- Photodynamic therapy for rosacea in Chinese patients. [Journal Article]
- PPPhotodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018 Aug 14
- CONCLUSIONS: ALA-PDT is an effective and safe approach for the treatment of rosacea of erythematotelangiectatic or papulopustular types, to control clinical manifestations and reduce subjective symptoms.
- ALA-PDT Promotes HPV-Positive Cervical Cancer Cells apoptosis and DCs Maturation via miR-34a Regulated HMGB1 Exosomes Secretion. [Journal Article]
- PPPhotodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018 Aug 14
- 5-Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy(ALA-PDT) has been widely used for cervical cancer treatment, but the mechanisms are still not fully delineated. Here we showed that ALA-PDT significantly up...
5-Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy(ALA-PDT) has been widely used for cervical cancer treatment, but the mechanisms are still not fully delineated. Here we showed that ALA-PDT significantly upregulated HMGB1 while downregulated miR-34a expression levels in cervical cancer tissues, and the percentages of mature DCs(mDCs) were increased in ALA-PDT treated patients' peripheral blood. After treating HPV-positive Hela, SiHa, Caski and HPV-negative C33 A cervical cancer cell lines with ALA-PDT, HPV-positive cells' proliferative ability was significantly inhibited and apoptosis rates were elevated, while no significant changes were found in HPV-negative C33 A cell line. Most importantly, in HPV-positive cells, we found that miR-34a were downregulated in cytoplasm, and both cytoplasm and exosome HMGB1 were significantly elevated comparing to cancer cells without ALA-PDT treatment, and it could be reversed by miR-34a mimic transfection, which indicated that HPV infection and miR-34a downregulation might be vital for ALA-PDT treatment. Based on the HMGB1 is the potential target of miR-34a and an inverse correlation between miR-34a and HMGB1 in ALA-PDT treated cancer tissues, we verified that HMGB1 could be targeted and downregulated by miR-34a mimic, and ALA-PDT promotes HMGB1 secretion by inhibiting miR-34a expression. By co-culturing cervical cancer cell lines with immature DCs(imDCs) in the Transwell systems, we found that ALA-PDT induced HMGB1 exosomes could promote DCs maturation, which could be reversed by silencing HMGB1 in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. In vivo animal experiments also proved that ALA-PDT inhibited tumor growth in tumor bearing mice, which was reversed by co-transfected with miR-34a mimic or silencing HMGB1 in HPV-positive cells. Hence we concluded that ALA-PDT treatment specifically inhibited HPV-positive cervical cancer cells' proliferative ability, promoted cell apoptosis and modulated DCs maturation by regulating miR-34a mediated HMGB1 exosomes secretion.
- Is Visible Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Fluorescence an Independent Biomarker for Prognosis in Histologically Confirmed (World Health Organization 2016) Low-Grade Gliomas? [Journal Article]
- NNeurosurgery 2018 Aug 09
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report investigating the role of ALA-induced fluorescence in histologically confirmed LGG. Fluorescence appeared to be a marker for inherent malignant transformation and OS, independently of known prognostic markers. Fluorescence in LGG might be taken into account when deciding on adjuvant therapies.
- Using morphological, behavioral, and molecular biomarkers in Zebrafish to assess the toxicity of lead-contaminated sediments from a retired trapshooting range within an urban wetland. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Toxicol Environ Health A 2018 Aug 13; :1-15
- The widespread use of lead (Pb) shot in shooting activities, including at former shooting ranges, continues to pose environmental risks. The La Crosse River Marsh (located in Wisconsin, USA) is a bio...
The widespread use of lead (Pb) shot in shooting activities, including at former shooting ranges, continues to pose environmental risks. The La Crosse River Marsh (located in Wisconsin, USA) is a biologically diverse urban riparian wetland with a legacy of Pb-contaminated sediment resulting from its use as a trap shooting range from 1929-1963. Within the shot fall zone, shot densities exceed 43,000 pellets/m2 and surface sediments exceed 25,000 mg/kg in some areas. This study used the Zebrafish as a model to determine the acute toxicity of these contaminated sediments. Zebrafish were exposed to sediments containing approximately 13 to 13,450 mg/kg Pb for 5 days (8-120 hr post-fertilization). The toxic responses to sediments were non-monotonic. Only exposure to sediments containing "mid-range" concentrations of Pb (4580 mg/kg) induced mild skeletal malformations and a sluggish C-start response indicating that Pb was marginally bioavailable. Expression of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) also indicated the potential for uptake of Pb from sediments. Our findings suggest that Pb within the La Crosse River Marsh sediments is not readily bioavailable to Zebrafish, and while this metal poses a minimal acute toxicological risk, toxicity due to chronic exposure of low concentrations of Pb is possible. Further, our data demonstrated that induction of ALA-D gene expression in Zebrafish embryos shows promise as an alternative to ALA-D enzyme activity as a biomarker for acute Pb exposure under lab conditions.
- Co-expression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase gene facilitates heterologous production of thermostable cytochrome P450, CYP119, in holo-form in Escherichia coli. [Journal Article]
- CChembiochem 2018 Aug 12
- Cytochrome P450 enzymes are heme-containing monooxygenases that exhibit potential as biocatalysts for practical applications. The Escherichia coli expression system is frequently used for biocatalyst...
Cytochrome P450 enzymes are heme-containing monooxygenases that exhibit potential as biocatalysts for practical applications. The Escherichia coli expression system is frequently used for biocatalyst production; however, heterologous production of hemeproteins in their holo-form is difficult due to insufficient heme synthesis by the host. In this study, we used 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) from Rhodobacter capsulatus to accelerate intracellular heme biosynthesis in E. coli, demonstrating that co-expression of the ALAS gene improved the heterologous production of cytochrome P450, CYP119, from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Co-expression of ALAS increased the amount of heterologous CYP119 isolated and the ratio of its holo-form. The ratio of holo-CYP119 resulting from the co-expression of ALAS in E. coli was 99%, whereas that from cells expressing CYP119 exclusively was 66%. Co-expression of ALAS is a promising alternative for efficient heterologous production of hemeproteins using E. coli.
- 5-Aminolevulinic acid fluorescence guided surgery for recurrent high-grade gliomas. [Review]
- JNJ Neurooncol 2018 Aug 10
- CONCLUSIONS: 5-ALA FGS is a powerful adjunct in the resection of recurrent HGG with a high PPV and favorable safety profile. It is therefore the authors' opinion to routinely employ this fluorescent agent as a standard of care.
- 5-Aminolevulinic acid fluorescence-guided surgery for spinal cord melanoma metastasis: a technical note. [Journal Article]
- ANActa Neurochir (Wien) 2018 Aug 09
- CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first case of nonglial intramedullary metastasis with 5-ALA positive staining. We believe that this tool, 5-ALA, could aid in the resection, identification, and differentiation of medullary metastasis.
- Evaluation of the toxic potential of arecoline toward the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9 . [Journal Article]
- TRToxicol Res (Camb) 2018 May 08; 7(3):432-443
- Arecoline is the key component of areca nut and has been suggested as a carcinogenic agent. In the present study, the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9 were ...
Arecoline is the key component of areca nut and has been suggested as a carcinogenic agent. In the present study, the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9 were allowed to feed on a diet having 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μM arecoline for 24 h. After the completion of 24 h, the larvae were subjected to ONPG assay, X-gal staining, trypan blue exclusion test, oxidative stress markers, and apoptotic and comet assays. A dose-dependent increase in the β-galactosidase activity, tissue damage, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, lipid peroxidation assay, monoamine oxidase (MAO), caspase-9 and 3, protein carbonyl content (PCC), apoptotic index, and DNA damage and decrease in glutathione (GSH) content, delta aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (δ-ALA-D), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were observed in the larvae exposed to 20, 40 and 80 μM arecoline. The results suggest that arecoline is toxic at 20, 40, and 80 μM toward the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9 . Arecoline did not show any toxic effects at 5 and 10 μM.
- Application of fractal dimension analysis and photodynamic diagnosis in the case of differentiation between lichen planus and leukoplakia: A preliminary study. [Journal Article]
- ACAdv Clin Exp Med 2018 Aug 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Fractal dimension analysis may be a useful method in the comparison of complicated shapes of such lesions as LP or leukoplakia, but our study did not confirm that this method may be used to distinguish LP and leukoplakia without a histopathological examination. Photodynamic therapy is an effective treatment method in the case of LP and leukoplakia of the oral cavity.
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- Optical Principles of Fluorescence-Guided Brain Tumor Surgery: A Practical Primer for the Neurosurgeon. [Journal Article]
- NNeurosurgery 2018 Jul 30
- Fluorescence-guided surgery is a rapidly growing field that has produced some of the most important innovations in surgical oncology in the past decade. These intraoperative imaging technologies prov...
Fluorescence-guided surgery is a rapidly growing field that has produced some of the most important innovations in surgical oncology in the past decade. These intraoperative imaging technologies provide information distinguishing tumor tissue from normal tissue in real time as the surgery proceeds and without disruption of the workflow. Many of these fluorescent tracers target unique molecular or cellular features of tumors, which offers the opportunity for identifying pathology with high precision to help surgeons achieve their primary objective of a maximal safe resection. As novel fluorophores and fluorescent probes emerge from preclinical development, a practical understanding of the principles of fluorescence remains critical for evaluating the clinical utility of these agents and identifying opportunities for further innovation. In this review, we provide an "in-text glossary" of the fundamental principles of fluorescence with examples of direct applications to fluorescence-guided brain surgery. We offer a detailed discussion of the various advantages and limitations of the most commonly used intraoperative imaging agents, including 5-aminolevulinic acid, indocyanine green, and fluorescein, with a particular focus on the photophysical properties of these specific agents as they provide a framework through which to understand the new agents that are entering clinical trials. To this end, we conclude with a survey of the fluorescent properties of novel agents that are currently undergoing or will soon enter clinical trials for the intraoperative imaging of brain tumors.