- Tranexamic acid versus aminocaproic acid for blood management after total knee and total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- IJInt J Surg 2018 May 01; 54(Pt A):105-112
- CONCLUSIONS: Although total blood loss and postoperative hemoglobin drop are significant greater in EACA groups, there is no significant difference between TXA and EACA groups in terms of transfusion rates. Based on the current evidence available, higher quality RCTs are still required for further research.
- A simple one-step ultrasonic-assisted extraction and derivatization method coupling to high-performance liquid chromatographyfor the determination of ε-aminocaproic acid and amino acids in cosmetics. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2018 Jun 15; 1554:37-44
- Nowadays, the safety of cosmetics is a widespread concern. Amines are common cosmetic additives. Some of them such as amino acids are beneficial. Another kind of amines, however, ε-aminocaproic acid ...
Nowadays, the safety of cosmetics is a widespread concern. Amines are common cosmetic additives. Some of them such as amino acids are beneficial. Another kind of amines, however, ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA) is prohibited to add into cosmetics for its adverse reactions. In this study, a simple, rapid, sensitive and eco-friendly one-step ultrasonic-assisted extraction and derivatization (UAE-D) method was developed for determination of EACA and amino acids in cosmetics by coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By using this sample preparation method, extraction and derivatization of EACA and amino acids were finished in one step in ultrasound field. During this procedure, 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F)was applied as derivatization reagent. The extraction conditions including the amount of NBD-F, extraction and derivatization temperature, the ultrasonic vibration time and pH value of the aqueous phase were evaluated. Meanwhile, the extraction mechanism was investigated. Under optimized conditions, the method detection limits were 0.086-0.15 μg/L, and method quantitation limits were 0.29-0.47 μg/L with RSDs less than 3.7% (n = 3). The recoveries of EACA and amino acids obtained from cosmetic samples were in range from 76.9% to 122.3%. Amino acids were found in all selected samples and quantified in range from 1.9 ± 0.9 to 677.2 ± 17.9 μg/kg. And EACA was found and quantified with the contents of 1284.3 ± 22.1 μg/kg in a toner sample. This UAE-D-HPLC method shortened and simplified the sample pretreatment as well as enhanced the sensitivity of analytical method. In our record, only 10 min was needed for the total sample preparation process. And the method detection limits were two orders of magnitude less than literature reports. Furthermore, we reduced the consumption of solvent and minimized the usage of organic solvents, which made our method moving towards green analytical chemistry. In brief, our UAE-D-HPLC method is a simple, rapid, sensitive and eco-friendly analytical method for the determination of EACA and amino acids in cosmetics.
- Temporary inhibition of the plasminogen activator inhibits periosteal chondrogenesis and promotes periosteal osteogenesis during appendicular bone fracture healing. [Journal Article]
- BONEBone 2018 Apr 19; 112:97-106
- CONCLUSIONS: These experiments demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of the plasminogen activator during fracture healing using aminocaproic acid leads to a change in cell fate decision of periosteal osteoprogenitor cells, with a predominance of osteogenic differentiation, resulting in a larger and stronger bony callus. These findings may offer a promising new use of aminocaproic acid, which is already FDA-approved and offers a very safe risk profile.
- The efficacy of intravenous aminocaproic acid in primary total hip and knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Orthop Surg Res 2018 Apr 17; 13(1):89
- CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis indicated that the application of aminocaproic acid in THA or TKA decreases the total blood loss, drainage volume, transfusion rate, transfusion units per patient, and length of hospital stay and does not increase the risk of DVT.
- Molecular and biochemical characterization of Taenia solium α-enolase. [Journal Article]
- VPVet Parasitol 2018 Apr 30; 254:36-42
- Enolase (EC 22.214.171.124) acts as a multifunctional enzyme in many organisms, being involved in metabolism, transcription regulation and pathogenesis. In the current study, the recombinant α-enolase from...
Enolase (EC 126.96.36.199) acts as a multifunctional enzyme in many organisms, being involved in metabolism, transcription regulation and pathogenesis. In the current study, the recombinant α-enolase from Taenia solium (His-Tseno) was prepared and antiserum against His-Tseno was generated in rabbits. Consequently, we analyzed the enzymatic characteristics, plasminogen binding activity, tissue localization and expression patterns of Tseno. The study demonstrated that the enzymatic activity of His-Tseno was enhanced at pH around 7.0-7.5 and affected by addition of metal ions. Kinetic measurements using 2-phospho-d-glycerate (2-PGA) substrates gave a specific activity of 60.72 ± 0.84 U/mg and 1.1 mM of Km2-PGA value. Plasminogen binding assay showed that His-Tseno could bind to human plasminogen and generate plasmin activated by a tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). In addition, the lysine analogue 6-aminocaproic acid (ε-ACA) could inhibit the binding of plasminogen to His-Tseno. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that Tseno was expressed 2.38 folds higher in the adult worms (p < 0.05) than in the cysticerci. Further, an immunolocalization assay indicated that native Tseno was mainly distributed in the tegument and eggs of gravid proglottis from adult T. solium. In conclusion, Tseno executes the innate glycolytic function to supply energy for the growth, egg production, and even invasion of T. solium.
- Expanding lysine industry: industrial biomanufacturing of lysine and its derivatives. [Review]
- JIJ Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Apr 13
- L-Lysine is widely used as a nutrition supplement in feed, food, and beverage industries as well as a chemical intermediate. At present, great efforts are made to further decrease the cost of lysine ...
L-Lysine is widely used as a nutrition supplement in feed, food, and beverage industries as well as a chemical intermediate. At present, great efforts are made to further decrease the cost of lysine to make it more competitive in the markets. Furthermore, lysine also shows potential as a feedstock to produce other high-value chemicals for active pharmaceutical ingredients, drugs, or materials. In this review, the current biomanufacturing of lysine is first presented. Second, the production of novel derivatives from lysine is discussed. Some chemicals like L-pipecolic acid, cadaverine, and 5-aminovalerate already have been obtained at a lab scale. Others like 6-aminocaproic acid, valerolactam, and caprolactam could be produced through a biological and chemical coupling pathway or be synthesized by a hypothetical pathway. This review demonstrates an active and expansive lysine industry, and these green biomanufacturing strategies could also be applied to enhance the competitiveness of other amino acid industry.
- Pharmacologic Hemostatic Agents in Total Joint Arthroplasty-A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Arthroplasty 2018 Mar 03
- CONCLUSIONS: TXA, when compared with no pharmacologic hemostatic agent and with EACA, is the most cost-effective strategy to minimize intraoperative blood loss in hip and knee total joint arthroplasties. These findings are robust to sensitivity analyses using clinically plausible probabilities.
- Intra-alveolar epsilon-aminocaproic acid for the control of post-extraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients: randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Mar 27
- The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the intra-alveolar administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and daily gentle rinsing with EACA mouthwash with that of routine posto...
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the intra-alveolar administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and daily gentle rinsing with EACA mouthwash with that of routine postoperative procedures for the control of bleeding after tooth extraction in anticoagulated patients. A randomized clinical trial was conducted involving 52 patients submitted to 140 tooth extractions, assigned randomly to two groups. The intervention group was treated with intra-alveolar administration of EACA immediately after surgery and gentle rinsing with EACA mouthwash during the postoperative period. The control group received routine postoperative recommendations. A single episode of immediate bleeding occurred in the intervention group. Late bleeding episodes occurred in 23 procedures (16.4%): 11 (15.7%) in the intervention group and 12 (17.1%) in the control group. Among the patients with late bleeding, 18 (78.3%) events were classified as moderate and were controlled by the patient applying pressure to a gauze pack placed over the extraction socket. The remaining five cases (21.7%) required re-intervention. No statistically significant difference in the frequency of postoperative bleeding was observed between the groups. Thus, routine measures were as effective for the control of bleeding after simple tooth extractions in anticoagulated patients as the topical administration of EACA.
- Molecular control of gene expression by Brucella BaaR, an IclR-type transcriptional repressor. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2018 May 11; 293(19):7437-7456
- The general stress response sigma factor σE1 directly and indirectly regulates the transcription of dozens of genes that influence stress survival and host infection in the zoonotic pathogen Brucella...
The general stress response sigma factor σE1 directly and indirectly regulates the transcription of dozens of genes that influence stress survival and host infection in the zoonotic pathogen Brucella abortus Characterizing the functions of σE1-regulated genes therefore would contribute to our understanding of B. abortus physiology and infection biology. σE1 indirectly activates transcription of the IclR family regulator Bab2_0215, but the function of this regulator remains undefined. Here, we present a structural and functional characterization of Bab2_0215, which we have named B rucella adipic acid-activated regulator (BaaR). We found that BaaR adopts a classic IclR-family fold and directly represses the transcription of two operons with predicted roles in carboxylic acid oxidation. BaaR binds two sites on chromosome II between baaR and a divergently transcribed hydratase/dehydrogenase (acaD2), and it represses transcription of both genes. We identified three carboxylic acids (adipic acid, tetradecanedioic acid, and ϵ-aminocaproic acid) and a lactone (ϵ-caprolactone) that enhance transcription from the baaR and acaD2 promoters. However, neither the activating acids nor caprolactone enhanced transcription by binding directly to BaaR. Induction of baaR transcription by adipic acid required the gene bab2_0213, which encodes a major facilitator superfamily transporter, suggesting that Bab2_0213 transports adipic acid across the inner membrane. We conclude that a suite of structurally related organic molecules activate transcription of genes repressed by BaaR. Our study provides molecular-level understanding of a gene expression program in B. abortus that is downstream of σE1.
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- Ixonnexin from Tick Saliva Promotes Fibrinolysis by Interacting with Plasminogen and Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator, and Prevents Arterial Thrombosis. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Mar 19; 8(1):4806
- Tick saliva is a rich source of modulators of vascular biology. We have characterized Ixonnexin, a member of the "Basic-tail" family of salivary proteins from the tick Ixodes scapularis. Ixonnexin is...
Tick saliva is a rich source of modulators of vascular biology. We have characterized Ixonnexin, a member of the "Basic-tail" family of salivary proteins from the tick Ixodes scapularis. Ixonnexin is a 104 residues (11.8 KDa), non-enzymatic basic protein which contains 3 disulfide bonds and a C-terminal rich in lysine. It is homologous to SALP14, a tick salivary FXa anticoagulant. Ixonnexin was produced by ligation of synthesized fragments (51-104) and (1-50) followed by folding. Ixonnexin, like SALP14, interacts with FXa. Notably, Ixonnexin also modulates fibrinolysis in vitro by a unique salivary mechanism. Accordingly, it accelerates plasminogen activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) with Km 100 nM; however, it does not affect urokinase-mediated fibrinolysis. Additionally, lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid inhibits Ixonnexin-mediated plasmin generation implying that lysine-binding sites of Kringle domain(s) of plasminogen or t-PA are involved in this process. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance experiments shows that Ixonnexin binds t-PA, and plasminogen (KD 10 nM), but not urokinase. These results imply that Ixonnexin promotes fibrinolysis by supporting the interaction of plasminogen with t-PA through formation of an enzymatically productive ternary complex. Finally, in vivo experiments demonstrates that Ixonnexin inhibits FeCl3-induced thrombosis in mice. Ixonnexin emerges as novel modulator of fibrinolysis which may also affect parasite-vector-host interactions.