- Aminophylline for Preventing Bradyarrhythmias During Orbital or Rotational Atherectomy of the Right Coronary Artery. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Invasive Cardiol 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous aminophylline represents a simple, safe, widely available, and low-cost intervention for preventing bradyarrhythmias during atherectomy of the right coronary artery or a dominant circumflex artery.
- Efficacy and side effects of intravenous theophylline in acute asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Des Devel Ther 2018; 12:99-120
- CONCLUSIONS: Given the low cost of theophylline, and its similar efficacy and rate of side effects compared with other drugs, we suggest that theophylline, when given with bronchodilators with or without steroids, is a cost-effective and safe choice for acute asthma exacerbations.
- [Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Caffeine and Aminophylline for the Treatment of Apnea in Preterm Infants]. [Journal Article]
- YZYakugaku Zasshi 2018; 138(2):237-242
- Methylxanthine is widely administered for the treatment of apnea of prematurity in many countries, and previous reports have clearly established that caffeine is effective for the treatment of apnea...
Methylxanthine is widely administered for the treatment of apnea of prematurity in many countries, and previous reports have clearly established that caffeine is effective for the treatment of apnea of prematurity. In Japan, caffeine has been available since December 2014. Thus, we compared the efficacy and safety of caffeine with that of aminophylline in our hospital. There was no significant difference between the caffeine group and aminophylline group regarding the characteristics of the study patients. The mean efficacy rate from day 1 to day 10 was 89.5% in the caffeine group, and 81.9% in the aminophylline group, although the rate of improvement in apnea episodes each day from day 1 to day 10 was not significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, the adverse event rates in the caffeine group and the aminophylline group were 70.6% and 75.0%, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the adverse event rates between the two groups. Moreover, suspected abdominal distension due to the drug administration was more frequently observed with the aminophylline group. Our findings indicate that caffeine is as effective as aminophylline, while it is superior to aminophylline regarding its overall safety.
- Regulation of bone blood flow in humans: The role of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and adenosine. [Journal Article]
- SJScand J Med Sci Sports 2018 Jan 29
- The mechanisms that regulate bone blood flow (BBF) in humans are largely unknown. Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) could be involved and in the present study we investigated the effects ...
The mechanisms that regulate bone blood flow (BBF) in humans are largely unknown. Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) could be involved and in the present study we investigated the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) alone and in combination with inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis on femoral bone marrow blood flow by positron emission tomography in healthy young men at rest and during one leg dynamic exercise. In an additional group of healthy men, the role of adenosine (ADO) in the regulation of BBF during exercise was investigated by use of an adenosine receptor blocker (aminophylline). Inhibitors were directly infused into the femoral artery. Resting BBF was 1.1±0.4 ml/100g/min and increased to almost six-fold in response to exercise (6.3±1.5 ml/100g/min). Inhibition of NOS reduced BBF at rest to 0.7±0.3 ml/100g/min (p=0.036), but did not affect BBF significantly during exercise (5.5±1.4 ml/100g/min, p=0.25). On the other hand, while combined NOS and COX inhibition did not cause any further reduction of blood flow at rest (0.6±0.2 ml/100g/min), the combined blockade reduced BBF during exercise by ~21%, to 5.0±1.8 ml/100g/min (p=0.014). Finally, the ADO inhibition during exercise reduced BBF from 5.5±1.9 ml/100g/min to 4.6±1.2 ml/100g/min (p=0.045). In conclusion, our results support the view that NO is involved in controlling bone marrow blood flow at rest, and NO, PG and ADO play important roles in controlling human BBF during exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Detrimental effects of nitroglycerin use during regadenoson vasodilator stress testing: A cautionary tale. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nucl Cardiol 2018 Jan 23
- Vasodilator agents such as adenosine and regadenoson are commonly used pharmacologic stressors to assess for ischemia in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion studies. The recommended reversal age...
Vasodilator agents such as adenosine and regadenoson are commonly used pharmacologic stressors to assess for ischemia in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion studies. The recommended reversal agent for this mode of stress is aminophylline, although nitroglycerin is commonly administered as an attempt to reverse the symptoms or electrocardiographic (EKG) changes during the stress test. We demonstrate through two cases that incorrect administration of nitroglycerin can induce hypotension and worsen coronary steal, whereas appropriate administration of aminophylline can reverse the effects of pharmacologic vasodilators. While nitroglycerin is often used in patients with organic angina, it has the potential to worsen ischemia in the setting of pharmacologic vasodilator administration. These cases underscore the importance of administering the correct reversal agent for pharmacologic stress tests.
- Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Caffeine and Aminophylline for Apnea of Prematurity: Few Concerns: Author's Reply. [Journal Article]
- IPIndian Pediatr 2017 Dec 15; 54(12):1057
- Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Caffeine and Aminophylline for Apnea of Prematurity: Few Concerns. [Journal Article]
- IPIndian Pediatr 2017 Dec 15; 54(12):1057
- Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Narrative Review. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2018; 9(1):79-90
- Children undergoing cardiac surgery are at risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). Preventing cardiac surgery-associated AKI (CS-AKI) is important as it is associated with increased early- and ...
Children undergoing cardiac surgery are at risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). Preventing cardiac surgery-associated AKI (CS-AKI) is important as it is associated with increased early- and long-term mortality and morbidity. Targeting modifiable risk factors (eg, avoiding poor renal perfusion, nephrotoxic drugs, and fluid overload) reduces the risk of CS-AKI. There is currently no strong evidence for the routine use of pharmacological approaches (eg, aminophylline, dexmedetomidine, fenoldopam, and steroids) to prevent CS-AKI. There is robust evidence to support the role of early peritoneal dialysis as a nonpharmacologic approach to prevent CS-AKI.
- Optimizing the Dosing of Intravenous Theophylline in Acute Severe Asthma in Children. [Journal Article]
- PDPaediatr Drugs 2018 Jan 05
- Optimizing the management of children presenting with acute severe asthma is of utmost importance to minimize hospital stays, morbidity, and mortality. Intravenous medications, including theophylline...
Optimizing the management of children presenting with acute severe asthma is of utmost importance to minimize hospital stays, morbidity, and mortality. Intravenous medications, including theophyllines, are used as second-line treatments for children experiencing a life-threatening exacerbation. For intravenous theophylline (aminophylline), guidelines and formularies recommend a target therapeutic range between 10 and 20 mg/l, with the commonest regimen being a loading dose of 5 mg/kg followed by an infusion calculated by age and weight. This review assesses the evidence underpinning these recommendations, highlighting the shortcomings in our understanding of the association between serum concentrations achieved, dose given, and clinical improvement experienced. To close the knowledge gap and improve outcomes for children presenting with acute severe asthma, we propose a series of research strategies to improve the assessment of illness severity, ascertain the optimal dose to maximize benefit and minimize risk, prospectively collect adverse events, and to better understand the inter-individual variation in responses to treatments.
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- Long-term neurodevelopment outcome of caffeine versus aminophylline therapy for apnea of prematurity. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neonatal Perinatal Med 2017; 10(4):355-362
- CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and aminophylline showed similar effects in reducing the rate of mortality and improving the survival without neurodevelopment delays; though the clinical significance of caffeine over aminophylline cannot be undermined.