- Phase 1 dose-finding study of metformin in combination with concurrent cisplatin and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. [Journal Article]Cancer 2019C
- CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, the current study is the first phase 1 trial combining metformin with chemoradiotherapy. Rates of overall survival and progression-free survival were encouraging in this limited patient population, and warrant further investigation in a phase 2 trial.
- Development of risk models for major adverse chronic renal outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using insurance claims: a retrospective observational study. [Journal Article]Curr Med Res Opin 2019; :1CM
- CONCLUSIONS: The models developed using insurance claims data could reliably predict the risk of MACRO in patients with T2DM and enabled patients at higher-risk of DKD to be identified in the absence of baseline diabetic nephropathy, CKD, or proteinuria. These models could help establish strategies to reduce the risk of MACRO in T2DM patients.
- A prospective evaluation of oral Yunnan Baiyao therapy on thromboelastographic parameters in apparently healthy cats. [Journal Article]J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2019JV
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest YB at a dose of 1 capsule orally twice daily in cats fails to produce any significant change in hemostatic parameters as measured by TEG, although it did significantly reduce HCT and red blood cell count. Yunnan Baiyao was tolerated for most of the cats, although 3 of 17 (17.6%) cats experienced vomiting. Clinicians should be aware of these effects before considering the use of YB in cats.
- Hemoglobin and hepcidin have good validity and utility for diagnosing iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. [Journal Article]Eur J Clin Nutr 2019EJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Ascertaining hemoglobin and hepcidin levels may improve the targeting of iron supplementation programs in resource-limited countries, though hepcidin's high costs may limit its use.
- Autoantibody levels are associated with acute kidney injury, anemia and post-discharge morbidity and mortality in Ugandan children with severe malaria. [Journal Article]Sci Rep 2019; 9(1):14940SR
- Autoantibodies targeting host antigens contribute to autoimmune disorders, frequently occur during and after infections and have been proposed to contribute to malaria-induced anemia. We measured anti-phosphatidylserine (PS) and anti-DNA antibody levels in 382 Ugandan children prospectively recruited in a study of severe malaria (SM). High antibody levels were defined as antibody levels greater t…
Autoantibodies targeting host antigens contribute to autoimmune disorders, frequently occur during and after infections and have been proposed to contribute to malaria-induced anemia. We measured anti-phosphatidylserine (PS) and anti-DNA antibody levels in 382 Ugandan children prospectively recruited in a study of severe malaria (SM). High antibody levels were defined as antibody levels greater than the mean plus 3 standard deviations of community children (CC). We observed increases in median levels of anti-PS and anti-DNA antibodies in children with SM compared to CC (p < 0.0001 for both). Children with severe malarial anemia were more likely to have high anti-PS antibodies than children with cerebral malaria (16.4% vs. 7.4%), p = 0.02. Increases in anti-PS and anti-DNA antibodies were associated with decreased hemoglobin (p < 0.05). A one-unit increase in anti-DNA antibodies was associated with a 2.99 (95% CI, 1.68, 5.31) increase odds of acute kidney injury (AKI) (p < 0.0001). Elevated anti-PS and anti-DNA antibodies were associated with post-discharge mortality (p = 0.031 and p = 0.042, respectively). Children with high anti-PS antibodies were more likely to have multiple hospital readmissions compared to children with normal anti-PS antibody levels (p < 0.05). SM is associated with increased autoantibodies against PS and DNA. Autoantibodies were associated with anemia, AKI, post-discharge mortality, and hospital readmission.
- Differences in lung function between children with sickle cell anaemia from West Africa and Europe. [Journal Article]Thorax 2019T
- CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that chronic respiratory impairment is more severe in children with SCA from West Africa than Europe. Our findings suggest the utility of implementing respiratory assessment in African children with SCA to early identify those with chronic lung injury, eligible for closer follow-up and more aggressive therapies.
- PIEZO1 gain-of-function mutations delay reticulocyte maturation in hereditary xerocytosis. [Journal Article]PLoS Genet 2019PG
- Response-adapted intensification with cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus no intensification in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (Myeloma XI): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. [Journal Article]Lancet Haematol 2019LH
- CONCLUSIONS: Intensification treatment with CVD significantly improved progression-free survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and a suboptimal response to immunomodulatory induction therapy compared with no intensification treatment, but did not improve overall survival. The manageable safety profile of this combination and the encouraging results support further investigation of response-adapted approaches in this setting. The substantial number of patients not entering this trial randomisation following induction therapy, however, might support the use of combination therapies upfront to maximise response and improve outcomes as is now the standard of care in the UK.
- Renal Association Clinical Practice Guideline on Haemodialysis. [Journal Article]BMC Nephrol 2019; 20(1):379BN
- This guideline is written primarily for doctors and nurses working in dialysis units and related areas of medicine in the UK, and is an update of a previous version written in 2009. It aims to provide guidance on how to look after patients and how to run dialysis units, and provides standards which units should in general aim to achieve. We would not advise patients to interpret the guideline as …
This guideline is written primarily for doctors and nurses working in dialysis units and related areas of medicine in the UK, and is an update of a previous version written in 2009. It aims to provide guidance on how to look after patients and how to run dialysis units, and provides standards which units should in general aim to achieve. We would not advise patients to interpret the guideline as a rulebook, but perhaps to answer the question: "what does good quality haemodialysis look like?"The guideline is split into sections: each begins with a few statements which are graded by strength (1 is a firm recommendation, 2 is more like a sensible suggestion), and the type of research available to back up the statement, ranging from A (good quality trials so we are pretty sure this is right) to D (more like the opinion of experts than known for sure). After the statements there is a short summary explaining why we think this, often including a discussion of some of the most helpful research. There is then a list of the most important medical articles so that you can read further if you want to - most of this is freely available online, at least in summary form.A few notes on the individual sections: 1. This section is about how much dialysis a patient should have. The effectiveness of dialysis varies between patients because of differences in body size and age etc., so different people need different amounts, and this section gives guidance on what defines "enough" dialysis and how to make sure each person is getting that. Quite a bit of this section is very technical, for example, the term "eKt/V" is often used: this is a calculation based on blood tests before and after dialysis, which measures the effectiveness of a single dialysis session in a particular patient. 2. This section deals with "non-standard" dialysis, which basically means anything other than 3 times per week. For example, a few people need 4 or more sessions per week to keep healthy, and some people are fine with only 2 sessions per week - this is usually people who are older, or those who have only just started dialysis. Special considerations for children and pregnant patients are also covered here. 3. This section deals with membranes (the type of "filter" used in the dialysis machine) and "HDF" (haemodiafiltration) which is a more complex kind of dialysis which some doctors think is better. Studies are still being done, but at the moment we think it's as good as but not better than regular dialysis. 4. This section deals with fluid removal during dialysis sessions: how to remove enough fluid without causing cramps and low blood pressure. Amongst other recommendations we advise close collaboration with patients over this. 5. This section deals with dialysate, which is the fluid used to "pull" toxins out of the blood (it is sometimes called the "bath"). The level of things like potassium in the dialysate is important, otherwise too much or too little may be removed. There is a section on dialysate buffer (bicarbonate) and also a section on phosphate, which occasionally needs to be added into the dialysate. 6. This section is about anticoagulation (blood thinning) which is needed to stop the circuit from clotting, but sometimes causes side effects. 7. This section is about certain safety aspects of dialysis, not seeking to replace well-established local protocols, but focussing on just a few where we thought some national-level guidance would be useful. 8. This section draws together a few aspects of dialysis which don't easily fit elsewhere, and which impact on how dialysis feels to patients, rather than the medical outcome, though of course these are linked. This is where home haemodialysis and exercise are covered. There is an appendix at the end which covers a few aspects in more detail, especially the mathematical ideas. Several aspects of dialysis are not included in this guideline since they are covered elsewhere, often because they are aspects which affect non-dialysis patients too. This includes: anaemia, calcium and bone health, high blood pressure, nutrition, infection control, vascular access, transplant planning, and when dialysis should be started.
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- Optimizing Hydroxyurea Treatment for Sickle Cell Disease Patients: The Pharmacokinetic Approach. [Journal Article]J Clin Med 2019; 8(10)JC
- CONCLUSIONS: It is urgent to be more efficient in the treatment of SCA, and pharmacokinetics can be an important asset in SCA patients.