- Aminophylline and Ephedrine, but Not Flumazenil, Inhibit the Activity of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes and Reverse the Increased Activity by Propofol. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2018; 2018:6817932
- We investigated the effects of flumazenil, aminophylline, and ephedrine on the excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) activity and the interaction with propofol. EAAT3 was expressed in the ...
We investigated the effects of flumazenil, aminophylline, and ephedrine on the excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) activity and the interaction with propofol. EAAT3 was expressed in the Xenopus oocytes. L-Glutamate-induced membrane currents were measured using the two-electrode voltage clamp at various drug concentrations. Oocytes were preincubated with protein kinase C- (PKC-) activator, or inhibitor, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. To study the interaction with propofol, oocytes were exposed to propofol, propofol + aminophylline, or ephedrine. Aminophylline and ephedrine significantly decreased EAAT3 activity. Aminophylline (95 μM) and ephedrine (1.19 μM) significantly decreased Vmax, but not Km of EAAT3, for glutamate. The phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-induced increase in EAAT3 activity was abolished by aminophylline or ephedrine. The decreased EAAT3 activities by PKC inhibitors (staurosporine, chelerythrine) and PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) were not significantly different from those by aminophylline or ephedrine, as well as those by PKC inhibitors or PI3K inhibitor + aminophylline or ephedrine. The enhanced EAAT3 activities induced by propofol were significantly abolished by aminophylline or ephedrine. Aminophylline and ephedrine inhibit EAAT3 activity via PKC and PI3K pathways and abolish the increased EAAT3 activity by propofol. Our results indicate a novel site of action for aminophylline and ephedrine.
- What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about cardiac arrest management? [Journal Article]
- SPSao Paulo Med J 2018; 136(2):170-176
- CONCLUSIONS: This review included nine Cochrane systematic reviews that provided a diverse range of qualities of evidence (unknown to high) regarding interventions that are used in management of cardiac arrest. High-quality evidence was found by two systematic reviews as follows: (a) increased survival until hospital discharge with continuous compression, compared with interrupted chest compression, both administered by an untrained person and (b) no difference regarding the return of spontaneous circulation, comparing aminophylline and placebo, for bradyasystolic patients under cardiac arrest. Further studies are needed in order to reach solid conclusions.
- Efficacy and safety profile of xanthines in COPD: a network meta-analysis. [Review]
- EREur Respir Rev 2018 Jun 30; 27(148)
- Theophylline can still have a role in the management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its use remains controversial, mainly due to its narrow therapeutic window. Doxofyllin...
Theophylline can still have a role in the management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its use remains controversial, mainly due to its narrow therapeutic window. Doxofylline, another xanthine, is an effective bronchodilator and displays a better safety profile than theophylline. Therefore, we performed a quantitative synthesis to compare the efficacy and safety profile of different xanthines in COPD.The primary end-point of this meta-analysis was the impact of xanthines on lung function. In addition, we assessed the risk of adverse events by normalising data on safety as a function of person-weeks. Data obtained from 998 COPD patients were selected from 14 studies and meta-analysed using a network approach.The combined surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) analysis of efficacy (change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) and safety (risk of adverse events) showed that doxofylline was superior to aminophylline (comparable efficacy and significantly better safety), bamiphylline (significantly better efficacy and comparable safety), and theophylline (comparable efficacy and significantly better safety).Considering the overall efficacy/safety profile of the investigated agents, the results of this quantitative synthesis suggest that doxofylline seems to be the best xanthine for the treatment of COPD.
- Evaluation of the Effect of Aminophylline in Reducing the Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery. [Journal Article]
- APAnesth Pain Med 2017; 7(4):e21740
- CONCLUSIONS: Aminophylline in cardiac surgery can reduce the frequency of acute kidney injury according to RIFLE criteria and could be used in the prevention of AKI as a safe and efficient modality in high-risk patients. Also, the use of this drug may reduce the need for inotropic medication at the time of surgery, intensive care unit stay length, and extubation time.
- Factors affecting the efficacy and safety of aminophylline in treatment of apnea of prematurity in neonatal intensive care unit. [Journal Article]
- PNPediatr Neonatol 2018 Mar 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Infants with apnea and gestational age >30.36 weeks, body weight at initiation of aminophylline treatment above 1.69 kg, and birth weight >1.48 kg are suitable for treatment with aminophylline. Monitoring of serum theophylline concentration should be implemented in the absence of clinical response or in case of suspected adverse reactions.
- Guideline on management of the acute asthma attack in children by Italian Society of Pediatrics. [Review]
- IJItal J Pediatr 2018 Apr 06; 44(1):46
- CONCLUSIONS: This Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in managing acute asthma attacks in children over age 2.
- TRPC3 overexpression and intervention in airway smooth muscle of ovalbumin-induced hyperresponsiveness and remodeling. [Journal Article]
- CBCell Biol Int 2018 Apr 06
- Transient receptor potential canonical channel 3 (TRPC3) proteins function as non-voltage-gated Ca2+ -permeable channels and play divergent roles in many processes of pathophysiology. The purpose of ...
Transient receptor potential canonical channel 3 (TRPC3) proteins function as non-voltage-gated Ca2+ -permeable channels and play divergent roles in many processes of pathophysiology. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between TRPC3 expression and airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Kunming mice. Mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin to establish asthmatic model. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, hydroxyproline assay, and isometric tracheal ring force measurement were used to evaluate airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of TRPC3 proteins. MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells. TRPC3 protein expression increased in airway smooth muscle of asthmatic mice. GdCl3 , a nonspecific TRPC blocker, attenuated the contractile force of airway smooth muscle. Fetal bovine serum stimulated airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and augmented TRPC3 protein expression. Both TRPC3 blockade by GdCl3 or specific TRPC3 antibodies and gene silencing by siRNA inhibited the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells. In contrast, the current drugs treatment for asthma such as Dexamethasone and Aminophylline had no effects on TRPC3 protein overexpression. Therefore, TRPC3 protein overexpression may be involved in airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in asthmatic mice, providing evidence for a new direction of asthma pathogenesis research and a new target for drug intervention.
- Relaxant effect of Lippia origanoides essential oil in guinea-pig trachea smooth muscle involves potassium channels and soluble guanylyl cyclase. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Jun 28; 220:16-25
- CONCLUSIONS: The relaxant mechanism of LOO on the tracheal smooth muscle possibly involves stimulating of soluble guanylyl cyclase with consequent activation of the voltage-gated and Ca2+-activated K+ channels.
- Aminophylline for treatment of postdural puncture headache: A randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- NeurNeurology 2018 Apr 24; 90(17):e1523-e1529
- CONCLUSIONS: IV aminophylline is an effective and safe early-stage treatment for patients with PDPH.
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- Aminophylline for Preventing Bradyarrhythmias During Orbital or Rotational Atherectomy of the Right Coronary Artery. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Invasive Cardiol 2018; 30(5):186-189
- CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous aminophylline represents a simple, safe, widely available, and low-cost intervention for preventing bradyarrhythmias during atherectomy of the right coronary artery or a dominant circumflex artery.