- Impaired cerebral microcirculation induced by ammonium chloride in rats is due to cortical adenosine release. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hepatol 2018 Feb 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Vasodilatation of the cerebral microcirculation during exposure to ammonium chloride is associated with an increase in the adenosine tone. Application of a specific adenosine receptor antagonist restores the regulation of the microcirculation. This indicates that adenosine could be a key mediator in the brain dysfunction seen during hyperammonemia and represents a potential therapeutic target.
- Reversible modulation of the redox activity in conducting polymer nanofilms induced by hydrophobic collapse of a surface-grafted polyelectrolyte. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Feb 07; 518:92-101
- We present the covalent modification of a Pani-like conducting polymer (polyaminobenzylamine, PABA) by grafting of a polyelectrolyte brush (poly [2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride]...
We present the covalent modification of a Pani-like conducting polymer (polyaminobenzylamine, PABA) by grafting of a polyelectrolyte brush (poly [2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride], PMETAC). As PABA has extra pendant amino moieties, the grafting procedure does not affect the backbone nitrogen atoms that are implicated in the electronic structure of the conducting polymers. Moreover, perchlorate anions interact very strongly with the quaternary ammonium pendant groups of PMETAC through ion pairing. Therefore, the grafting does not only keep the electroactivity of PABA in aqueous solutions but it adds the ion-actuation properties of the PMETAC brush to the modified electrode as demonstrated by contact angle measurements and electrochemical methods. In this way, the conjugation of the electron transfer properties of the conducting polymer with the anion responsiveness of the integrated brush renders perchlorate actuation of the electrochemical response. These results constitute a rational integration of nanometer-sized polymer building blocks that yields synergism of functionalities and illustrate the potentialities of nanoarchitectonics for pushing the limits of soft material science into the nanoworld.
- Chronic graft-specific cell-mediated immune response toward candidate xenogeneic biomaterial. [Journal Article]
- IRImmunol Res 2018 Feb 14
- Despite rabbits becoming an increasingly popular animal model, a flow cytometry panel that combines T cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, FOXP3) with a method for monitoring proliferation is lacking i...
Despite rabbits becoming an increasingly popular animal model, a flow cytometry panel that combines T cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, FOXP3) with a method for monitoring proliferation is lacking in this species. It has been shown that the rabbit model can be used to identify xenoantigens within bovine pericardium (BP), a common biological heart valve replacement material; however, these methods rely on monitoring the humoral immune response. The development of a rabbit T cell proliferation assay has utility in monitoring graft-specific cell-mediated immune responses toward bovine pericardium. Isolation and culture conditions were optimized to avoid cell death, red blood cell contamination, and non-specific proliferation. Effect of cell culture and stimulation on distribution and intensity of T cell markers was analyzed and compared between cells isolated from naïve and BP-immunized rabbits. Submaximal levels (0.25 μg/mL) of concavalin A were used to stimulate proliferation toward BP extract, with resultant proliferation compared between naïve and BP-immunized rabbits. Density stratification followed by ammonium potassium chloride (ACK) lysis yielded the greatest number of viable peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the least amount of erythrocyte contamination. Flat-bottomed plates were necessary to reduce non-specific proliferation in culture. T cells responded appropriately to maximal mitogenic stimulation (5 μg/mL concavalin A). Interestingly, immunization increased the intensity of FOXP3 in T regulatory cells compared to cells from naïve animals. With addition of submaximal levels of concavalin A, T cells from immunized rabbits proliferated in response to BP protein extract, while cells from naïve rabbits did not. In immunized rabbits, not only did more CD4+T cells proliferate in response to BP re-stimulation, but the intensity of CD25 was increased indicating cell activation. This research provides a functional cell-mediated screening assay for assessment of BP-based biomaterials in rabbits, overcoming the limitations of previous humoral immune system-based assessments of biomaterial antigenicity in this important experimental animal species.
- 2005-2014 trends of PM10 source contributions in an industrialized area of southern Spain. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2018 Feb 08; 236:570-579
- Particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) using receptor modelling was determined at an urban (La Linea, LL) and an industrial area (Puente Mayorga, PMY) in Southern Spain with sampl...
Particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) using receptor modelling was determined at an urban (La Linea, LL) and an industrial area (Puente Mayorga, PMY) in Southern Spain with samples collected during 2005-2014. The concentrations of PM10 had been decreasing at both sites in three distinctive periods: 1) the initial PM10 levels approached or exceeded the Spain and EU PM10 annual guidelines of 40 μg/m3during 2005-2007 at LL and 2005-2009 at PMY; 2) then PM10 dropped by 25%-∼30 μg/m3during 2008-2011 at LL and during 2010-2011 at PMY; 3) since 2012, the PM10 concentrations gradually decreased to <30 μg/m3. Chemical compositions of PM10 revealed the important contributions of water soluble ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride), carbonaceous aerosols, and other major elements. These PM components generally showed a decrease trend, in accord with the trend of PM10 reduction. A PMF model identified seven sources to PM10 contributions. Secondary sulfate, soil/urban/construction dust, and secondary nitrate showed significantly decreasing trends with reduction of 40-60% comparing to the initial levels. The road traffic contribution decreased by 14% from the first to third period. However, sea salt, oil combustion, and industrial metallurgical process had relative stable contributions. These source contribution changes are reasonably governed by the PM emission abatement actions implemented during the past decade, as well as the financial crisis, that accounted for a significant decrease of PM pollution in Southern Spain.
- Long-term nitrogen behavior under treated wastewater infiltration basins in a soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) system. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2018 Feb 06; 134:192-199
- The long term behavior of total nitrogen and its components was investigated in a soil aquifer treatment system of the Dan Region Reclamation Project (Shafdan), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Use is made of the p...
The long term behavior of total nitrogen and its components was investigated in a soil aquifer treatment system of the Dan Region Reclamation Project (Shafdan), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Use is made of the previous 40 years' secondary data for the main nitrogen components (ammonium, nitrate and organic nitrogen) in recharged effluent and observation wells located inside an infiltration basin. The wells were drilled to 106 and 67 m, both in a similar position within the basin. The transport characteristics of each nitrogen component were evaluated based on chloride travel-time, calculated by a cross-correlation between its concentration in the recharge effluent and the observation wells. Changes in the source of recharge effluent, wastewater treatment technology and recharge regime were found to be the main factors affecting turnover in total nitrogen and its components. During aerobic operation of the infiltration basins, most organic nitrogen and ammonium will be converted to nitrate. Total nitrogen removal in the upper part of the aquifer was found to be 47-63% by denitrification and absorption, and overall removal, including the lower part of the aquifer, was 49-83%. To maintain the aerobic operation of the infiltration fields, the total nitrogen load should remain below 10 mg/L. Above this limit, ammonium and organic nitrogen will be displaced into the aquifer.
- Impacts of quaternary ammonium compounds on membrane bioreactor performance: Acute and chronic responses of microorganisms. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2018 Feb 01; 134:153-161
- Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are emerging contaminants with the extensive applications in a variety of fields. However, little is known about their potential impacts on activated sludge and p...
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are emerging contaminants with the extensive applications in a variety of fields. However, little is known about their potential impacts on activated sludge and performance of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this work, the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC, a kind of QACs) on acute and chronic responses of microorganisms and on MBR performance were systematically investigated. The results showed that a low concentration (0.5-2.0 mg BAC/g SS) caused no significant effects on activated sludge property. In contrast, an elevated concentration of BAC led to severer inhibition on activated sludge and key enzyme activity (e.g., dehydrogenase activity) in both short-term and long-term exposure, thus deteriorating the pollutant removal efficiency. Compared with the control MBR (R1) and the reactor with 0.5 mg/L BAC (R2), the removal efficiency of ammonia in R3 with 5.0 mg/L BAC at identical hydraulic retention time (4.3 h) and sludge retention time (30 d) was decreased, i.e., ammonium removal efficiency in R1∼R3 was 95.4 ± 6.1, 93.4 ± 8.1 and 89.3 ± 17.6%, respectively. Moreover, MBR tests showed that membrane fouling was aggravated in the presence of high-concentration BAC. Long-term exposure to BAC reduced microbial community diversity and enriched the BAC-resistant microbes. For instance, the abundance of Pseudomonas genus in R3 was increased from 0.02% to 14.9% with the increase of operation time. Microbial community structure was changed to resist the environmental stress induced by BAC during long-term exposure, thus decreasing the inhibition effects.
- Benzyldimethyldodecyl ammonium chloride shifts the proliferation of functional genes and microbial community in natural water from eutrophic lake. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2018 Feb 03; 236:355-365
- Benzylalkyldimethylethyl ammonium compounds are pervasive in natural environments and toxic at high concentrations. The changes in functional genes and microbial diversity in eutrophic lake samples e...
Benzylalkyldimethylethyl ammonium compounds are pervasive in natural environments and toxic at high concentrations. The changes in functional genes and microbial diversity in eutrophic lake samples exposed to benzyldimethyldodecyl ammonium chloride (BAC) were assessed. BAC exerted negative effects on bacteria abundance, particularly at concentrations of 100 μg L-1and higher. A significant increase in the number of the quaternary ammonium compound-resistant gene qacA/B was recorded within the 10 μg L-1treatment after the first day of exposure. Not all antibiotic resistance genes increased in abundance as the concentrations of BAC increased; rather, gene abundances were dependent on the gene type, concentrations of BAC, and contact time. The nitrogen fixation-related gene nifH and ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA were inhibited by high concentrations of BAC after the first day, whereas an increase of the nitrite reductase gene nirK was stimulated by exposure. Microbial communities within higher treatment levels (1000 and 10 000 μg L-1) exhibited significantly different community composition compared to other treatment levels and the control. Selective enrichment of Rheinheimera, Pseudomonas, and Vogesella were found in the higher treatment levels, suggesting that these bacteria have some resistance or degradation capacity to BAC. Genes related with RNA processing and modification, transcription, lipid transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, and cell motility of microbial community function were involved in the process exposed to the BAC stress.
- Impact of Prosopis alba exudate gum on sorption properties and physical stability of fish oil alginate beads prepared by ionic gelation. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2018 Jun 01; 250:75-82
- This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Prosopis alba exudate gum (G) as encapsulating matrix component on water-solid interactions, physical state, oxidative damage and appearance propert...
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Prosopis alba exudate gum (G) as encapsulating matrix component on water-solid interactions, physical state, oxidative damage and appearance properties of alginate-chitosan encapsulates containing fish oil. With this purpose, water sorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C. G increased the hygroscopicity of encapsulates, showing a higher monolayer water content (7.87 ± 0.47% db.) than control (1.07 ± 0.04% db.). G introduction reduced the plasticizing effect of water, increasing the awrange (aw < 0.45) at which samples were in amorphous state and providing the highest protection against lipid oxidation. Appearance properties (chromatic and optical) were affected by hydration and were better maintained in samples containing G at aw > 0.52. These results allow considering Prosopis alba exudate gum, as a novel excipient to protect fish oil encapsulated in low moisture polyelectrolyte systems, with the added benefits of employing an undervalued natural resource.
- Identification of prolargin expression in articular cartilage and its significance in rheumatoid arthritis pathology. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Feb 01
- Qualitative 2D gel-electrophoresis (2DE) protein profiling for osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is challenging because of selective protein loss due to discrepancies in protein preci...
Qualitative 2D gel-electrophoresis (2DE) protein profiling for osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is challenging because of selective protein loss due to discrepancies in protein precipitation methodologies. Thus, we aimed at developing qualitative proteinrepresentation from OA/RA articular cartilage without protein precipitation towards identification of clinically relevant proteins. Chondroitinase digested human articular cartilages from RA patients were subjected to protein extraction using guanidinium hydrochloride (GuHCl) or 8 M urea with 10 or 2% ASB-14-4 or 0.45 M urea with 2% ASB-14-4 with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The GuHCl extract is further protein precipitated with acetone or ammonium acetate-methanol or centricon-fractionated using 100 kDa cut filters and protein precipitated using ethanol. Processed extracts were subjected to 2DE to identify protein profiles. Poor proteins representations were observed in 2D gels with protein precipitated samples compared to qualitative protein representations seen in 2D gels of 0.45 M urea and 2%ASB-14-4 extraction procedure reproducibly. The strategy circumventing protein precipitation generated qualitative 2D gels. RA vs OA gel comparison showed elevated prolargin levels in RA with biglycan levels remaining unaltered. Up regulation of prolargin in RA suggests the likelihood of an adaptive mechanism to control the increased osteoclastogenesis in RA and may have therapeutic value in controlling the disease.
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- Targeted Deletion of the Ncoa7 Gene Results in Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Mice. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 31
- We recently reported that nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (Ncoa7) is a vacuolar proton pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) interacting protein whose function has not been defined. Ncoa7 is highly expressed in t...
We recently reported that nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (Ncoa7) is a vacuolar proton pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) interacting protein whose function has not been defined. Ncoa7 is highly expressed in the kidney and partially co-localizes with the V-ATPase in collecting duct intercalated cells (ICs). Here, we hypothesized that targeted deletion of the Ncoa7 gene could affect V-ATPase activity in ICs in vivo. We tested this by analyzing the acid-base status, major electrolytes, and kidney morphology of Ncoa7 knockout (KO) mice. We found that Ncoa7 KO mice, similar to Atp6v1b1 knockouts, did not develop severe dRTA, but they exhibited a persistently high urine pH and developed hypobicarbonatemia after acid loading with ammonium chloride. Conversely, they did not develop significant hyperbicarbonatemia and alkalemia after alkali loading with sodium bicarbonate. We also found that ICs were larger and with more developed apical microvilli in Ncoa7 KO compared to wild-type mice, a phenotype previously associated with metabolic acidosis. At the molecular level, the abundance of several V-ATPase subunits, carbonic anhydrase 2 and the anion exchanger 1 was significantly reduced in medullary ICs of Ncoa7 KO mice, suggesting that Ncoa7 is important for maintaining high levels of these proteins in the kidney. We conclude that Ncoa7 is involved in intercalated cell function and urine acidification in mice in vivo, likely through modulating the abundance of V-ATPase and other key acid-base regulators in the renal medulla. Consequently, mutations in the NCOA7 gene may also be involved in dRTA pathogenesis in humans.