- [Effect of Acupoint Injection on Eosinophil Counts,Protein and mRNA Expressions of Eotaxin in Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Rhinitis Rats]. [Journal Article]
- ZCZhen Ci Yan Jiu 2017 Apr 25; 42(2):141-4
- CONCLUSIONS: Acupoint injection can reduce the nasal mucosa inflammation by suppressing the protein and mRNA expressions of eotaxin, decreasing the infiltration and gathering of EOS in the nasal mucosa.
- Effect of lidocaine on inflammation in equine jejunum subjected to manipulation only and remote to intestinal segments subjected to ischemia. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- AJAm J Vet Res 2017; 78(8):977-989
- CONCLUSIONS: AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manipulated jejunum did not have a significantly greater increase in neutrophil infiltration, compared with 4-hour control (nonmanipulated) jejunum remote to sites of manipulation, ischemia, and reperfusion. Lidocaine did not consistently reduce neutrophil infiltration in jejunum.
- Characterization and mechanisms of the supragastric belch in the cat. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2017 Sep 01; 313(3):G220-G229
- A response in which a belch occurs without gastric involvement, i.e., the supragastric belch (SGB), has been characterized in humans. The aims of this study were to determine whether animals have an ...
A response in which a belch occurs without gastric involvement, i.e., the supragastric belch (SGB), has been characterized in humans. The aims of this study were to determine whether animals have an SGB and, if so, to determine its mechanisms. Studies were conducted in decerebrate cats (n = 30) with electromyographic electrodes on hyoid, pharyngeal, esophageal, and diaphragm muscles. The effects of distending different regions of the esophagus in different manners using a balloon were quantified to determine the most appropriate stimulus for activating the cat SGB. The effects of esophageal perfusion of lidocaine (n = 3), vagus nerve transection (n = 3), or esophageal acidification (n = 5) on activation of the SGB were determined. Rapid large distensions of the thoracic esophagus best activated responses similar to the human SGB, i.e., rapid inhalation followed by a belch. The rapid inhalation was associated with activation of hiatal fibers and the belch with activation of dome fibers of the diaphragm. The rapid inhalation response was independent of the belch response. Lidocaine perfusion of the esophagus blocked the belch response without blocking the rapid inhalation, HCl perfusion sensitized the esophagus to activation of both the rapid inhalation and the belch response, and vagotomy blocked both responses. We conclude that the cat has an SGB that is composed of two independent reflex responses, i.e., rapid inhalation and belch, that are mediated by the vagus nerves and tension/mucosal receptors of the esophagus and sensitized by esophageal acid exposure. We hypothesize that the SGB is a learned voluntarily activated reflex response.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Rapid strong distension of the thoracic esophagus activates rapid inhalation followed by a belch, which is the sequence of responses that compose the human supragastric belch (SGB). The rapid inhalation and belch phases of the cat SGB are activated by hiatal and dome fibers of the diaphragm, respectively, and are mediated by the vagus nerves and tension/mucosal receptors of the esophagus and sensitized by esophageal acid exposure. There are many similarities between the cat and human SGB.
- Development of Oromucosal Dosage Forms by Combining Electrospinning and Inkjet Printing. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Pharm 2017 Mar 06; 14(3):808-820
- Printing technology has been shown to enable flexible fabrication of solid dosage forms for personalized drug therapy. Several methods can be applied for tailoring the properties of the printed pharm...
Printing technology has been shown to enable flexible fabrication of solid dosage forms for personalized drug therapy. Several methods can be applied for tailoring the properties of the printed pharmaceuticals. In this study, the use of electrospun fibrous substrates in the fabrication of inkjet-printed dosage forms was investigated. A single-drug formulation with lidocaine hydrochloride (LH) and a combination drug system containing LH and piroxicam (PRX) for oromucosal administration were prepared. The LH was deposited on the electrospun and cross-linked gelatin substrates by inkjet printing, whereas PRX was incorporated within the substrate fibers during electrospinning. The solid state analysis of the electrospun substrates showed that PRX was in an amorphous state within the fibers. Furthermore, the results indicated the entrapment and solidification of the dissolved LH within the fibrous gelatin matrix. The printed drug amount (2-3 mg) was in good correlation with the theoretical dose calculated based on the printing parameters. However, a noticeable degradation of the printed LH was detected after a few months. An immediate release (over 85% drug release after 8 min) of both drugs from the printed dosage forms was observed. In conclusion, the prepared electrospun gelatin scaffolds were shown to be suitable substrates for inkjet printing of oromucosal formulations. The combination of electrospinning and inkjet printing allowed the preparation of a dual drug system.
- Preoperative β-blockade and hypertension in the first hour of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. [Journal Article]
- LLaryngoscope 2017; 127(7):1496-1505
- CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative β-blocker use is an independent predictor of an exaggerated hypertensive response within the first hour of operative time. An exaggerated hypertensive effect should be anticipated in patients presenting for FESS with established pharmacologic β-blockade, and caution should be applied to use of epinephrine-containing solutions.
- The Doyle-Saleh blink reflex. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Laryngol Otol 2017; 131(4):347-349
- CONCLUSIONS: The blink reflex appears to occur in 50 per cent of patients, despite a deep level of anaesthesia. Without an understanding and appreciation of the blink reflex, this event may result in a request to deepen anaesthesia, but this is not necessary and surgery can proceed safely.
- Histamine Applied Topically to the Nasal Mucosa Increases the Transmucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- AOAnn Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2017; 126(4):284-289
- CONCLUSIONS: The transmucosal N2O exchange rate for the middle ear is increased during inflammation caused by nasal histamine exposure.
- Intranasal Medication Administration Using a Squeeze Bottle Atomizer Results in Overdosing if Deployed in Supine Patients. [Journal Article]
- A&AAnesth Analg 2017; 125(2):453-457
- CONCLUSIONS: We found a 14-fold increase in the volume (ie, dose) delivered per spray when a nasal squeeze bottle was used with a mannequin in the supine position compared with the upright position. Given the reported toxicity from the use of intranasal medication and the inadvertent overdosing that occurs when squeeze bottle atomizers are used in clinical practice, our data suggest that all intranasal drugs should be administered with a precise, metered-dose device. If a metered-dose device is unavailable, the medication should be delivered at an angle of ≥45°; however, we recommend administering the drug with the patient in the sitting position and the bottle at 90° because only a small change in angle below 45° will result in a substantial increase in medication delivered.
- Lidocaine Pretreatment Reduces the Discomfort of Intranasal Midazolam Administration: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- AEAcad Emerg Med 2017; 24(2):161-167
- CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with topical lidocaine reduces the discomfort associated with administration of IN midazolam (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02396537).
New Search Next
- Seldinger technique for nasal intubation: a case series. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Clin Anesth 2016; 34:609-11
- Nasotracheal intubation can be both challenging and traumatic, especially in cases of atypical anatomy. We present a series of 3 such cases in which an endotracheal tube introducer (bougie) was used ...
Nasotracheal intubation can be both challenging and traumatic, especially in cases of atypical anatomy. We present a series of 3 such cases in which an endotracheal tube introducer (bougie) was used to facilitate successful, atraumatic, nasotracheal intubation via Seldinger technique. The technique described can guide a nasotracheal tube through narrow nasal passages, small pharyngeal spaces, and past acute laryngeal approach angles, all without transoral manipulation of the tube. The technique is easy to perform, uses a routine skill set, and can be advantageous in numerous clinical scenarios.