- Treatment for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 07 25; 7:CD005647
- CONCLUSIONS: In resource-limited settings, one-week AmBd- and 5FC-based therapy is probably superior to other regimens for treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. An all-oral regimen of two weeks 5FC and FLU may be an alternative in settings where AmBd is unavailable or intravenous therapy cannot be safely administered. We found no mortality benefit of combination two weeks AmBd and FLU compared to AmBd alone. Given the absence of data from studies in children, and limited data from high-income countries, our findings provide limited guidance for treatment in these patients and settings.
- Population pharmacokinetics and cerebrospinal fluid penetration of fluconazole in adults with cryptococcal meningitis. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Jun 18
- Robust population pharmacokinetic (PK) data for fluconazole are scarce. The variability of fluconazole penetration into the CNS is not known. A fluconazole PK study was conducted in 43 patients recei...
Robust population pharmacokinetic (PK) data for fluconazole are scarce. The variability of fluconazole penetration into the CNS is not known. A fluconazole PK study was conducted in 43 patients receiving oral fluconazole (usually 800 mg q24h) in combination with amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg/kg q24h) for cryptococcal meningitis (CM). A 4-compartment PK model was developed and Monte Carlo simulations performed for a range of fluconazole dosages. A meta-analysis of trials reporting outcomes of CM patients treated with fluconazole monotherapy was performed. Adjusted for bioavailability, the PK parameter means (standard deviation) were: clearance, 0.72 (0.24) litres/hour; volume of the central compartment, 18.07 (6.31) litres; volume of central nervous system (CNS) compartment, 32.07 (17.60) litres; first-order rate constant from central to peripheral compartment, 12.20 (11.17) hours-1; from peripheral to central compartment, 18.10 (8.25) hours-1; from central to CNS compartment 35.43 (13.74) hours-1; from CNS to central compartment 28.63 (10.03) hours-1 Simulations of area under concentration-time curve resulted in median (interquartile range) values 1143.2 mg.h/litre (988.4 - 1378.0) in plasma and 982.9 (781.0 - 1185.9) in CSF after a dosage of 1200mg q24h. The mean simulated ratio of AUCCSF:AUCplasma was 0.89 (SD 0.44). The recommended dosage of fluconazole for CM induction therapy fails to attain the PD target in respect to the wild-type MIC distribution of C. neoformans The meta-analysis suggested modest improvements in both CSF sterility and mortality outcomes with escalating dosage. This study provides the pharmacodynamic rationale for the long-recognised fact that fluconazole monotherapy is an inadequate induction regimen for CM.
- Physical compatibility of plazomicin with select i.v. drugs during simulated Y-site administration. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Health Syst Pharm 2018 Jul 15; 75(14):1048-1056
- The results of a study to determine the physical compatibility of plazomicin sulfate solution during simulated Y-site administration with 92 i.v. drugs are reported.
The results of a study to determine the physical compatibility of plazomicin sulfate solution during simulated Y-site administration with 92 i.v. drugs are reported.
- Efficacy, Biodistribution, and Nephrotoxicity of Experimental Amphotericin B-Deoxycholate Formulations for Pulmonary Aspergillosis. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018; 62(7)
- An experimental micellar formulation of 1:1.5 amphotericin B-sodium deoxycholate (AMB:DCH 1:1.5) was obtained and characterized to determine its aggregation state and particle size. The biodistributi...
An experimental micellar formulation of 1:1.5 amphotericin B-sodium deoxycholate (AMB:DCH 1:1.5) was obtained and characterized to determine its aggregation state and particle size. The biodistribution, nephrotoxicity, and efficacy against pulmonary aspergillosis in a murine model were studied and compared to the liposomal commercial formulation of amphotericin B after intravenous administration. The administration of 5 mg/kg AMB:DCH 1:1.5 presented 2.8-fold-higher lung concentrations (18.125 ± 3.985 μg/g after 6 daily doses) and lower kidney exposure (0.391 ± 0.167 μg/g) than liposomal commercial amphotericin B (6.567 ± 1.536 and 5.374 ± 1.157 μg/g in lungs and kidneys, respectively). The different biodistribution of AMB:DCH micelle systems compared to liposomal commercial amphotericin B was attributed to their different morphologies and particle sizes. The efficacy study has shown that both drugs administered at 5 mg/kg produced similar survival percentages and reductions of fungal burden. A slightly lower nephrotoxicity, associated with amphotericin B, was observed with AMB:DCH 1:1.5 than the one induced by the liposomal commercial formulation. However, AMB:DCH 1:1.5 reached higher AMB concentrations in lungs, which could represent a therapeutic advantage over liposomal commercial amphotericin B-based treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis. These results are encouraging to explore the usefulness of AMB:DCH 1:1.5 against this disease.
- Histoplasmosis in non-endemic North-Western part of India. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Med Microbiol 2018 Jan-Mar; 36(1):61-64
- CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that Gujarat and Rajasthan are an endemic region for histoplasmosis, and a systematic study is required to understand epidemiology of the disease. Histoplasmosis should be a differential diagnosis in a patient presenting with adrenal enlargement, lymphadenopathy, oral ulcers and fever of unknown origin in this region.
- Population Pharmacokinetic Model and Meta-analysis of Outcomes of Amphotericin B Deoxycholate Use in Adults with Cryptococcal Meningitis. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018; 62(7)
- There is a limited understanding of the population pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of amphotericin B deoxycholate (DAmB) for cryptococcal meningitis. A PK study was conducted in n = 4...
There is a limited understanding of the population pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of amphotericin B deoxycholate (DAmB) for cryptococcal meningitis. A PK study was conducted in n = 42 patients receiving DAmB (1 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h [q24h]). A 2-compartment PK model was developed. Patient weight influenced clearance and volume in the final structural model. Monte Carlo simulations estimated drug exposure associated with various DAmB dosages. A search was conducted for trials reporting outcomes of treatment of cryptococcal meningitis patients with DAmB monotherapy, and a meta-analysis was performed. The PK parameter means (standard deviations) were as follows: clearance, 0.03 (0.01) × weight + 0.67 (0.01) liters/h; volume, 0.82 (0.80) × weight + 1.76 (1.29) liters; first-order rate constant from central compartment to peripheral compartment, 5.36 (6.67) h-1; first-order rate constant from peripheral compartment to central compartment, 9.92 (12.27) h-1 The meta-analysis suggested that the DAmB dosage explained most of the heterogeneity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sterility outcomes but not in mortality outcomes. Simulations of values corresponding to the area under concentration-time curve from h 144 to h 168 (AUC144-168) resulted in median (interquartile range) values of 5.83 mg · h/liter (4.66 to 8.55), 10.16 mg · h/liter (8.07 to 14.55), and 14.51 mg · h/liter (11.48 to 20.42) with dosages of 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 mg/kg q24h, respectively. DAmB PK is described adequately by a linear model that incorporates weight with clearance and volume. Interpatient PK variability is modest and unlikely to be responsible for variability in clinical outcomes. There is discordance between the impact that drug exposure has on CSF sterility and its impact on mortality outcomes, which may be due to cerebral pathology not reflected in CSF fungal burden, in addition to clinical variables.
- Outcomes of cryptococcosis in renal transplant recipients in a less-resourced health care system. [Journal Article]
- TITranspl Infect Dis 2018; 20(4):e12910
- CONCLUSIONS: Graft dysfunction was common in renal transplant recipients with cryptococcosis treated with AMBd. The rate of graft loss rate was high, most frequently in patients with concomitant nephrotoxic conditions. Therefore, the clinical focus should be on the use of less nephrotoxic lipid formulations of amphotericin B in this specific population requiring a polyene induction regimen for treatment of severe cryptococcosis in all health care systems caring for transplantation recipients.
- A Phase 3 Study of Micafungin Versus Amphotericin B Deoxycholate in Infants with Invasive Candidiasis. [Journal Article]
- PIPediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Mar 24
- CONCLUSIONS: Within the study limitations, infants with IC treated with MCA achieved similar FFS compared with AmB-D. Both agents were safe and well tolerated.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- Coccidioidal Meningitis: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Complications. [Review]
- CNCurr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018 Mar 13; 18(4):19
- This article summarizes the diagnosis and treatment of coccidioidal meningitis (CM) and its complications. An overview of current and prospective pharmacologic treatment options and monitoring parame...
This article summarizes the diagnosis and treatment of coccidioidal meningitis (CM) and its complications. An overview of current and prospective pharmacologic treatment options and monitoring parameters is provided. A consensus has not been reached regarding universally accepted therapeutic serum levels for azoles because of insufficient evidence. We describe the preferred therapeutic drug level ranges that our institution uses to monitor azole therapy.
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- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the name conventional amphotericin B and has been used for the treatment of invasive fungal infections for...
Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the name conventional amphotericin B and has been used for the treatment of invasive fungal infections for more than 50 years. It was first isolated as a natural product of a soil actinomycete.