- [Burkholderia cepacia infection in children: a clinical analysis of 16 cases]. [Journal Article]
- ZDZhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018; 20(2):112-115
- CONCLUSIONS: Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen often found in immunocompromised children and can produce drug resistance. The presence or absence of underlying diseases should be considered during anti-infective therapy. The children with Burkholderia cepacia infection often have a poor prognosis, and an understanding of the disease spectrum of Burkholderia cepacia infection helps with clinical diagnosis and treatment.
- Trends and patterns of national antimicrobial consumption in Japan from 2004 to 2016. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2018 Feb 07
- Frequent use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial classes has been reported in Japan; however, little is known about the long-term trend of national antimicrobial consumption, and that of individual agent...
Frequent use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial classes has been reported in Japan; however, little is known about the long-term trend of national antimicrobial consumption, and that of individual agents. This study analyzed the national sales data of systemic antimicrobials from 2004 to 2016, derived from the IMS Japan Pharmaceutical Market database, to assess the consumption patterns of antimicrobial classes and agents in Japan. The number of defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) was calculated for each antimicrobial agent. During the last 13 years, total antimicrobial consumption fluctuated by only 5% around the average of 14.41 DID. In 2016, the most used class was macrolides (32%), followed by cephalosporins (28%) and fluoroquinolones (19%). Oral agents comprised a large proportion (93%) of antimicrobial consumption. The most used agent, clarithromycin, accounted for 25% of all oral compounds used in 2016. The consumption of oral agents with high bioavailability, such as fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim increased, whereas that of cephalosporins decreased. In 2016, ceftriaxone was the most consumed parenteral agent, followed by cefazolin. The consumption of parenteral agents increased after 2009 when high-dose regimens of piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, and ampicillin/sulbactam were approved by the health insurance system. National antimicrobial consumption has been stable over the last 13 years. Moreover, shifts in the use of agents with high bioavailability and those approved for high-dose regimens were observed. However, the increased use of broad-spectrum agents is worrisome. A multifaceted approach is required to reduce overall antimicrobial consumption.
- The role of the type VI secretion system vgrG gene in the virulence and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0192288
- The Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) is an important virulence system that exists in many bacterial pathogens, and has emerged as a potent mediator of pathogenicity in Acinetobacter baumannii. In this...
The Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) is an important virulence system that exists in many bacterial pathogens, and has emerged as a potent mediator of pathogenicity in Acinetobacter baumannii. In this study, we inactivated one of the T6SS components vgrG (valine-glycine repeat G) gene in A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and constructed a complementation strain. BEAS-2b human alveolar epithelial cells was adopted to assess bacterial adhesion, and wild female BALB/c mice were used for in vivo experiments to assess the bacterial killing ability to host. Upon deletion of the vgrG gene, increased antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam, but reduced resistance to chloramphenicol were observed. The vgrG mutant strain showed lower growth rate, reduced eukaryotic cell adherence and impaired lethality in mice. However, the vgrG mutant strain is not implicated in biofilm formation. Our study suggests that the Type VI Secretion System core component VgrG contributes to both virulence and antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii ATCC 19606.
- Group A Streptococci-Associated Necrotizing Fasciitis following Cat Bite in an Immunocompromised Patient. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Crit Care 2017; 2017:3718360
- Necrotizing soft tissue infections are characterized clinically by fulminant tissue destruction, systemic signs of toxicity, and high mortality. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment must incl...
Necrotizing soft tissue infections are characterized clinically by fulminant tissue destruction, systemic signs of toxicity, and high mortality. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment must include early surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. Mortality rate is very high and could be even higher in an immunocompromised host. We present a 57-year-old female with history of rheumatoid arthritis on oral corticosteroid and methotrexate therapy with painful swelling of the left hand following a cat bite that was diagnosed as having group A streptococcus pyogenes-associated necrotizing fasciitis. Treatment with ampicillin-sulbactam, Clindamycin, and surgical debridement was performed. In spite of all the adequate therapy she succumbed to death from streptococcal toxic shock and related complications after thirty-two days of treatment in intensive care unit. Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon but life-threatening complication in immunocompromised hosts. Tissue infections in cat bite wounds are commonly caused by pathogenic bacterium known as Pasteurella multocida. Group A streptococcal infections are not reported following cat bites. A high index of suspicion must be maintained to suspect group A streptococcal associated necrotizing fasciitis following cat bites and an early medical and surgical intervention should be made for any best possible outcome.
- Is diabetes mellitus an important risk factor for the antibiotic resistance in extraintestinal pathogenicEscherichia coli? [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Pathol Microbiol 2017 Oct-Dec; 60(4):546-549
- Escherichia coli is a major cause of extraintestinal infections in all age group. However, the infection becomes more severe when patients have some underlying condition such as Diabetes Mellitus. Th...
Escherichia coli is a major cause of extraintestinal infections in all age group. However, the infection becomes more severe when patients have some underlying condition such as Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine whether diabetic mellitus may act as an important risk factor for the E. coli to express drug resistance property. This descriptive study was carried out in a multi-specialty tertiary care hospital. One hundred and twenty-seven E. coli isolates from diabetic patients, and one hundred seventy-three isolates from nondiabetic patients were studied. Possession drug resistance genes were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis was performed by triplex PCR. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Among the study isolates from Diabetic patients maximum numbers were from phylogroup B2 (42.5%) and D (33%) similarly in case of nondiabetic patients B2 (29%) and D (38%) were the most common phylogroup. Presence of drug resistance genes among the diabetic and nondiabetic patient's isolates were as followed extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (70% and 70.5%) AmpC (9.5% and 14.5%) and NDM-1 ( 7% and 4.5%) and by disk diffusion methods susceptibility pattern were meropenem (94% and 94%), imipenem (92% and 92%), amikacin (76% and 74%), and ampicillin/sulbactam (68% and 69%), respectively. The proportion of diabetic patients strains with the drug resistance characteristics were not significantly different from that seen in nondiabetic patients strains, which indicating that in a predisposed host additional or subtraction bacterial aids for drug resistance property are not a necessity.
- A case of liver abscess co-infected with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Escherichia coli and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2017 Dec 14
- A 73-year-old woman was admitted with consciousness disturbance following a fever. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large liver abscess with which the presence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ...
A 73-year-old woman was admitted with consciousness disturbance following a fever. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large liver abscess with which the presence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Escherichia coli was confirmed by thorough blood and abscess content culture. Empiric meropenem treatment was switched to cefoperazone/sulbactam, followed by ampicillin/sulbactam based on susceptibility testing. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans is a common bacterium that rarely causes liver abscess and may be overlooked during co-infection due to overgrowth of the accompanying bacteria. Clinicians should bear Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in mind and select the appropriate antibiotics according to susceptibility testing when anaerobic bacteria are detected in a liver abscess.
- Reporting antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance phenotypes in Acinetobacter spp: a nationwide proficiency study. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Dec 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Clinical microbiology laboratories must improve their ability to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of Acinetobacter spp. isolates. Higher discrepancies using CLSI when compared with EUCAST are mainly due to mE and to a much lesser extent to ME or VME.
- [Piperacillin/Tazobactam Shortage: Central Restriction and Alternative Recommendations as Effective Antibiotic-Stewardship Intervention at a Maximal Care Hospital]. [Journal Article]
- DMDtsch Med Wochenschr 2017 Dec 13
- Background Drug supply bottleneck is a worldwide challenge, e. g. the antibiotics Piperacillin/Tazobactam shortage in 2016/2017. The efficacy of an appropriate replacement managem...
Background Drug supply bottleneck is a worldwide challenge, e. g. the antibiotics Piperacillin/Tazobactam shortage in 2016/2017. The efficacy of an appropriate replacement management was evaluated at the University Hospital Frankfurt (UHF).Methods The Antibiotic-Stewardship (ABS)-Team at UHF decreed a restriction of PIP/TAZ and provided alternative antibiotic therapy recommendations during the shortage period. Consequences of this intervention on antibiotic consumption and overall costs were investigated.Results Over 12-weeks, PIP/TAZ-mean application rate was reduced by 71 % and was predominantly used to treat hospital acquired pneumonia (62 %), febrile neutropenian children (12 %), followed by other indications (< 10 %, each). Alternative substances' use increased (Ceftazidim + 229 %, Imipenem/Cilastatin + 18 %, Meropenem + 27 %, Ceftriaxon + 26 %, Levofloxacin + 11 %, Ciprofloxacin + 14 %, Ampicillin/Sulbactam + 83 %), however the overall antibiotic consumption declined by -5.8 % (cost savings: 13 %). Simultaneously, additional personnel costs have been noted (+ 4300 €). The evidence rate of bloodstream infections with resistant bacteria and detection of Clostridium-difficile-toxin were both not significantly elevated, compared to windows just ahead, after and one year before intervention period.Conclusion Drug shortages challenge hospital antibiotic-stewardship programs by enforced use of broad spectrum-antibiotics, endanger patient safety and require rational replacement strategies, following infectious diseases- and microbiological outlines. Whilst personnel expenditures are higher, antimicrobial-stewardship interventions may successfully contribute to prevent additional medication costs.
- [Multiple well demarcated skin erosions and ulcers following exanthematous drug eruption after sultamicillin therapy]. [Journal Article]
- HHautarzt 2017 Dec 07
- This article presents the case of a patient with newly developed skin erosions and ulcerations following an exanthematous drug eruption due to sultamicillin therapy. The skin lesions were treated top...
This article presents the case of a patient with newly developed skin erosions and ulcerations following an exanthematous drug eruption due to sultamicillin therapy. The skin lesions were treated topically with clobetasol and prednicarbate and orally with methylprednisolone. A skin smear revealed massive growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. Blood cultures were negative. The cause for developing ecthyma gangrenosum in our patient were iatrogenic immunosuppression and transient bacteremia.
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- Previous Antibiotic Exposure and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients with Nosocomial Infections. [Journal Article]
- BMBalkan Med J 2017 Dec 01; 34(6):527-533
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that there is an association between the resistance density of Acinetobacter spp. and utilization of carbapenems, tigecycline and aminoglycosides. A multifaceted intervention is needed to decrease the incidence rate of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas hospital infections, as well as their resistance density to available antibiotics.