- Hormones, Metabolism and the Benefits of Exercise: Plasma Steroids and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Response to Regular Exercise [BOOK]
- BOOKSpringer: Chamcham
- The aim of this report is to evaluate the relationships between baseline levels of adrenal, gonadal and conjugated steroids and baseline cardiorespiratory fitness, as assessed by maximal oxygen uptak…
The aim of this report is to evaluate the relationships between baseline levels of adrenal, gonadal and conjugated steroids and baseline cardiorespiratory fitness, as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), as well as its response to a standardized exercise program. To address this aim we used a subset of the HERITAGE Family Study (N = 448). In men, significant positive associations were found between baseline VO2max/kg weight and plasma levels of androsterone glucuronide (ADTG), dihydrotesterone (DHT), 17 hydroxy progesterone (OHPROG), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and testosterone (TESTO), and negative association with aldosterone (ALDO). In women, only the free androgen index (FAI) was negatively associated with baseline VO2max/kg weight. Neither baseline plasma steroid levels nor SHBG concentrations were associated with the gains in VO2max resulting from exposure to the 20-week aerobic exercise program after adjustment for baseline values, age and ethnicity (white or black). We conclude that baseline plasma steroid levels are only weakly associated with individual differences in cardiorespiratory fitness in the sedentary state in men but not in women, whereas no association could be detected with trainability, as defined by the change in VO2max with the exercise program.
- Neurosteroid Levels in the Orbital Frontal Cortex of Subjects with PTSD and Controls: A Preliminary Report. [Journal Article]
- CSChronic Stress (Thousand Oaks) 2019 Jan-Dec/; 3
- CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of neurosteroid levels in postmortem brain tissue of subjects with PTSD. Although replication is required in other brain regions and in a larger cohort of subjects, the results suggest a dysregulation of allopregnanolone and androsterone in males with PTSD and pregnanolone in females with PTSD in the mOFC.
- A- and D-ring structural modifications of an androsterone derivative inhibiting 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3: Chemical synthesis and structure-activity relationships. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Chem 2019 Jul 03
- Decreasing the intratumoral androgen biosynthesis by using an inhibitor of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) is a strategy to treat prostate cancer. The androsterone (ADT) derivative…
Decreasing the intratumoral androgen biosynthesis by using an inhibitor of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) is a strategy to treat prostate cancer. The androsterone (ADT) derivative 1 (RM-532-105) has shown strong inhibitory activity on 17β-HSD3, but needs to be improved. Herein, we describe the chemical synthesis and characterization of two series of analogs to address the impact of A- and D-ring modifications on 17β-HSD3 inhibitory activity, androgenic effect, and metabolic stability. Structure-activity relationships were generated by adding different groups at C16/C17 (D-ring diversification) or replacing the ADT backbone by a nor-androstane or an estrane backbone (A-ring diversification). D-ring derivatives were less potent inhibitors than lead compound 1, whereas steroidal backbone (A-ring) change led to identifying promising novel estrane derivatives. This culminated with potent 17β-HSD3 inhibitors 23, 27, 31, and 33 (IC50 = 0.10, 0.02, 0.13, and 0.17 µM, respectively), which did not stimulated LAPC-4 cell proliferation and displayed higher plasma concentration in mice than lead compound 1.
- Allopregnanolone is required for prepulse inhibition deficits induced by D1 dopamine receptor activation. [Journal Article]
- PPsychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Jun 14; 108:53-61
- CONCLUSIONS: These results collectively suggest that 5αR1 enables the negative effects of D1 dopamine receptor activation on information processing via production of AP. The contribution of AP to the PPI-disrupting mechanisms of D1 receptor agonists, however, do not appear to be mediated by either GABA-A or PXR receptors.
- Impact of hormonal contraceptives on urinary steroid profile in relation to serum hormone changes and CYP17A1 polymorphism. [Journal Article]
- DTDrug Test Anal 2019 Jun 17
- To detect doping with endogenous steroids, six urinary steroids are longitudinally monitored in the athlete biological passport (ABP). These steroids include testosterone, etiocholanolone, androstero…
To detect doping with endogenous steroids, six urinary steroids are longitudinally monitored in the athlete biological passport (ABP). These steroids include testosterone, etiocholanolone, androsterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol, and the testosterone isomer epitestosterone. It is known that the intake of hormonal contraceptives may interfere with the ABP biomarkers. A previous study showed that athletes using hormonal contraceptives (HCs) display lower urinary epitestosterone concentrations than non-using athletes. In this study, we analyzed the urinary steroid profile prior to and three months after administration of an oral HC including levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol (n = 55). The urinary concentrations of all the ABP metabolites decreased after three months, with epitestosterone showing the largest decline (median 6.78 to 3.04 ng/mL, p˂0.0001) followed by 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (median 23.5 to 12.83 ng/mL, p˂0.0001), and testosterone (median 5.32 to 3.66, p˂0.0001). Epitestosterone is included in two of the five ratios in the ABP (T/E and 5αAdiol/E), and consequently these ratios increased 1.7-fold (range 0.27 to 8.50) and 1.26-fold (range 0.14 to 5.91), respectively. Some of these changes may mimic the changes seen after administration of endogenous steroids leading to atypical findings. Notably, even though participants used the same contraceptive treatment schedule, the HC-mediated epitestosterone change varied to a large extent (median 0.43-fold, range 0.06 to 6.5) and were associated with a functional T˃C promoter polymorphism in CYP17A1. Moreover, the epitestosterone changes correlated with HC-induced testosterone and gonadotropins changes in serum, indicating that urinary epitestosterone reflects the androgen load in HC-using women.
- Identification and functional characterization of microRNAs in rat Leydig cells during development from the progenitor to the adult stage. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Endocrinol 2019 Aug 01; 493:110453
- The aim of the present study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of Leydig cells (LCs) of rat. Three small RNA libraries derived from progenitor LCs…
The aim of the present study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of Leydig cells (LCs) of rat. Three small RNA libraries derived from progenitor LCs (PLCs), immature LCs (ILCs) and adult LCs (ALCs) were analyzed by microarrays. In total, 68 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified. Based on the trend of DEM expression from PLCs to ALCs, primary LCs were transfected with miRNA mimics or inhibitors. Five miRNAs (miR-30a-5p, miR-3585-5p, miR-212-3p, miR-369-5p and miR-434-3p) promoted PLC proliferation, and 3 miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-532-3p and miR-329-3p) activated caspase-3, which triggered LC apoptosis. For steroidogenesis, 18 miRNAs could elevate or inhibit androsterone release at the PLC stage. Eleven and 9 miRNAs inhibited the production of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol in ILCs and testosterone in ALCs, respectively. miR-17-5p, miR-29a-3p and miR-299a-5p decreased androgen production by LCs at all developmental stages. Furthermore, the miR-299a-5p-mediated decrease in androgen production by the LC lineage was primarily achieved by downregulating the expression of luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1). These findings provide insights into the regulatory roles of miRNAs during the postnatal development of LCs and suggest potential strategies for the treatment of steroid-related disorders.
- Steroid Metabolites Support Evidence of Autism as a Spectrum. [Journal Article]
- BSBehav Sci (Basel) 2019 May 09; 9(5)
- CONCLUSIONS: Due to differences in the level of alteration, the premise that Asperger syndrome is on the mild side of the autism spectrum and that Kanner's syndrome is on the severe side is supported, but alteration patterns yield different phenotypic expressions.
- A polyaromatic receptor with high androgen affinity. [Journal Article]
- SASci Adv 2019; 5(4):eaav3179
- Biological receptors distinguish and bind steroid sex hormones, e.g., androgen-, progestogen-, and estrogen-type hormones, with high selectivity. To date, artificial molecular receptors have been una…
Biological receptors distinguish and bind steroid sex hormones, e.g., androgen-, progestogen-, and estrogen-type hormones, with high selectivity. To date, artificial molecular receptors have been unable to discriminate between these classes of biosubstrates. Here, we report that an artificial polyaromatic receptor preferentially binds a single molecule of androgenic hormones, known as "male" hormones (indicated with m), over progestogens and estrogens, known as "female" hormones (indicated with f), in water. Competitive experiments established the binding selectivity of the synthetic receptor for various sex hormones to be testosterone (m) > androsterone (m) >> progesterone (f) > β-estradiol (f) > pregnenolone (f) > estriol (f). These bindings are driven by the hydrophobic effect, and the observed selectivity arises from multiple CH-π contacts and hydrogen-bonding interactions in the semirigid polyaromatic cavity. Furthermore, micromolar fluorescence detection of androgen was demonstrated using the receptor containing a fluorescent dye in water.
- Major glucuronide metabolites of testosterone are primarily transported by MRP2 and MRP3 in human liver, intestine and kidney. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019; 191:105350
- Testosterone glucuronide (TG), androsterone glucuronide (AG), etiocholanolone glucuronide (EtioG) and dihydrotestosterone glucuronide (DHTG) are the major metabolites of testosterone (T), which are e…
Testosterone glucuronide (TG), androsterone glucuronide (AG), etiocholanolone glucuronide (EtioG) and dihydrotestosterone glucuronide (DHTG) are the major metabolites of testosterone (T), which are excreted in urine and bile. Glucuronides can be deconjugated to active androgen in gut lumen after biliary excretion, which in turn can affect physiological levels of androgens. The goal of this study was to quantitatively characterize the mechanisms by which TG, AG, EtioG and DHTG are eliminated from liver, intestine, and kidney utilizing relative expression factor (REF) approach. Using vesicular transport assay with recombinant human MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, MDR1 and BCRP, we first identified that TG, AG, EtioG, and DHTG were primarily substrates of MRP2 and MRP3, although lower levels of transport were also observed with MDR1 and BCRP vesicles. The transport kinetic analyses revealed higher intrinsic clearances of TG by MRP2 and MRP3 as compared to that of DHTG, AG, and EtioG. MRP3 exhibited higher affinity for the transport of the studied glucuronides than MRP2. We next quantified the protein abundances of these efflux transporters in vesicles and compared the same with pooled total membrane fractions isolated from human tissues by quantitative LC-MS/MS proteomics. The fractional contribution of individual transporters (ft) was estimated by proteomics-based physiological scaling factors, i.e., transporter abundance in whole tissue versus vesicles, and corrected for inside-out vesicles (determined by 5'-nucleotidase assay). The glucuronides of inactive androgens, AG and EtioG were preferentially transported by MRP3, whereas the glucuronides of active androgens, TG and DHTG were mainly transported by MRP2 in liver. Efflux by bile canalicular transport may indicate the potential role of enterohepatic recirculation in regulating the circulating active androgens after deconjugation in the gut. In intestine, MRP3 possibly contributes most to the efflux of these glucuronides. In kidney, all studied glucuronides seemed to be preferentially effluxed by MRP2 and MDR1 (for EtioG). These REF based analysis need to be confirmed with in vivo findings. Overall, characterization of the efflux mechanisms of T glucuronide metabolites is important for predicting the androgen disposition and interindividual variability, including drug-androgen interaction in humans. The mechanistic data can be extrapolated to other androgen relevant organs (e.g. prostate, testis and placenta) by integrating these data with quantitative tissue proteomics data.
New Search Next
- The "backdoor pathway" of androgen synthesis in human male sexual development. [Journal Article]
- PBPLoS Biol 2019; 17(4):e3000198
- Mammalian sex determination (male versus female) is largely controlled by genes, whereas sex differentiation (development of reproductive structures) is largely controlled by hormones. Work in the 20…
Mammalian sex determination (male versus female) is largely controlled by genes, whereas sex differentiation (development of reproductive structures) is largely controlled by hormones. Work in the 20th century indicated that female external anatomy was a "default" pathway of development not requiring steroids, whereas male genital development required testicular testosterone plus dihydrotestosterone (DHT) made in genital skin according to a "classic" pathway. Recent work added the description of an alternative "backdoor" pathway of androgen synthesis discovered in marsupials. Unique "backdoor steroids" are found in human hyperandrogenic disorders, and genetic disruption of the pathway causes disordered male sexual development, suggesting it plays an essential role. O'Shaughnessy and colleagues now show that the principal human backdoor androgen is androsterone and provide strong evidence that it derives from placental progesterone that is metabolized to androsterone in nontesticular tissues. These studies are essential to understanding human sexual development and its disorders.