- A Social Networks Approach to Understanding Vaccine Conversations on Twitter: Network Clusters, Sentiment, and Certainty in HPV Social Networks. [Journal Article]
- HCHealth Commun 2019 Jun 14; :1-9
- Individuals increasingly rely on the Internet, and social media in particular, for health-related information. A recent survey reports that 80% of Internet users search for health information online.…
Individuals increasingly rely on the Internet, and social media in particular, for health-related information. A recent survey reports that 80% of Internet users search for health information online. In the present study, we employ Twitter data to understand content characteristics and the patterns of content flow of the conversations about the HPV vaccine debate. Approaching the HPV vaccine conversations on Twitter as a social network, we can identify key self-formed subgroups-clusters of users who create "siloes" of interactions and information flow. Combining network analysis, computer-aided content analysis, and human-coded content analysis, we explored the communication dynamics within the groups in terms of group members' affective and cognitive characteristics. Our findings show that positive emotion is positively correlated with cluster density, an indicator of strong ties and rapid information flow. In the case of negative emotion, we found that anger is a significant negative predictor for graph density. We also found a correlation between certainty and tentativeness; both at cluster as well as at tweet level, suggesting that clusters bring together people who are sure about the HPV vaccine and people who are exploring for answers.
- Depressive mood and its risk factors, and persistent complex bereavement disorder among caregivers who received hospice care: A longitudinal study. [Journal Article]
- DSDeath Stud 2019 Jun 14; :1-7
- This aims of this longitudinal study were to identify the risk factors of and depressive mood in caregivers who received hospice care 6 months after their patients' death, and the cutoff pint of the …
This aims of this longitudinal study were to identify the risk factors of and depressive mood in caregivers who received hospice care 6 months after their patients' death, and the cutoff pint of the bereavement risk index, as well as, the prevalence of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD). There were 30.28 and 4.59% of caregivers with depressive mood and PCBD, respectively. The risk factors included resistance to the reality of patients' death, anger, self-blame and guilt, support networks, and coping. The cutoff points of total bereavement risk index and five-item short form were 10/11 and 9/10, respectively.
- Angry faces hold attention: Evidence of attentional adhesion in two paradigms. [Journal Article]
- PBProg Brain Res 2019; 247:89-110
- Growing evidence suggests that angry faces do not "pop-out" of crowds, and that the evidence for such effects has tended to arise from methodological issues and stimulus confounds. In contrast, evide…
Growing evidence suggests that angry faces do not "pop-out" of crowds, and that the evidence for such effects has tended to arise from methodological issues and stimulus confounds. In contrast, evidence that angry faces exert special influence at later stages of information processing is accumulating. Here we use two common paradigms to show that participants have difficulty disengaging attention from angry faces relative to happy faces. Experiment 1 used a visual search task to show that angry crowds took longer to search. Experiment 2 used an exogenous cueing paradigm to show that brief onset angry faces held attention and delayed responses on a primary task. This suggests that when seen, they engage attention for longer time, but they do not have the preattentive features that would allow them to pop-out. Together, these two different experimental paradigms and realistic stimulus sets suggest that angry faces resist attentional disengagement.
- Differential magnocellular versus parvocellular pathway contributions to the combinatorial processing of facial threat. [Journal Article]
- PBProg Brain Res 2019; 247:71-87
- Recently, speed of presentation of facially expressive stimuli was found to influence the processing of compound threat cues (e.g., anger/fear/gaze). For instance, greater amygdala responses were fou…
Recently, speed of presentation of facially expressive stimuli was found to influence the processing of compound threat cues (e.g., anger/fear/gaze). For instance, greater amygdala responses were found to clear (e.g., direct gaze anger/averted gaze fear) versus ambiguous (averted gaze anger/direct gaze fear) combinations of threat cues when rapidly presented (33 and 300ms), but greater to ambiguous versus clear threat cues when presented for more sustained durations (1, 1.5, and 2s). A working hypothesis was put forth (Adams et al., 2012) that these effects were due to differential magnocellular versus parvocellular pathways contributions to the rapid versus sustained processing of threat, respectively. To test this possibility directly here, we restricted visual stream processing in the fMRI environment using facially expressive stimuli specifically designed to bias visual input exclusively to the magnocellular versus parvocellular pathways. We found that for magnocellular-biased stimuli, activations were predominantly greater to clear versus ambiguous threat-gaze pairs (on par with that previously found for rapid presentations of threat cues), whereas activations to ambiguous versus clear threat-gaze pairs were greater for parvocellular-biased stimuli (on par with that previously found for sustained presentations). We couch these findings in an adaptive dual process account of threat perception and highlight implications for other dual process models within psychology.
- Melanoma diagnosis: traumatic impact of the event on the patient. [Journal Article]
- GIG Ital Dermatol Venereol 2019 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: The traumatic aspects following the diagnosis of melanoma burst powerfully into the life of these patients, who show different reactions, also according to gender.
- Genetic toxicology in silico protocol. [Journal Article]
- RTRegul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Jun 10; :104403
- In silico toxicology (IST) approaches to rapidly assess chemical hazard, and usage of such methods is increasing in all applications but especially for regulatory submissions, such as for assessing c…
In silico toxicology (IST) approaches to rapidly assess chemical hazard, and usage of such methods is increasing in all applications but especially for regulatory submissions, such as for assessing chemicals under REACH as well as the ICH M7 guideline for drug impurities. There are a number of obstacles to performing an IST assessment, including uncertainty in how such an assessment and associated expert review should be performed or what is fit for purpose, as well as a lack of confidence that the results will be accepted by colleagues, collaborators and regulatory authorities. To address this, a project to develop a series of IST protocols for different hazard endpoints has been initiated and this paper describes the genetic toxicity in silico (GIST) protocol. The protocol outlines a hazard assessment framework including key effects/mechanisms and their relationships to endpoints such as gene mutation and clastogenicity. IST models and data are reviewed that support the assessment of these effects/mechanisms along with defined approaches for combining the information and evaluating the confidence in the assessment. This protocol has been developed through a consortium of toxicologists, computational scientists, and regulatory scientists across several industries to support the implementation and acceptance of in silico approaches.
- Cold temperatures, stress, and violence. [Journal Article]
- HHeliyon 2019; 5(5):e01619
- The relation between temperature and violence was found in many studies. However, the results of such studies demonstrated only that uncomfortably hot temperatures increase violence. There seem to be…
The relation between temperature and violence was found in many studies. However, the results of such studies demonstrated only that uncomfortably hot temperatures increase violence. There seem to be no data on the effect of cold temperatures. We studied the relation between temperature and violence for the Russian Federation because the Russian Federation is a country with huge climatic differences. Two types of the analysis of the data were applied. In Analysis 1 average yearly temperatures were used. For violent crimes a decrease in temperature resulted in the increase of the crimes after taking into account three socioeconomic variables. Analysis 2 was based on monthly data. Violence was high in winter and spring months but low in autumn months. In our opinion, the conventional models that are used to clarify the effect of hot temperatures cannot explain our results. We hypothesize that long periods of cold temperatures can be considered as mild chronic stress. Chronic stress may exert depression and depression is associated with irritability and anger. In some situations these emotions may stimulate violence. An increase in violence associated with city living and economic downturns may partially be a consequence of mild chronic stress.
- Negative emotion and perceived social class. [Journal Article]
- EEmotion 2019 Jun 13
- People use stereotypes about the benefits of wealth and success to infer that rich people look happier than poor people. For instance, perceivers categorize smiling faces as rich more often than they…
People use stereotypes about the benefits of wealth and success to infer that rich people look happier than poor people. For instance, perceivers categorize smiling faces as rich more often than they categorize neutral faces as rich. Moreover, richer people's neutral faces in fact display more positive affect than poorer people's neutral faces. Applying these emotion stereotypes thus enables perceivers to accurately classify targets' social class from their neutral faces. Extant research has left unexplained whether perceivers use broad differences in valence or specific emotions when judging others' social class, however. We tested this here by examining how 4 negatively valenced emotions influence perceptions of social class: sadness, anger, disgust, and fear. Whereas sadness and anger relate to both stereotypes and actual correlates of lower social class (e.g., depression and hostility, respectively), no established links suggest that poorer people should express or experience greater disgust or fear. Consistent with stereotypes of lower-class people, targets expressing sadness and anger were categorized as poor or working class more often than neutral targets were. Targets expressing disgust and fear also looked lower class than neutral targets did, however. These combined findings therefore suggest that perceivers rely on valence differences rather than specific emotions to judge social class, indicating that the broad perception of low social class as a negative state (and high social class as a positive state) may drive face-based impressions of social class. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
- Charting the development of emotion comprehension and abstraction from childhood to adulthood using observer-rated and linguistic measures. [Journal Article]
- EEmotion 2019 Jun 13
- This study examined two facets of emotion development: emotion word comprehension (knowing the meaning of emotion words such as "anger" or "excitement") and emotion concept abstraction (representing …
This study examined two facets of emotion development: emotion word comprehension (knowing the meaning of emotion words such as "anger" or "excitement") and emotion concept abstraction (representing emotions in terms of internal psychological states that generalize across situations). Using a novel emotion vocabulary assessment, we captured how a cross-sectional sample of participants aged 4-25 (N = 196) defined 24 emotions. Smoothing spline regression models suggested that emotion comprehension followed an emergent shape: Knowledge of emotion words increased across childhood and plateaued around age 11. Human coders rated the abstractness of participants' responses, and these ratings also followed an emergent shape but plateaued significantly later than comprehension, around age 18. An automated linguistic analysis of abstractness supported coders' perceptions of increased abstractness across age. Finally, coders assessed the definitional strategies participants used to describe emotions. Young children tended to describe emotions using concrete strategies such as providing example situations that evoked those emotions or by referring to physiological markers of emotional experiences. Whereas use of these concrete strategies decreased with age, the tendency to use more abstract strategies such as providing general definitions that delineated the causes and characteristics of emotions or by providing synonyms of emotion words increased with age. Overall, this work (a) provides a tool for assessing definitions of emotion terms, (b) demonstrates that emotion concept abstraction increases across age, and (c) suggests that adolescence is a period in which emotion words are comprehended but their level of abstraction continues to mature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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- When emotions guide your attention in line with a context-specific goal: Rapid utilization of visible and masked emotional faces for anticipatory attentional orienting. [Journal Article]
- EEmotion 2019 Jun 13
- The emotional value of a stimulus influences how the stimulus itself is perceived, and can "automatically" give rise to processes whose characteristics are inherently related to the emotional content…
The emotional value of a stimulus influences how the stimulus itself is perceived, and can "automatically" give rise to processes whose characteristics are inherently related to the emotional content of the stimuli (e.g., emotion-specific action tendencies). However, to provide optimal contextual flexibility, we propose that emotional information can be utilized in an "automatic" manner for novel, goal-directed processes that are not inherently signaled by the emotional meaning of the stimulus. We investigated this question using the endogenous cueing paradigm: Specifically, we asked how rapidly, efficiently, and to what degree of specificity emotional expressions can be utilized to anticipate the location of targets. We tested the specificity of the utilized emotional information by presenting emotional faces with contrasting affective valence (i.e., joy and anger) or pairs of negative expressions (e.g., anger and fear) as informative central cues. By presenting both masked and visible face cues, we tested whether and to what degree of specificity facial expressions can be utilized to orient attention under conditions of limited cue awareness. Cue validity effects emerged consistently in all experiments, and cuing effects built up fast, already at 300 ms cue-target asynchrony, and-at least partly-on the basis of holistic face representation. These results indicate that emotional faces can be utilized in line with a context-specific goal, with high specificity, rapidly, and even on the basis of limited perceptual input, suggesting that the utilization of emotional information can combine remarkable efficiency and situational flexibility in order to achieve optimal outcomes in various critical situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).