- Amiodarone for arrhythmia in patients with Chagas disease: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Aug 20; 12(8):e0006742
- CONCLUSIONS: Amiodarone is effective in reducing ventricular arrhythmias, but there is no evidence for hard endpoints (sudden death, hospitalization). Although our findings support the use of amiodarone, it is important to balance the potential benefits and harms at the individual level for decision-making.
- A rare cause of sudden cardiac arrest: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. [Journal Article]
- TPTurk Pediatri Ars 2018; 53(2):124-128
- Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rhythm disorder that develops due to genetic reasons in the absence of structural cardiac abnormalities. Ventricular tachycardia, ventricula...
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rhythm disorder that develops due to genetic reasons in the absence of structural cardiac abnormalities. Ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest, and death may occur. Two-year-old patient presented to the Emergency Department with sudden cardiac arrest. He had syncope attacks after playing with his brother and he was followed up by the pediatric neurology and cardiology clinics. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed, and he was then transferred to the Intensive Care Unit because of hypotension; dobutamine and norepinephrine treatment was started. After treatment, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and cardiac arrest developed. Dobutamine and noradrenaline was stopped immediately and amiodarone was started. A genetic test revealed heterozygote missense mutation (c.9110G>A(p.Gly3037Asp)) in exon 64 of the RYR2 gene, which is compatible with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. This mutation has been reported in the literature for the first time. This case is presented with the purpose of highlighting catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
- Contraindicated drug-drug interactions associated with oral antimicrobial agents prescribed in the ambulatory care setting in the United States. [Journal Article]
- CMClin Microbiol Infect 2018 Aug 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Providers should be aware of potential contraindicated drug-drug interactions when prescribing antibiotics, especially macrolides and fluoroquinolones.
- Incessant Supraventricular Tachycardia: Why Now? [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2018 Aug 14
- An 87-year-old female with prior medical history of infrequent supraventricular tachycardia easily terminated by vagal maneuvers presented to an outside facility with incessant wide complex tachycard...
An 87-year-old female with prior medical history of infrequent supraventricular tachycardia easily terminated by vagal maneuvers presented to an outside facility with incessant wide complex tachycardia. She was given escalating doses of adenosine followed by synchronized cardioversion and was eventually loaded with intravenous amiodarone because of continued tachycardia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Uncommon cause of complicated myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries in a Saudi patient. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Saudi Heart Assoc 2018; 30(4):331-335
- A case of a young Saudi patient with a previous diagnosis of bronchial asthma, nasal polyps, and chronic smoker, presented with atypical chest pain, elevated serum troponin and borderline ischemic el...
A case of a young Saudi patient with a previous diagnosis of bronchial asthma, nasal polyps, and chronic smoker, presented with atypical chest pain, elevated serum troponin and borderline ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, with no significant regional wall motion abnormalities at bedside echocardiography is reported. The patient was admitted to the coronary care unit for continuous monitoring as possible acute coronary syndrome, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). One hour after admission, the patient had ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest that required three DC shocks and amiodarone bolus before returning of spontaneous circulation, which followed the fourth shock. The resuscitation took 15 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). An immediate 12-leads ECG showed significant ST elevation in precordial leads that mandate an urgent coronary angiogram that revealed patent coronary arteries, therefore spasm of normal coronary arteries was postulated as the operative factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a picture of transmural anterior myocardial infarction, which correlates with the follow up echocardiogram reporting hypokinetic anterior wall. A complete history was taken and no use of illicit drugs or alcohol was found. The unusual presentation in such a patient with evidence of extensive anterior STEMI and normal coronary arteries raise the thought of considering uncommon causes. In view of previous medical history and laboratory evidence of eosinophilia, Kounis syndrome was considered dominant in the differential diagnosis.
- Imaging mass spectrometry for toxicity assessment: a useful technique to confirm drug distribution in histologically confirmed lesions. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Toxicol Pathol 2018; 31(3):221-227
- To evaluate the usefulness of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technology for assessing drug toxicity, we analyzed animal tissues in an amiodarone (AMD)-induced phospholipidosis model by IMS and confi...
To evaluate the usefulness of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technology for assessing drug toxicity, we analyzed animal tissues in an amiodarone (AMD)-induced phospholipidosis model by IMS and confirmed the relationship between the distribution of AMD, its metabolites, and representative phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC) and histological changes. AMD was administered to rats for 7 days at 150 mg/kg/day. The lung, spleen, and mesenteric lymph node were histologically examined and analyzed using IMS. The detection intensities of AMD, its metabolites, and typical PCs were higher in regions infiltrated by foamy macrophages compared with normal areas. This tendency was common in all three organs analyzed in this study. For the spleen, signals for AMD, its metabolites, and typical PCs were significantly more intense in the marginal zone, where foamy macrophages and vacuolated lymphocytes are abundant, than in the other areas. These results indicate that AMD, its metabolites, and PCs accumulate together in foamy or vacuolated cells, which is consistent with the mechanism of AMD-induced phospholipidosis. They also indicate that IMS is a useful technique for evaluating the distribution of drugs and biological components in the elucidation of toxicity mechanisms.
- Transient new-onset atrial fibrillation during general thoracic operations and its treatment with amiodarone: a retrospective analysis in a single centre. [Journal Article]
- ICInteract Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2018 Jul 31
- CONCLUSIONS: Amiodarone does not affect the rate of sinus rhythm recovery during thoracic surgery but could shorten the time to sinus rhythm recovery after the surgery.
- Amiodarone for sustained stable ventricular tachycardia in the prehospital setting. [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Med Australas 2018 Aug 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of the patients treated with amiodarone reverted from VT while under paramedic care. Patient deterioration was rare, with cardiac arrest or requirement for cardioversion occurring very infrequently. Amiodarone was relatively safe and moderately effective for the treatment of sustained stable VT. However, given recent evidence of increased efficacy of procainamide for stable VT, further studies are required in the prehospital setting to compare these two drugs.
- National Heart Foundation of Australia and Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand: Australian clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation 2018. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Aust 2018 Aug 02
- Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing in prevalence and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies for AF are continually evolving and ca...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing in prevalence and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies for AF are continually evolving and care for patients requires confidence in integrating these new developments into practice. These clinical practice guidelines will assist Australian practitioners in the diagnosis and management of adult patients with AF. Main recommendations: These guidelines provide advice on the standardised assessment and management of patients with atrial fibrillation regarding: screening, prevention and diagnostic work-up; acute and chronic arrhythmia management with antiarrhythmic therapy and percutaneous and surgical ablative therapies; stroke prevention and optimal use of anticoagulants; and integrated multidisciplinary care. Changes in management as a result of the guideline: Opportunistic screening in the clinic or community is recommended for patients over 65 years of age. The importance of deciding between a rate and rhythm control strategy at the time of diagnosis and periodically thereafter is highlighted. β-Blockers or non-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists remain the first line choice for acute and chronic rate control. Cardioversion remains first line choice for acute rhythm control when clinically indicated. Flecainide is preferable to amiodarone for acute and chronic rhythm control. Failure of rate or rhythm control should prompt consideration of percutaneous or surgical ablation. The sexless CHA2DS2-VA score is recommended to assess stroke risk, which standardises thresholds across men and women; anticoagulation is not recommended for a score of 0, and is recommended for a score of ≥ 2. If anticoagulation is indicated, non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants are recommended in preference to warfarin. An integrated care approach should be adopted, delivered by multidisciplinary teams, including patient education and the use of eHealth tools and resources where available. Regular monitoring and feedback of risk factor control, treatment adherence and persistence should occur.
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- Determination of cardiovascular drugs in sewage sludge by matrix solid-phase dispersion and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- ABAnal Bioanal Chem 2018 Jul 30
- The current study presents a single step sample preparation procedure for the simultaneous determination of five antihypertensive (propranolol, losartan, irbesartan, telmisartan, and valsartan), thre...
The current study presents a single step sample preparation procedure for the simultaneous determination of five antihypertensive (propranolol, losartan, irbesartan, telmisartan, and valsartan), three antiarrhythmic drugs (flecainide, dronedarone, and amiodarone), and one of their metabolites (N-desethylamiodarone) in sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection were selected as sample preparation and determination techniques, respectively. Under optimal conditions, MSPD extractions were carried out with freeze-dried samples (0.5 g) dispersed on 2 g of C18. Exhaustive extraction of target compounds was achieved with 10 mL of a methanol/acetonitrile/formic acid (30:69:1) solution. The obtained extract was ready for UPLC-MS/MS analysis without any further treatment, except filtration. The overall recoveries of the method (calculated against solvent-based standards) varied from 82 to 124%, with standard deviations in the range from 2 to 16%. Thus, the method was free of matrix effects during electrospray ionization. The achieved limits of quantification stayed between 2 and 10 ng g-1, and the linear response range extended to 5000 ng g-1. The occurrence of target compounds was investigated in sludge from 14 different STPs. High detection frequencies were observed for all compounds, with average concentrations above 100 ng g-1 for six cardiovascular drugs.