- Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica in Retail Seafood. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Prot 2018 Feb 23; :497-501
- Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic enteropathogenic bacterium that can cause acute gastroenteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Although Y. enterocolitica is common in animals, food, and the envi...
Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic enteropathogenic bacterium that can cause acute gastroenteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Although Y. enterocolitica is common in animals, food, and the environment, the reservoirs and transmission routes of this pathogen are still not fully understood. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in seafood in Germany, because only limited data are available on that topic. Seafood samples were purchased from retail shops in Berlin, Germany and examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica by cold enrichment followed by cultivation on selective agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica isolates were analyzed by biotyping, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The total prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in seafood samples was 2.7% (6 of 220 samples). Mussel (2 of 90), shrimp (1 of 89), and cephalopod (3 of 41) samples were positive for Y. enterocolitica. Three isolates were identified as serotype O:8, one was identified as serotype O:5,27, and two samples did not belong to any investigated serotypes. The presence of the virulence-associated genes ail, inv, and ystB was studied by multiplex PCR. Four of the six isolates contained inv and ystB, one produced no positive results for the analyzed genes, and one contained only ystB. All Y. enterocolitica isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. Resistance was observed to cephalothin (83.3% of isolates), amoxicillin (83.3%), and ampicillin (50.0%). This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of Y. enterocolitica in retail seafood in Germany. The prevalence found in these seafood samples was comparatively low, and all isolates belonged to biotype 1A. However, seafood contaminated with Y. enterocolitica may pose a risk to consumer health because the pathogenic potential of biotype 1A strains is still being debated.
- Occurrence, Genotyping, and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. in Drinking Water and Food Samples from Northeast China. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Prot 2018 Feb 23; :456-460
- Cronobacter species (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) are emerging opportunistic bacterial pathogens that can infect both infants and adults. This study was conducted to isolate and genotype diverse ...
Cronobacter species (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) are emerging opportunistic bacterial pathogens that can infect both infants and adults. This study was conducted to isolate and genotype diverse Cronobacter species from drinking water, chilled fresh pork, powdered infant formula, instant noodles, cookies, fruits, vegetables, and dishes in Northeast China and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance and susceptibility of the isolates. Thirty-four Cronobacter strains were isolated and identified: 21 C. sakazakii isolates (61.8%), 10 C. malonaticus isolates (29.4%), 2 C. dublinensis isolates (5.9%), and 1 C. turicensis isolate (2.9%). These isolates were further divided into 15 sequence types (STs) by multilocus sequence typing. C. sakazakii ST4 (10 isolates, 29.4%), ST1 (3 isolates, 8.8%), and ST8 (3 isolates, 8.8%) and C. malonaticus ST7 (four isolates, 11.8%) were dominant. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicated that all 34 Cronobacter isolates were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, meropenem, tetracycline, piperacillin-tazobactam, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 88.2% were susceptible to chloramphenicol, and 67.6% were resistant to cephalothin. The results of this study enhance knowledge about genotyping and antibiotic resistance of these Cronobacter species and could be used to prevent potential hazards caused by these strains in drinking water and various food products.
- New Mutations of Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from Cattle with Decreased Susceptibility to Penicillin. [Journal Article]
- MDMicrob Drug Resist 2018 Feb 23
- Streptococcus agalactiae is a causal agent of bovine mastitis and is treated by β-lactam antibiotics (BLAs). Compared to penicillin-resistant S. agalactiae from humans, resistant strains in bovine ar...
Streptococcus agalactiae is a causal agent of bovine mastitis and is treated by β-lactam antibiotics (BLAs). Compared to penicillin-resistant S. agalactiae from humans, resistant strains in bovine are rarely reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate BLA resistance and mutations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of S. agalactiae in central and northeast China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 129 penicillin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates from cows with mastitis were determined, and the related PBP genes were detected and sequenced. All strains were unsusceptible to penicillin G and mostly resistant to ampicillin, cefalexin, and ceftiofur sodium. One hundred twenty-nine strains were divided into 4 clonal groups and 8 sequence types by multilocus sequence typing analysis. We found a set of new substitutions in PBP1B, PBP2B, and PBP2X from most strains isolated from three provinces. The strains with high PBP mutations showed a broader unsusceptible spectrum and higher MICs than those with few or single mutation. Our research indicates unpredicted mutations in the PBP genes of S. agalactiae isolated from cows with mastitis treated by BLAs. This screening is the first of S. agalactiae from cattle.
- Molecular analysis of integrons and antimicrobial resistance profile in Shigella spp. isolated from acute pediatric diarrhea patients. [Journal Article]
- GHGMS Hyg Infect Control 2018; 13:Doc02
- Introduction:Shigella spp. is a growing global health concern due to increasing multiple drug resistance, commonly resulting in therapeutic failure. Integrons are gene expression ...
Introduction:Shigella spp. is a growing global health concern due to increasing multiple drug resistance, commonly resulting in therapeutic failure. Integrons are gene expression systems run by integrase genes. The aims of this study were detection of class I, II and III integrons and assessment of antimicrobial resistance inShigellaspp. isolated from acute pediatric diarrhea patients.Materials and methods:From January to December 2015, 16Shigellaspp. were isolated from 310 non-duplicative diarrheal stool samples in Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran. The isolates were analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility using CLSI guidelines M100-S14. Multiplex PCR was used for amplification of I, II and III integron-associated integrase (intl) genes.Results:Of 310 stool samples, 16 (5.2%) were positive forShigellaspp., in 7 of themS. sonneiand in 9 of themS. flexneriwere identified. Results of the antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that 6.2%, 50%, 31.2%, 6.2%, 81.2%, 56.2% and 31.2% of the isolates were resistant to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Multiplex PCR results revealed that 6.2% (1/16), 31.2% (5/16), 50% (8/16) ofShigellaisolates carriedintlI, intlII and bothintlI/intllI genes. No class 3 integrons were detected.Discussion:In this study, multidrug resistance was seen inShigellaisolates similar to that in isolates from other geographical areas. This is possible due to inappropriate use of antimicrobials. Furthermore, prevalence of multidrug resistance was significantly linked to the presence of integrin genes.Conclusion:A class 2 integron plays a role in presence of multidrug resistance inShigellaspp. It is vital to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance through continuous monitoring.
- Isolation and characterization of Lepidoptera specific Bacillus thuringiensis strains predominantly from north-eastern states of India. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Exp Biol 2016; 54(7):431-451
- Both, the tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) and the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hibner), are serious polyphagous pests causing considerable loss to crops. Indiscriminate use...
Both, the tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) and the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hibner), are serious polyphagous pests causing considerable loss to crops. Indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides for controlling them has rather resulted in their resistance development. Microbial pesticides, Bacillus thuringiensis in particular, play an important role in pest management. Here, we isolated Bacillus thuringiensis-like bacteria from the soil samples primarily collected from North East region of India along with some states viz., Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Uttarakhand and studied their toxicity against the above two insect pests at 10 gg/g along with standard strain B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-I and at 1 pg/g Pseudomonasfluorescens based MVPII expressing CrylAc toxin and AUG-5. Isolates AUG-5 and GTG-7 proved toxic to more than 75% larvae on the 4h as well as 7h day of the treatment of the neonates of H. armigera. The AUG-5 isolate was also effective against S. litura. Ten effective isolates (AUG-5, GTG-4, GTG-7, GTG-9, GTG-42, GTG-64, GTG-70, GTG-3S, GTG-4S and GTG-6S) were characterized using biochemical and 16S rDNA analysis. Nearly, all the isolates tested positive for utilizing monosaccharides. All selected B. thuringiensis isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole except AUG-5 to- co-trimoxazole. AUG-5 and GTG-7 were highly toxic to both insects, and possessed cryl, cry1A and cry2 genes. These isolates AUG-5 and GTG-7 also contained high CrylAc (104.8 and 88.32 ng/mg) and Cry2Ab (3792 and 1305.9 ng/mg), respectively in their spore-crystal complex. Both, AUG-5 and GTG-7 isolates, could be considered for further development as bioinsecticides. The present study has established the diversity and richness of B. thuringiensis-like isolates in soils collected from north-eastern region of India.
- Emergence of an Extensively Drug-ResistantSalmonella entericaSerovar Typhi Clone Harboring a Promiscuous Plasmid Encoding Resistance to Fluoroquinolones and Third-Generation Cephalosporins. [Journal Article]
- MBIOMBio 2018 Feb 20; 9(1)
- Antibiotic resistance is a major problem inSalmonella entericaserovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa and are often...
Antibiotic resistance is a major problem inSalmonella entericaserovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa and are often associated with the dominant H58 haplotype. Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is also widespread, and sporadic cases of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin have also been reported. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novelS Typhi clone harboring resistance to three first-line drugs (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) as well as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Sindh, Pakistan, which we classify as extensively drug resistant (XDR). Over 300 XDR typhoid cases have emerged in Sindh, Pakistan, since November 2016. Additionally, a single case of travel-associated XDR typhoid has recently been identified in the United Kingdom. Whole-genome sequencing of over 80 of the XDR isolates revealed remarkable genetic clonality and sequence conservation, identified a large number of resistance determinants, and showed that these isolates were of haplotype H58. The XDRS Typhi clone encodes a chromosomally located resistance region and harbors a plasmid encoding additional resistance elements, including theblaCTX-M-15extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and carrying theqnrSfluoroquinolone resistance gene. This antibiotic resistance-associated IncY plasmid exhibited high sequence identity to plasmids found in other enteric bacteria isolated from widely distributed geographic locations. This study highlights three concerning problems: the receding antibiotic arsenal for typhoid treatment, the ability ofS Typhi to transform from MDR to XDR in a single step by acquisition of a plasmid, and the ability of XDR clones to spread globally.IMPORTANCETyphoid fever is a severe disease caused by the Gram-negative bacteriumSalmonella entericaserovar Typhi. Antibiotic-resistantS Typhi strains have become increasingly common. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel extensively drug-resistant (XDR)S Typhi clone in Sindh, Pakistan. The XDRS Typhi is resistant to the majority of drugs available for the treatment of typhoid fever. This study highlights the evolving threat of antibiotic resistance inS Typhi and the value of antibiotic susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing in understanding emerging infectious diseases. We genetically characterized the XDRS Typhi to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between these isolates and a global collection ofS Typhi isolates and to identify multiple genes linked to antibiotic resistance. ThisS Typhi clone harbored a promiscuous antibiotic resistance plasmid previously identified in other enteric bacteria. The increasing antibiotic resistance inS Typhi observed here adds urgency to the need for typhoid prevention measures.
- Novel pH sensitive dual drug loaded-gelatin methacrylate/methacrylic acid hydrogel for the controlled release of antibiotics. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Feb 17
- The aim of the present study was to develop a novel pH sensitive gelatin methacrylate hydrogel for the controlled delivery of Gentamicin (GS) and Ampicillin (Amp). GS and Amp having synergistic activ...
The aim of the present study was to develop a novel pH sensitive gelatin methacrylate hydrogel for the controlled delivery of Gentamicin (GS) and Ampicillin (Amp). GS and Amp having synergistic activity is effective in killing multi drug resistant bacteria. The hydrogel was well characterized using FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were found to be 85.0 and 77.0% for GS, 79.0 and 88.0% for Amp, respectively. The invitro swelling, degradation and release profiles suggest the pH dependent behaviour of hydrogel. DPPH Assay confirmed the role of 2-amino guanidine in nullifying the side effect of GS and inhibition percentage of DDLHG is found to be 85.0%. Antimicrobial studies revealed the increased efficiency of the drug combination in killing bacteria.
- Outcome of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis according to the length of antibiotic therapy: Preliminary data from a cohort of 78 patients. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0192387
- CONCLUSIONS: A 4-week course of antibiotic treatment might not be suitable neither for A+G nor A+C for treating uncomplicated native valve EFIE.
- Combination of multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis reveals an association of molecular clonality with the emergence of extensive-drug resistance (XDR) in Salmonella. [Journal Article]
- MRMicrobiol Res 2018; 207:170-176
- Salmonellae is one of the most important foodborne pathogens and becomes resistant to multiple antibiotics, which represents a significant challenge to food industry and public health. However, a mol...
Salmonellae is one of the most important foodborne pathogens and becomes resistant to multiple antibiotics, which represents a significant challenge to food industry and public health. However, a molecular signature that can be used to distinguish antimicrobial resistance profile, particularly multi-drug resistance or extensive-drug resistance (XDR). In the current study, 168 isolates from the chicken and pork production chains and ill chickens were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility test, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed that these isolates belonged to 13 serotypes, 14 multilocus sequence types (STs), 94 PFGE genotypes, and 70 antimicrobial resistant profiles. S. Enteritidis, S. Indiana, and S. Derby were the predominant serotypes, corresponding to the ST11, ST17, and ST40 clones, respectively and the PFGE Cluster A, Cluster E, and Cluster D, respectively. Among the ST11-S. Enteritidis (Cluster A) and the ST40-S. Derby (Cluster D) clones, the majority of isolates were resistant to 4-8 antimicrobial agents, whereas in the ST17S. Indiana (Cluster E) clone, isolates showed extensive-drug resistance (XDR) to 9-16 antimicrobial agents. The blaTEM-1-likegene was prevalent in the ST11 and ST17 clones corresponding to high ampicillin resistance. The blaTEM-1-like, blaCTX-M, blaOXA-1-like, sul1, aaC4, aac(6')-1b, dfrA17, and floR gene complex was highly prevalent among isolates of ST17, corresponding to an XDR phenotype. These results demonstrated the association of the resistant phenotypes and genotypes with ST clone and PFGE cluster. Our results also indicated that the newly identified gene complex comprising blaTEM-1-like, blaCTX-M, blaOXA-1-like, sul1, aaC4, aac(6')-1b, dfrA17, and floR, was responsible for the emergence of the ST17S. Indiana XDR clone. ST17 could be potentially used as a molecular signature to distinguish S. Indiana XDR clone.
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- Detection of B. fragilis group and diversity of bft enterotoxin and antibiotic resistance markers cepA, cfiA and nim among intestinal Bacteroides fragilis strains in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. [Journal Article]
- AAnaerobe 2018 Feb 14
- We compared frequency of the members of B. fragilis group in 100 and 20 colon biopsy specimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients. Agar dilution and PCR were orderly used to det...
We compared frequency of the members of B. fragilis group in 100 and 20 colon biopsy specimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients. Agar dilution and PCR were orderly used to detect minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin, imipenem, and metronidazole, and carriage of related resistance genes cepA, cfi, and nim. B. fragilis group was detected in 38% of IBD (UC: 36/89; CD:1/11) and 25% (5/20) of non-IBD patients. While B. vulgatus (UC: 20/36, CD: 1/2, control: 1/6); B. fragilis (UC: 18/36, CD: 1/2, control: 5/6); B. ovatus (UC: 2/36); B. caccae (UC: 1/36); and B. eggerthii (UC: 1/36) were characterized, colonization of B. thetaiotamicron, B. merdae, B. distasonis, B. stercoris and B. dorei species was not detected in these specimens. Co-existence of B. fragilis + B. vulgatus (5 patients) and B. vulgatus + B. caccae (1 patient) was detected just in UC patients. bft was detected among 31.5% (6/19) of B. fragilis strains in the IBD and 40% (2/5) in the non-IBD groups. Nearly, 73.6% of the strains from the patient group and 80% in control group harbored cepA; 31.5% and 20% in the patients and control groups harbored cfiA, and none of them harbored nim determinant. Co-occurrence of the cepA and cfiA was orderly detected in 10.5% (2/19) and 20% (1/5) of the strains in these groups. The resistance rates were detected as 95.8% (23/24 (to ampicillin (MIC range of ≤0.5-≥16 μg/ml), 0% to metronidazole and 29.1% to imipenem (7/24, MIC range ≤4-32 μg/ml). Nearly 25% (6/24) of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and imipenem, simultaneously. No statistically significant difference was detected between the IBD and control groups for drug resistance phenotypes. Statistical analysis showed significant associations between resistance to ampicillin or imipenem and carriage of cepA or cfiA, respectively (p value = 0.0007). PCR results on the extracted plasmids confirmed their roles in carriage of cfiA and cepA. These data provide guide for antibiotic therapy and highlights wide distribution of β-lactam resistant B. fragilis strains in patients with IBD and non-IBD intestinal disorders.