- Salmonella enterica isolates from Western Australian rangeland goats remain susceptible to critically important antimicrobials. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Oct 17; 8(1):15326
- This study investigated faecal carriage and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella enterica recovered from rangeland goats. Faecal samples (n = 400) were collected at slaughter from four consig...
This study investigated faecal carriage and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella enterica recovered from rangeland goats. Faecal samples (n = 400) were collected at slaughter from four consignments of goats (n = 100 samples per consignment), each from one of four localities in Western Australia. Carriage of Salmonella spp. was detected in 106 samples (26.5%; 95% CI 22.4-31.0%). The rate of faecal carriage for each consignment ranged between 23-30%. PCR assays targeting the STM2755 and STM4497 genes revealed 84.9% (90/106) of the isolates were of serovar Typhimurium. Salmonella Chester (11/106, 10.4%) and S. Saintpaul (5/106, 4.7%) were characterised at invA and ompF genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that 84.0% of isolates were susceptible to all tested (n = 13) antimicrobials. Resistance was identified to azithromycin (14.2%), tetracycline (10.4%), ampicillin (5.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefoxitin (3.8%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1.9%), gentamicin and streptomycin (0.9%). No isolate was resistant to four or more antimicrobials, or to critically important antimicrobials such as fluoroquinolones and extended spectrum cephalosporins. This is the first study reporting AMR in Salmonella isolates from Australian rangeland goats. The rate of detection of AMR was very low, some resistance to low-importance drugs was present in the Salmonella population, despite the absence of active selection pressure.
- Empirical treatment of urinary tract infections: how rational are our guidelines? [Journal Article]
- JAJ Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Oct 08
- CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies determined that a resistance rate of >20% renders an antimicrobial agent unsuitable for use as an empirical treatment option. This study demonstrated that this resistance rate is exceeded in many cases, potentially rendering some antimicrobial agents unsuitable for use as empirical treatment. We suggest that the focus on susceptibility when producing surveillance data to create empirical treatment guidelines may inadvertently camouflage resistance rates. The findings of this study highlight the need for laboratory-guided treatment of UTIs and ideally a pre-emptive sample should be obtained for laboratory investigation prior to commencement of antimicrobial therapy.
- Human and Animal Bites. [Review]
- PRPediatr Rev 2018; 39(10):490-500
- In the United States, nearly 56% of households owned a pet in 2011 according to the 2012 U.S. Pet Ownership & Demographics Sourcebook by the American Veterinary Medical Association. The survey also r...
In the United States, nearly 56% of households owned a pet in 2011 according to the 2012 U.S. Pet Ownership & Demographics Sourcebook by the American Veterinary Medical Association. The survey also reports that approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats lived in households in the United States during the same year. (1)Human and animal bites are a frequent cause of primary care and emergency department visits for children. It is estimated that 250,000 human bites, 400,000 cat bites, and 4.5 million dog bites occur in the United States each year in both adults and children. (2) In the United States, approximately 10% of all human bites will become infected in a child with a bite wound. The infection rate of dog bites in children is 20%. Cat bite infection rates in children vary but can be up to 50%. Each type of bite wound has a predisposition for sex and/or age. Infected bite wounds manifest with swelling, erythema, and tenderness with or without drainage of the affected site and can lead to serious complications. Most animal bite wounds are polymicrobial in nature. Pasteurella species (spp.) is the most common organism isolated from both cat and dog bites. The microbiology of human bites consists of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.Basic medical management of bite wounds includes thorough cleansing and debridement. Irrigation, closure, and need to obtain culture depend on the type of bite wound, the appearance of the wound, the and timing of medical evaluation after the initial injury. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is the antibiotic of choice for prophylaxis and empirical therapy for children who are not allergic to penicillin. With most animal bites being preventable injuries, healthcare providers caring for children have an important role discussing pet safety with the child and the family.
- Toxicity of Broad Spectrum Antibacterials in Normal Rat Liver: The Role of Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition Pore. [Journal Article]
- TMToxicol Mech Methods 2018 Oct 01; :1-31
- Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Amoxycillin/Clavulanate (AC) are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are commonly administered for treatment of various bacterial infections. Studies have reported the antiprolife...
Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Amoxycillin/Clavulanate (AC) are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are commonly administered for treatment of various bacterial infections. Studies have reported the antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of CIP in several cancer cell lines while AC has been implicated in drug-induced liver injury. We investigated the influence of CIP and AC on mitochondrial Permeability Transition (mPT) pore, ATPase activity, and cytochrome C release of normal Rat Liver Mitochondria (RLM) spectrophotmetrically. In vitro, CIP and AC induced the opening of the mPT pore in a concentration-dependent manner with evidence of cytochrome C release maximally at 70µg/ml by 13 and 10 folds, respectively. In vivo, CIP (100, 200 mg/kgbw) significantly induced mPT pore opening with induction folds of 2.4 and 2.6, respectively. However, low dose of AC (10mg/kgbw) had no effect whatsoever on the mPT pore while higher dose (30 mg/kgbw) significantly induced pore opening by 3.4 folds. Similarly, CIP(100 mg/kgbw) and AC (30 mg/kgbw), doses selected for further studies, significantly enhanced RLM ATPase activity, induced cytochrome C release and increased levels of RLM malondialdehyde generated . Significant (p < 0.05) elevation in levels of aminotransferases and white blood cell count were observed which resulted in activation of caspase-9 and 3 in liver post-mitochondrial fraction. Our results show that prolonged use of Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin Clavulanate could result in mitochondrial membrane breakdown via induction of opening of mPT pore leading to expulsion of cytochrome C, lipid peroxidation and decrease in energy content in healthy liver cells. Indiscriminate use of these drugs is hereby discouraged.
- Pneumonia and bacteraemia caused by Gemella morbillorum in a previously healthy infant: first reported case in literature. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Sep 27; 2018
- A 5-month-old baby presented with a low-grade fever and tachypnoea and was found to have right upper lobe consolidation on chest radiograph. He was admitted with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and...
A 5-month-old baby presented with a low-grade fever and tachypnoea and was found to have right upper lobe consolidation on chest radiograph. He was admitted with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and the treatment protocol for pneumonia was initiated. Blood culture samples were collected, and he was started on a course of intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanate. Blood culture results displayed pansensitive Gemella morbillorum bacteraemia and he was continued on intravenous antibiotic to which he responded in a short period and was discharged in good condition on the fourth day.
- Oral Microbiota of the Snake Bothrops lanceolatus in Martinique. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Sep 27; 15(10)
- In Martinique, Bothrops lanceolatus snakebite, although relatively uncommon (~30 cases/year), may result in serious complications such as systemic thrombosis and local infections. Infections have bee...
In Martinique, Bothrops lanceolatus snakebite, although relatively uncommon (~30 cases/year), may result in serious complications such as systemic thrombosis and local infections. Infections have been hypothesized to be related to bacteria present in the snake's oral cavity. In this investigation, we isolated, identified, and studied the susceptibility to beta-lactams of bacteria sampled from the oral cavity of twenty-six B. lanceolatus specimens collected from various areas in Martinique. Microbiota from B. lanceolatus oral cavity was polymicrobial. Isolated bacteria belonged to fifteen different taxa; the most frequent being Aeromonas hydrophyla (present in 50% of the samples), Morganella morganii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus spp., and Enterococcus spp. Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility revealed that 66.7% of the isolated bacteria were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate. In contrast, the majority of isolated bacteria were susceptible to the third-generation cephalosporins (i.e., 73.3% with cefotaxime and 80.0% with ceftazidime). Microbiota from B. lanceolatus oral cavity is polymicrobial with bacteria mostly susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins but rarely to amoxicillin/clavulanate. In conclusion, our findings clearly support that first-line antibiotic therapy in the B. lanceolatus-bitten patients, when there is evidence of infection, should include a third-generation cephalosporin rather than amoxicillin/clavulanate.
- Amoxicillin-clavulanate versus azithromycin for respiratory exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis (BEST-2): a multicentre, double-blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- LctLancet 2018 Oct 06; 392(10154):1197-1206
- CONCLUSIONS: By 21 days of treatment, azithromycin is non-inferior to amoxicillin-clavulanate for resolving exacerbations in children with non-severe bronchiectasis. In some patients, such as those with penicillin hypersensitivity or those likely to have poor adherence, azithromycin provides another option for treating exacerbations, but must be balanced with risk of treatment failure (within a 20% margin), longer exacerbation duration, and the risk of inducing macrolide resistance.
- Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection and Obstinate Biofilm Producers. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2018; 2018:7624857
- CONCLUSIONS: High antimicrobial resistance was observed in biofilm producers than non-biofilm producers. Of recommended antimicrobial therapies for CAUTIs, ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the least active antibiotics, whereas piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem were found as the most effectual for gram-negative biofilm producer. Likewise, amoxicillin-clavulanate and tetracycline were the least active antibiotics, whereas vancomycin, fosfomycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and meropenem were found as the most effective antibiotic for Gram-positive biofilm producer. In the limelight, the activity fosfomycin was commendable against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilm producers.
- Home intravenous versus oral antibiotics following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis in children: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- PSPediatr Surg Int 2018 Sep 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Oral antibiotics had equivalent outcomes and incurred fewer charges than IV antibiotics following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis.
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- Routine antibiotic therapy in dogs increases the detection of antimicrobial-resistant faecal Escherichia coli. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Sep 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that β-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotic usage is associated with increased detection of important phenotypic and genotypic AMR faecal E. coli following routine therapy in vet-visiting dogs. This has important implications for veterinary and public health in terms of antimicrobial prescribing and biosecurity protocols, and dog waste disposal.