- Lipid-mediated mode of action of local anesthetics on lipid pores induced by polyenes, peptides and lipopeptides. [Journal Article]
- CSColloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Jun 01; 166:1-8
- The effects of local anesthetics (LAs), namely, lidocaine (LDC), prilocaine (PLC), mepivacaine (MPV), bupivacaine (BPV), procaine (PC), and tetracaine (TTC), on the steady-state transmembrane conduct...
The effects of local anesthetics (LAs), namely, lidocaine (LDC), prilocaine (PLC), mepivacaine (MPV), bupivacaine (BPV), procaine (PC), and tetracaine (TTC), on the steady-state transmembrane conductance induced by the cis-side addition of the antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotic, nystatin (NYS), in planar lipid bilayers were studied. The addition of TTC to model membranes comprising DOPC and cholesterol (33 mol%) led to a nearly twenty-fold increase in the steady-state NYS-induced membrane conductance. BPV slightly enhanced the channel-forming activity of polyene. LDC, PLC, MPV, and PC did not affect the NYS-induced transmembrane current. We concluded that the effects of LAs on the channel-forming activity of NYS were in agreement with their effects on the elastic properties of model membranes. The ability of aminoamide LAs to promote calcein leakage from large unilamellar DOPC-vesicles was decreased in the following order: BPV > LDC ≈ PLC ≈ MPV. LDC, PLC, and MPV produced a graded leakage of fluorescent marker from liposomes, up to 10-13%. A initial sharp jump in fluorescence after the introduction of BPV was attributed to the solubilization of liposomes and the formation of mixed DOPC:BPV-micelles. Differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) of large unilamellar DPPC-vesicles showed that the main transition temperature (Tm) is continuously decreased upon increasing concentrations of TTC. A sharp drop in the enthalpy of the transition at higher TTC concentrations indicated a formation of anesthetic/lipid mixed micelles. In contrast to TTC, PC slightly decreased Tm, broadened the DSC signal and did not provoke vesicle-to-micelle transition. Both the calcein leakage and DSC data together with the results of measurements of threshold voltages that are required to cause the lipid bilayer breakdown might indicate an alteration in the curvature lipid packing stress, induced by BPV and TTC. The data presented here lend support to a lipid-mediated mode of LAs action on NYS pores via an alteration in curvature stress near the trans-mouth. Similar results were obtained for several lipid pores, formed by polyene amphotericin B, lipopeptide syringomycin E, and the peptides magainin and melittin. This finding further developed the concept of non-specific regulation of lipid pores by LAs. In conclusion, the combination of nystatin with LAs could be a novel treatment for efficient therapy of superficial and mucosal candidiasis.
- [Effect of Acupoint Injection on Eosinophil Counts,Protein and mRNA Expressions of Eotaxin in Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Rhinitis Rats]. [Journal Article]
- ZCZhen Ci Yan Jiu 2017 Apr 25; 42(2):141-4
- CONCLUSIONS: Acupoint injection can reduce the nasal mucosa inflammation by suppressing the protein and mRNA expressions of eotaxin, decreasing the infiltration and gathering of EOS in the nasal mucosa.
- Lack of Methemoglobin Elevations After Topical Applications of Benzocaine Alone or Benzocaine Plus Tetracaine to the Oral Mucosa. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- CTClin Ther 2017; 39(10):2103-2108
- CONCLUSIONS: Recommended doses of benzocaine or benzocaine combined with tetracaine when applied to the cheek mucosa do not induce even clinically insignificant elevations in methemoglobin levels. Metered dosing, such as that used in this study, can help avoid this overdose phenomena with these drugs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02908620.
- Effect of lidocaine on inflammation in equine jejunum subjected to manipulation only and remote to intestinal segments subjected to ischemia. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- AJAm J Vet Res 2017; 78(8):977-989
- CONCLUSIONS: AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manipulated jejunum did not have a significantly greater increase in neutrophil infiltration, compared with 4-hour control (nonmanipulated) jejunum remote to sites of manipulation, ischemia, and reperfusion. Lidocaine did not consistently reduce neutrophil infiltration in jejunum.
- Characterization and mechanisms of the supragastric belch in the cat. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2017 Sep 01; 313(3):G220-G229
- A response in which a belch occurs without gastric involvement, i.e., the supragastric belch (SGB), has been characterized in humans. The aims of this study were to determine whether animals have an ...
A response in which a belch occurs without gastric involvement, i.e., the supragastric belch (SGB), has been characterized in humans. The aims of this study were to determine whether animals have an SGB and, if so, to determine its mechanisms. Studies were conducted in decerebrate cats (n = 30) with electromyographic electrodes on hyoid, pharyngeal, esophageal, and diaphragm muscles. The effects of distending different regions of the esophagus in different manners using a balloon were quantified to determine the most appropriate stimulus for activating the cat SGB. The effects of esophageal perfusion of lidocaine (n = 3), vagus nerve transection (n = 3), or esophageal acidification (n = 5) on activation of the SGB were determined. Rapid large distensions of the thoracic esophagus best activated responses similar to the human SGB, i.e., rapid inhalation followed by a belch. The rapid inhalation was associated with activation of hiatal fibers and the belch with activation of dome fibers of the diaphragm. The rapid inhalation response was independent of the belch response. Lidocaine perfusion of the esophagus blocked the belch response without blocking the rapid inhalation, HCl perfusion sensitized the esophagus to activation of both the rapid inhalation and the belch response, and vagotomy blocked both responses. We conclude that the cat has an SGB that is composed of two independent reflex responses, i.e., rapid inhalation and belch, that are mediated by the vagus nerves and tension/mucosal receptors of the esophagus and sensitized by esophageal acid exposure. We hypothesize that the SGB is a learned voluntarily activated reflex response.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Rapid strong distension of the thoracic esophagus activates rapid inhalation followed by a belch, which is the sequence of responses that compose the human supragastric belch (SGB). The rapid inhalation and belch phases of the cat SGB are activated by hiatal and dome fibers of the diaphragm, respectively, and are mediated by the vagus nerves and tension/mucosal receptors of the esophagus and sensitized by esophageal acid exposure. There are many similarities between the cat and human SGB.
- A Population of Projection Neurons that Inhibits the Lateral Horn but Excites the Antennal Lobe through Chemical Synapses inDrosophila. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neural Circuits 2017; 11:30
- In the insect olfactory system, odor information is transferred from the antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain areas by projection neurons (PNs) in multiple AL tracts (ALTs). In several species, one of ...
In the insect olfactory system, odor information is transferred from the antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain areas by projection neurons (PNs) in multiple AL tracts (ALTs). In several species, one of the ALTs, the mediolateral ALT (mlALT), contains some GABAergic PNs; in theDrosophilabrain, the great majority of ventral PNs (vPNs) are GABAergic and project through this tract to the lateral horn (LH). Most excitatory PNs (ePNs), project through the medial ALT (mALT) to the mushroom body (MB) and the LH. Recent studies have shown that GABAergic vPNs play inhibitory roles at their axon terminals in the LH. However, little is known about the properties and functions of vPNs at their dendritic branches in the AL. Here, we used optogenetic and patch clamp techniques to investigate the functional roles of vPNs in the AL. Surprisingly, our results show that specific activation of vPNs reliably elicits strong excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in ePNs. Moreover, the connections between vPNs and ePNs are mediated by direct chemical synapses. Neither pulses of GABA, nor pharmagological, or genetic blockade of GABAergic transmission gave results consistent with the involvement of GABA in vPN-ePN excitatory transmission. These unexpected results suggest new roles for the vPN population in olfactory information processing.
- Development of Oromucosal Dosage Forms by Combining Electrospinning and Inkjet Printing. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Pharm 2017 Mar 06; 14(3):808-820
- Printing technology has been shown to enable flexible fabrication of solid dosage forms for personalized drug therapy. Several methods can be applied for tailoring the properties of the printed pharm...
Printing technology has been shown to enable flexible fabrication of solid dosage forms for personalized drug therapy. Several methods can be applied for tailoring the properties of the printed pharmaceuticals. In this study, the use of electrospun fibrous substrates in the fabrication of inkjet-printed dosage forms was investigated. A single-drug formulation with lidocaine hydrochloride (LH) and a combination drug system containing LH and piroxicam (PRX) for oromucosal administration were prepared. The LH was deposited on the electrospun and cross-linked gelatin substrates by inkjet printing, whereas PRX was incorporated within the substrate fibers during electrospinning. The solid state analysis of the electrospun substrates showed that PRX was in an amorphous state within the fibers. Furthermore, the results indicated the entrapment and solidification of the dissolved LH within the fibrous gelatin matrix. The printed drug amount (2-3 mg) was in good correlation with the theoretical dose calculated based on the printing parameters. However, a noticeable degradation of the printed LH was detected after a few months. An immediate release (over 85% drug release after 8 min) of both drugs from the printed dosage forms was observed. In conclusion, the prepared electrospun gelatin scaffolds were shown to be suitable substrates for inkjet printing of oromucosal formulations. The combination of electrospinning and inkjet printing allowed the preparation of a dual drug system.
- Preoperative β-blockade and hypertension in the first hour of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. [Journal Article]
- LLaryngoscope 2017; 127(7):1496-1505
- CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative β-blocker use is an independent predictor of an exaggerated hypertensive response within the first hour of operative time. An exaggerated hypertensive effect should be anticipated in patients presenting for FESS with established pharmacologic β-blockade, and caution should be applied to use of epinephrine-containing solutions.
- The Doyle-Saleh blink reflex. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Laryngol Otol 2017; 131(4):347-349
- CONCLUSIONS: The blink reflex appears to occur in 50 per cent of patients, despite a deep level of anaesthesia. Without an understanding and appreciation of the blink reflex, this event may result in a request to deepen anaesthesia, but this is not necessary and surgery can proceed safely.
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- Histamine Applied Topically to the Nasal Mucosa Increases the Transmucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- AOAnn Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2017; 126(4):284-289
- CONCLUSIONS: The transmucosal N2O exchange rate for the middle ear is increased during inflammation caused by nasal histamine exposure.