- In vitro susceptibility and multilocus sequence typing of Fusarium isolates causing keratitis. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mycol Med 2018 May 17
- Fungal keratitis is recognized as a significant cause of ocular morbidity and blindness especially in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to present the molecular identification and suscept...
Fungal keratitis is recognized as a significant cause of ocular morbidity and blindness especially in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to present the molecular identification and susceptibility of Fusarium isolates causing fungal keratitis in a university hospital in southern Brazil. The samples were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), while the antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology. The majority of the isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (F. solani, F. keratoplasticum and F. falciforme) and Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Antifungal susceptibility has shown that amphotericin B and natamycin were the most effective antifungals across all isolates, followed by voriconazole. Variation among Fusarium complexes in their antifungal sensitivities was observed in our study. The identification of Fusarium species from human samples is important not only from an epidemiological viewpoint, but also for choosing the appropriate antifungal agent for difficult-to-treat Fusarium infections such as keratitis.
- Retrograde Ureteral Catheterization: a Possible New Treatment for Renal Fungal Balls in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants. [Journal Article]
- UUrology 2018 May 17
- Invasive candidiasis is a serious pathogen of late-onset sepsis in very-low-birth- weight (VLBW) infants. Kidney is the most common organ involved and it causes morbidity and mortality, especially wh...
Invasive candidiasis is a serious pathogen of late-onset sepsis in very-low-birth- weight (VLBW) infants. Kidney is the most common organ involved and it causes morbidity and mortality, especially when fungal balls are formed. We report a 34-day-old female infant (28 weeks, 1152 gm) with systemic fungal infection complicated obstructive uropathy. On sonography, the fungal balls filled the entire pelvis without hydronephrosis. Percutaneous nephrostomy was not feasible. In addition to systemic antifungals, we successfully performed cystoscopy-assisted retrograde ureteral catheterization (RUC) to decompress the pelvis, which also provided a route for local amphotericin B irrigation to achieve therapeutic concentration without nephrotoxicity.
- The first isolate of Candida auris in China: clinical and biological aspects. [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Microbes Infect 2018 May 18; 7(1):93
- The emerging human fungal pathogen Candida auris has been recognized as a multidrug resistant species and is associated with high mortality. This fungus was first described in Japan in 2009 and has b...
The emerging human fungal pathogen Candida auris has been recognized as a multidrug resistant species and is associated with high mortality. This fungus was first described in Japan in 2009 and has been reported in at least 18 countries on five continents. In this study, we report the first isolate of C. auris from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of a hospitalized woman in China. Interestingly, this isolate is susceptible to all tested antifungals including amphotericin B, fluconazole, and caspofungin. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) also has a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of this fungus. Under different culture conditions, C. auris exhibits multiple morphological phenotypes including round-to-ovoid, elongated, and pseudohyphal-like forms. High concentrations of sodium chloride induce the formation of a pseudohyphal-like form. We further demonstrate that C. auris is much less virulent than Candida albicans in both mouse systemic and invertebrate Galleria mellonella models.
- The evaluation of frequency of nephrotoxicity caused by liposomal amphotericin B. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2018 May 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Take previous clinical study results together, our data suggested that L-AmB is safer agent than amphotericin B for the treatment of fungal infections in patients with eGFR<60 and hemodialysis patients at the start of treatment. Also, especially, we should use L-AmB more carefully until 9 days from the treatment started.
- Non-sinonasal isolated facio-orbital mucormycosis - A case report. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mycol Med 2018 May 14
- Mucormycosis is a rare clinical entity, often affect immunocompromised patients. It is an emergency situation and has poor prognosis. Prompt diagnosis with tissue biopsy, local control of the disease...
Mucormycosis is a rare clinical entity, often affect immunocompromised patients. It is an emergency situation and has poor prognosis. Prompt diagnosis with tissue biopsy, local control of the disease by aggressive surgical debridement and appropriate systemic antifungal treatment improve the prognosis and survival of the patients. Treatment of mucormycosis needs antifungal agents such as Amphotericin B and wide surgical debridement. Early diagnosis and treatment is often needed for survival of the patients. We describe a rare case of mucormycosis affecting facio-orbital area without involving sinon-nasal cavity.
- First reported case of multidrug-resistant Candida auris in Canada. [Journal Article]
- CCCan Commun Dis Rep 2017 Jul 06; 43(7-8):150-153
- Candida auris is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a global threat to public health. It was first described in Japan in 2009 and has since been reported in 17 countries on five continent...
Candida auris is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a global threat to public health. It was first described in Japan in 2009 and has since been reported in 17 countries on five continents. This case report describes the first reported case of multidrug-resistant C. auris in Canada. In May 2017, a 64-year-old individual was evaluated for chronic otitis externa. Past medical history included a recent hospitalization in India for elective oral surgery that was complicated by an odontogenic brain abscess. Upon return to Canada, the individual was admitted to a hospital for neurosurgical drainage of the brain abscess and parenteral antibiotics. Early during hospitalization, the patient was identified as a carrier of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and was placed on contact precautions. Also early during this hospitalization, a chronic otitis media was managed with placement of a typanostomy tube with drainage of clear fluid from the ear, which continued through the admission and after discharge to a post-neurosurgical rehabilitation facility. During outpatient follow-up, swabs of the ear discharge cultured C. auris that was resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B. There was no clinical response to ototopical antifungal therapy. Surgical evaluation for management of the otomastoiditis is pending. There is a potential for C. auris to cause infection in health care settings. It can persist in hospital environments, has the potential for transmission and can cause invasive disease. It is difficult to identify and is often resistant to antifungal medications. The application of infection prevention and control recommendations can help prevent nosocomial transmission. It is now prudent to consider the risk of C. auris, in addition to the known risk of other antimicrobial resistant organisms, in any traveller who has been hospitalized while outside the country. When identified, contacting local public health can assist in the tracking and management of this emerging disease.
- Relevance of antifungal penetration in biofilm-associated resistance of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Microbiol 2018 May 16
- The role of penetration limitation in Candida biofilm-associated antifungal resistance remains unclear. Most of the previous work has been done on Candida albicans, although non-albicans (NAC) specie...
The role of penetration limitation in Candida biofilm-associated antifungal resistance remains unclear. Most of the previous work has been done on Candida albicans, although non-albicans (NAC) species are also implicated in invasive candidiasis and the biofilm matrix has been shown to vary amongst different species. Only a few studies have evaluated clinical isolates. This study aimed to determine the relevance of penetration limitation in the antifungal resistance of biofilms formed by C. albicans and NAC clinical isolates, using an agar disk diffusion assay. The penetration of posaconazole and amphotericin B through the biofilms was significantly reduced. Fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin showed a superior penetration capacity in C. albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, but exhibited inter-species and strain/isolate variation. Candida krusei biofilms were the most resilient to antifungal permeation. All of the antifungal drugs failed to kill the biofilm cells, independent of penetration, suggesting that the other factors contribute markedly to the recalcitrance of the biofilms.
- A Mycoses Study Group International Prospective Study of Phaeohyphomycosis: An Analysis of 99 Proven/Probable Cases. [Journal Article]
- OFOpen Forum Infect Dis 2017; 4(4):ofx200
- CONCLUSIONS: Phaeohyphomycosis is an increasingly recognized infection. Culture remains the most frequently used diagnostic method. Triazoles are currently the drugs of choice, often combined with other agents. Further studies are needed to develop optimal therapies for disseminated infections.
- Isolated Pulmonary Valve Fungal Endocarditis with Candida parapsilosis: Management Considerations of a Rare Case. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Heart Valve Dis 2017; 26(5):581-584
- Pulmonary valve infections without the involvement of other valves account for only 1.5- 2% of all infective endocarditis cases. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis due to fungus is extremely rare....
Pulmonary valve infections without the involvement of other valves account for only 1.5- 2% of all infective endocarditis cases. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis due to fungus is extremely rare. The case is presented of a 36-year-old male who was found to have isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis caused by a very rare organism, Candida parapsilosis, and that was solely managed with medical therapy. The patient was evaluated for three weeks of lowgrade fever, generalized rash and fatigue, and found to have C. parapsilosis in the blood. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated a 4.5 cm vegetation on the pulmonary valve, without involvement of other valves. The patient was deemed not to be a surgical candidate and was subsequently started on intravenous liposomal amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine, with excellent clinical outcome. Based on these case details, it must be emphasized that in selective cases and if there are no known complications, fungal endocarditis can be managed successfully using anti-fungal agents.
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- Burden of acute kidney injury in HIV patients under deoxycholate amphotericin B therapy for cryptococcal meningitis and cost-minimization analysis of amphotericin B lipid complex. [Journal Article]
- MMMed Mycol 2018 May 14
- Deoxycholate amphotericin B (d-AMB) has a higher rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) in comparison of lipid formulations. However, lipid amphotericin B has high costs in developing countries. The aim o...
Deoxycholate amphotericin B (d-AMB) has a higher rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) in comparison of lipid formulations. However, lipid amphotericin B has high costs in developing countries. The aim of this study is to assemble a model of cost-minimization of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. This is a retrospective study done in a cohort of patients with cryptococcal meningitis to study the economic impact of its use in developing countries. Cost analysis were based on direct cost of different antifungal therapies, chronic dialysis after discharge, and survival of patients based on a retrospective cohort of 102 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus with confirmed diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. From 102 patients treated with d-AMB, 60.78% developed any grade of AKI and 10.78% developed AKI demanding hemodialysis. The percentage of patients with meningeal cryptococcosis treated with d-AMB that requeired chronic HD was 2.39%. The same model was performed for patient that would be treated with ABLC, which resulted in 0.20% of patients demanding chronic HD due to its lower nephrotoxicity. When the model is applied in 100 patients, the total costs with d-AMB would be US$ 184,543 and with ABLC would be US$ 1,640,109 in 5 years. Treatment with ABLC would be cost saving in comparison to d-AMB treatment, if early switch of treatment occurred in patients presenting AKI. The change should be as soon as possible to avoid further complication, like dialysis, which is associated with a lower life expectancy.