=0.00) and GZFLJN group (t=19.12,P=0.00) than in model group and it was significantly higher in aminocaproic acid tablets group than in normal group (t=17.82,P=0.00) and GZFLJN group (t=16.05,P=0.00). Serum TXB2 level in these four groups were (445.86±24.43),(508.78±12.42),(448.11±9.63),and (498.11±13.63)ng/L;obviously,it was significantly higher in model group than in normal group (t=16.55,P=0.00) and aminocaproic acid tablets group (t=-4.12,P=0.00) and it was significantly lower in GZFLJN group than in model group (t=-15.23,P=0.00) and aminocaproic acid tablets group (t=-12.08,P=0.00). Serum 6-keto-PGF1α level in these four groups were (23.17±1.93),(18.09±0.93),(22.70±1.61),and (20.70±1.41)ng/L,respectively;obviously,it was significantly lower in model group than in normal group (t=-13.98,P=0.00) and aminocaproic acid tablets group (t=5.26,P=0.00) and it was significantly higher in GZFLJN group than in model group (t=11.43,P=0.00) and aminocaproic acid tablets group (t=8.76,P=0.00). Conclusion GZFLJN can regulate the expressions of α-SMA and PCNA of VSMC in the endometrium of IUD rats and the concentrations of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α in the serum.
- Antifibrinolytic therapy for preventing oral bleeding in people on anticoagulants undergoing minor oral surgery or dental extractions. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 07 02; 7:CD012293
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this Cochrane Review, there seems to be a beneficial effect of locally applied TXA in preventing oral bleeding in people on continuous treatment with VKAs undergoing minor oral surgery or dental extractions. However, the small number of identified randomised controlled trials, the relatively small number of participants included in the trials and the differences in standard therapy and treatment regimens between trials, do not allow us to conclude definite efficacy of antifibrinolytic therapy in this population.We were unable to identify any eligible trials in people on continuous treatment with DOACs undergoing oral or dental procedures. Therefore, a beneficial effect of antifibrinolytic therapy can currently only be assumed based on data from the people using VKAs.
- The ratio of concentrations of aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid that prevent plasmin activation of platelets does not provide equivalent inhibition of plasmatic fibrinolysis. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thromb Thrombolysis 2018 Jun 20
- Aminocaproic acid (EACA) availability has recently been decreased whereas tranexamic acid (TXA) is still available as an antifibrinolytic agent to decrease blood loss associated with procedures invol...
Aminocaproic acid (EACA) availability has recently been decreased whereas tranexamic acid (TXA) is still available as an antifibrinolytic agent to decrease blood loss associated with procedures involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) by inhibiting plasmin mediated platelet activation. Given that the clinical inclination is to substitute TXA for EACA, we sought to compare the antifibrinolytic efficacy of the two agents using the clinically accepted molar ratio of EACA:TXA (7.9:1) that prevents platelet activation in a viscoelastic based system under a variety of conditions in human plasma; 25-50% therapeutic concentration (EACA 32.5-65 µg/ml, TXA 5-10 µg/ml) in the presence of 1500-3000 IU tissue-type plasminogen activator, with 0-50% dilution of plasma with buffer. In all equipotent concentrations, TXA provided superior antifibrinolytic action compared to EACA. It is hoped that this work will serve as a rationale to further investigate these and other similar agents, especially now in a time of unpredictable unavailability of key medications needed to optimize patient care. It is also our wish that these data assist perfusionists, anesthesiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons with their consideration of using an antifibrinolytic agent when managing complex patients with hypercoagulable states (e.g., ventricular assist device explant, infective endocarditis) undergoing CPB.
- Red urine, updated for the nephrologist: a case report. [Journal Article]
- BNBMC Nephrol 2018 Jun 08; 19(1):133
- CONCLUSIONS: Hemoglobin electrophoresis should be performed in cases of gross hematuria. Coupled with other non-invasive evaluation, this could avoid renal biopsy and its associated complications.
- Characterization of the caprolactam degradation pathway in Pseudomonas jessenii using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. [Journal Article]
- AMAppl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 May 31
- Some bacterial cultures are capable of growth on caprolactam as sole carbon and nitrogen source, but the enzymes of the catabolic pathway have not been described. We isolated a caprolactam-degrading ...
Some bacterial cultures are capable of growth on caprolactam as sole carbon and nitrogen source, but the enzymes of the catabolic pathway have not been described. We isolated a caprolactam-degrading strain of Pseudomonas jessenii from soil and identified proteins and genes putatively involved in caprolactam metabolism using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. This led to the discovery of a caprolactamase and an aminotransferase that are involved in the initial steps of caprolactam conversion. Additionally, various proteins were identified that likely are involved in later steps of the pathway. The caprolactamase consists of two subunits and demonstrated high sequence identity to the 5-oxoprolinases. Escherichia coli cells expressing this caprolactamase did not convert 5-oxoproline but were able to hydrolyze caprolactam to form 6-aminocaproic acid in an ATP-dependent manner. Characterization of the aminotransferase revealed that the enzyme deaminates 6-aminocaproic acid to produce 6-oxohexanoate with pyruvate as amino acceptor. The amino acid sequence of the aminotransferase showed high similarity to subgroup II ω-aminotransferases of the PLP-fold type I proteins. Finally, analyses of the genome sequence revealed the presence of a caprolactam catabolism gene cluster comprising a set of genes involved in the conversion of caprolactam to adipate.
- Antifibrinolytic Agents in Plastic Surgery: Current Practices and Future Directions. [Journal Article]
- PRPlast Reconstr Surg 2018; 141(6):937e-949e
- CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid are widely used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in craniofacial and orthognathic surgery, without an increased risk of adverse events. Intravenous administration is most commonly used, although topical formulations show similar efficacy with a reduced systemic distribution. Tranexamic acid has also emerged as a promising agent in aesthetic surgery and burn care, due to its favorable safety profile and role in reducing blood loss, achieving an improved surgical field, and reducing edema and ecchymosis. Further investigation of these agents in the fields of burn care, aesthetic surgery, and microsurgery is warranted to standardize protocols for clinical use.
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- Identification of a peptide inhibitor for the histone methyltransferase WHSC1. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(5):e0197082
- WHSC1 is a histone methyltransferase that is responsible for mono- and dimethylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 and has been implicated as a driver in a variety of hematological and solid tumors. Cur...
WHSC1 is a histone methyltransferase that is responsible for mono- and dimethylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 and has been implicated as a driver in a variety of hematological and solid tumors. Currently, there is a complete lack of validated chemical matter for this important drug discovery target. Herein we report on the first fully validated WHSC1 inhibitor, PTD2, a norleucine-containing peptide derived from the histone H4 sequence. This peptide exhibits micromolar affinity towards WHSC1 in biochemical and biophysical assays. Furthermore, a crystal structure was solved with the peptide in complex with SAM and the SET domain of WHSC1L1. This inhibitor is an important first step in creating potent, selective WHSC1 tool compounds for the purposes of understanding the complex biology in relation to human disease.