- Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Blockade Reduces Inflammation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Right Ventricular Failure: A Single-Arm, Open-Label, Phase IB/II Pilot Study. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Nov 12
- Inflammation and pericarditis: Are neutrophils actors behind the scenes? [Review]
- JCJ Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 11
- The morbidity of acute pericarditis is increasing over time impacting on patient quality of life. Recent clinical trials focused especially on clinical aspects, with a modest interest in pathophysiol...
The morbidity of acute pericarditis is increasing over time impacting on patient quality of life. Recent clinical trials focused especially on clinical aspects, with a modest interest in pathophysiological mechanisms. This narrative review, based on papers in English language obtained via PubMed up to April 2018, aims at focusing on the role of the innate immunity in pericarditis and discussing future potential therapeutic strategies impacting on disease pathophysiology. In developed countries, most cases of pericarditis are referred to as idiopathic, although etiological causes have been described, with autoreactive/lymphocytic, malignant, and infectious ones as the most frequent causes. Apart the known impairment of the adaptive immunity, recently a large body evidence indicated the central role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of recurrent pericarditis, starting from similarities with autoinflammatory diseases. Accordingly, the "inflammasome" has been shown to behave as an important player in pericarditis development. Similarly, the beneficial effect of colchicine in recurrent pericarditis confirms that neutrophils are important effectors as colchicine, which can block neutrophil chemotaxis, interferes with neutrophil adhesion and recruitment to injured tissues and abrogate superoxide production. Anyway, the role of the adaptive immune system in pericarditis cannot be reduced to a black or white issue as mechanisms often overlap. Therefore, we believe that more efficient therapeutic strategies have to be investigated by targeting neutrophil-derived mediators (such as metalloproteinases) and disentangling the strict interplay between neutrophils and platelets. In this view, some progress has been done by using the recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra.
- Paving a Shorter Path Towards Diagnosis: A Case on Adult Onset Still's Disease from Pakistan. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Sep 04; 10(9):e3255
- Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare clinical entity with unknown etiology, characterized by arthritis, fever, erythematous rash, and other systemic presentations. We report a case of a 21-ye...
Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare clinical entity with unknown etiology, characterized by arthritis, fever, erythematous rash, and other systemic presentations. We report a case of a 21-year-old male who presented with high spiking fever, dry cough, generalized body ache, arthralgia, and an erythematous rash. He was eventually diagnosed to have AOSD based on the Yamaguchi criteria, after a month of visiting three different healthcare facilities and receiving two misdiagnoses and treatment regimes not specific to his diagnosis. The patient immediately responded to prednisoloneand was healthy upon discharge.
- Added value of combining methotrexate with a biological agent compared to biological monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. [Journal Article]
- SASemin Arthritis Rheum 2018 Oct 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Randomised trials provide Moderate Quality Evidence for a favourable benefit-harm balance supporting concomitant use of MTX rather than monotherapy when prescribing a biological agent in patients with RA although in absolute terms only 7-16 more out of 100 patients will achieve an ACR50 response after 6 months of this combination therapy.
- Scoping Review on Use of Drugs Targeting Interleukin 1 Pathway in DIRA and DITRA. [Review]
- DTDermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Nov 03
- CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on use of anti-IL-1 drugs in DIRA and DITRA is scarce and based on observational studies. Larger studies with better methodological quality are needed to increase confidence in use of these drugs in patients with DIRA and DITRA.
- Progress report on new antiepileptic drugs: A summary of the Fourteenth Eilat Conference on New Antiepileptic Drugs and Devices (EILAT XIV). II. Drugs in more advanced clinical development. [Journal Article]
- EEpilepsia 2018; 59(10):1842-1866
- The Fourteenth Eilat Conference on New Antiepileptic Drugs and Devices (EILAT XIV) took place in Madrid, Spain, on May 13-16, 2018 and was attended by 168 delegates from 28 countries. The conference ...
The Fourteenth Eilat Conference on New Antiepileptic Drugs and Devices (EILAT XIV) took place in Madrid, Spain, on May 13-16, 2018 and was attended by 168 delegates from 28 countries. The conference provided a forum for professionals involved in basic science, clinical research, regulatory affairs, and clinical care to meet and discuss the latest advances related to discovery and development of drugs and devices aimed at improving the management of people with epilepsy. This progress report provides a summary of findings on investigational compounds for which data from both preclinical studies and studies in patients were presented. The compounds reviewed include anakinra, cannabidiol, cannabidivarin, fenfluramine, ganaxolone, medium-chain fatty acids, padsevonil, and the valproic derivatives valnoctamide and sec-butylpropylacetamide. On June 25, 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a standardized formulation of cannabidiol oral solution for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome in patients 2 years and older. The report shows that there continues to be a steady flow of potential antiepileptic drugs progressing to clinical development. Many of these compounds show innovative mechanisms of action, and some have already been tested in placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials, with promising efficacy and safety results.
- Disappearance of a strong triple positivity for antiphospholipid antibodies after treatment with Anakinra. [Journal Article]
- HHaematologica 2018 Oct 25
- Self-Adjusting Cytokine Neutralizer Cells as a Closed-Loop Delivery System of Anti-Inflammatory Biologicals. [Journal Article]
- ASACS Synth Biol 2018 Nov 08
- The cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1 β (IL-1β) are both strong NF-κB activators and some of the first cytokines to be released in an inflammatory process. TNFα and IL-1β are...
The cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1 β (IL-1β) are both strong NF-κB activators and some of the first cytokines to be released in an inflammatory process. TNFα and IL-1β are present in many autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TNFα and IL-1β-blocking therapies are quite successful and established in the treatment of RA, but may also be promising in other diseases. For the treatment of recurring autoimmune diseases, strong controlled sensor-effector cells inhibiting TNFα or IL-1β appear highly predestined. Such cells detect a disease biomarker and autonomously react with the dose-dependent production of therapeutic proteins. Hence, we aim to harness and assemble the interactions of TNFα, IL-1β, and NF-κB, which are an ideal match for synthetic biology-based circuits to rewire the transmission to approved TNFα- or IL-1β-blocking biologicals. Considering the high impact of environmental influences on the dynamics of cell-based systems, we established closed-loop controllable cytokine neutralizer cells, monitoring cytokine levels and autonomously delivering powerful biologicals. This real-time processing system may provide dose-dependent drug delivery, which may be tailored for prospective cell and gene therapies against RA, and may offer a more personalized medicine than calculated drug dosing based on body weight.
- Coupling Between Interleukin-1R1 and Necrosome Complex Involves in Hemin-Induced Neuronal Necroptosis After Intracranial Hemorrhage. [Journal Article]
- SStroke 2018; 49(10):2473-2482
- Background and Purpose- Accumulated evidence suggests that hemin-a breakdown product of hemoglobin-plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory injuries that result after hemorrhagic stroke through the T...
Background and Purpose- Accumulated evidence suggests that hemin-a breakdown product of hemoglobin-plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory injuries that result after hemorrhagic stroke through the Toll Like Receptor 2-Toll Like Receptor 4 signal pathway. However, the mechanism of how hemin triggers neuronal necroptosis directly after intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is still an area of active research. As animal model and preclinical studies have shown, the recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) improves clinical outcomes after stroke. As such, we have chosen to investigate the mechanism of how IL-1RA exerts protective effect in hemin-induced neuronal necroptosis after ICH. Methods- Our ICH model was induced by hemin injection in C57BL/6 mice and IL-1R1-/- mice. In addition, we used primary cultured neurons to assess hemin-induced cell death. Co-immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, immunofluorescent staining, neurological deficit scores, and brain water content were used to study the mechanisms of IL-1R1 modulation in neuronal necroptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Results- Free hemin could mediate neuronal necroptosis directly by assembling necrosome complex and then to trigger cell death. This phenomenon was driven by IL-1R1 as IL-1R1 can form a complex with necrosome. After treatment with IL-1RA, both the expression and translocation of the necrosome decreased while disruption of the interaction between IL-1R1 and RIP1/RIP3 (receptor interacting protein 1/3) increased neuron survival. In addition, the IL-1R1-deficient mice demonstrated lower levels of necrosome components, including RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL (mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein), compared with control groups after hemin treatment. In addition, the neurological deficit scores, brain water content, and inflammatory response were all also reduced in the IL-1R1-deficient mice. Conclusions- Functional inhibition of the interaction between IL-1R1 and the necrosome complex improves neuron survival and promotes the recovery of neurological function in experimental ICH. Targeting IL-1R1/RIP1/RIP3 assembly could be a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with ICH.
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- IL-1 Blockade in Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. [Journal Article]
- CHCirc Heart Fail 2018; 11(8):e005036
- Background Enhanced inflammation may lead to exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The aim of the current study was to determine whether IL (interleukin)-1 blockade ...
Background Enhanced inflammation may lead to exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The aim of the current study was to determine whether IL (interleukin)-1 blockade with anakinra improved cardiorespiratory fitness in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Methods and Results Thirty-one patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and CRP (C-reactive protein) >2 mg/L were randomized to anakinra (100 mg subcutaneously daily, N=21) or placebo (N=10) for 12 weeks. We measured peak oxygen consumption (Vo2), ventilatory efficiency (VE/Vco2 slope), and high-sensitivity CRP and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Twenty-eight patients completed ≥2 visits, 18 women (64%), 27 (96%) obese. There were no differences in peak Vo2 or VE/Vco2 slope between groups at baseline. Peak Vo2 was not changed after 12 weeks of anakinra (from 13.6 [11.8-18.0] to 14.2 [11.2-18.5] mL·kg-1·min-1, P=0.89), or placebo (14.9 [11.7-17.2] to 15.0 [13.8-16.9] mL·kg-1·min-1, P=0.40), without significant between-group differences in changes at 12 weeks (-0.4 [95% CI, -2.2 to +1.4], P=0.64). VE/Vco2 slope was also unchanged with anakinra (from 28.3 [27.2-33.0] to 30.5 [26.3-32.8], P=0.97) or placebo (from 31.6 [27.3-36.9] to 31.2 [27.8-33.4], P=0.78), without significant between-group differences in changes at 12 weeks (+1.2 [95% CI, -1.8 to +4.3], P=0.97). Within the anakinra-treated patients, high-sensitivity CRP and NT-proBNP levels were lower at 4 weeks compared with baseline ( P=0.026 and P=0.022 versus placebo [between-group analysis], respectively). Conclusions Treatment with anakinra for 12 weeks failed to improve peak Vo2 and VE/Vco2 slope in a group of obese heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients. The favorable trends in high-sensitivity CRP and NT-proBNP with anakinra deserve exploration in future studies. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02173548.