- The role of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors in cardiovascular disease-existing evidence, knowledge gaps, and future directions. [Review]
- EJEur J Heart Fail 2018 Feb 21
- Although traditional renin-angiotensin system antagonists including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have revolutionized the treatment of cardiovascular dise...
Although traditional renin-angiotensin system antagonists including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have revolutionized the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pivotal PARADIGM-HF trial demonstrated that sacubitril/valsartan, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), was superior to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. However, despite international regulatory approval and strong recommendations in the guidelines, uptake of sacubitril/valsartan has been disappointing. Sacubitril/valsartan is now the focus of a large programme of clinical trials testing the hypothesis that ARNIs may supplant conventional renin-angiotensin system inhibitors across the spectrum of CVD, including hypertension, secondary prevention after myocardial infarction, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. This review summarizes the existing evidence, knowledge gaps, and future directions of ARNIs in CVD based on discussions between clinical trialists, industry representatives, and regulatory authorities at the 2016 Global CardioVascular Clinical Trialists Forum in Washington, D.C.
- Role of the renin-angiotensin system in hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Intern Med 2018 Feb 21
- The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important regulator of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. As hepatic fibrosis progresses, levels of the RAS components angiotensin (Ang) II, Ang-(1-7), angiot...
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important regulator of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. As hepatic fibrosis progresses, levels of the RAS components angiotensin (Ang) II, Ang-(1-7), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are increased. The primary effector Ang II regulates vasoconstriction, sodium homoeostasis, fibrosis, cell proliferation, and inflammation in various diseases, including liver cirrhosis, through the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis in the classical RAS. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor and ACE2/Ang-(1-9)/AT2R axes make up the alternative RAS and promote vasodilation, antigrowth, proapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects; thus, countering the effects of the classical RAS axis to reduce hepatic fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. Patients with portal hypertension have been treated with RAS antagonists such as ACE inhibitors, Ang receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists, with very promising hemodynamic results. In this review, we examine the RAS, its roles in hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension, and current therapeutic approaches based on the use of RAS antagonists in patients with portal hypertension.
- MILK-ALKALI SYNDROME (MAS) as a complication of the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. [Journal Article]
- EPEndokrynol Pol 2018 Feb 14
- Milk-alkali syndrome (MAS), characterized by renal failure, metabolic alkalosis and hypercalcemia, is a severe and life-threatening complication of the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. The clinical c...
Milk-alkali syndrome (MAS), characterized by renal failure, metabolic alkalosis and hypercalcemia, is a severe and life-threatening complication of the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. The clinical course is often sudden and is not preceded by any prodromal symptoms. Occurrence does not depend on the duration of hypoparathyroidism treatment, although it is closely related to the applied therapy, especially the dose of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D preparations. Drugs influencing the glomerular filtration rate (angiotensin receptor blockers, sartans, aldosterone receptor antagonists, thiazide diuretics), lack of adequate routine control, changing the calcium carbonate supplementation, dehydration, a diet rich in pH-basic foods (i.e. vegetarian diet), pregnancy and other associated conditions are listed among the factors triggering MAS. A higher calcium carbonate dose is directly associated with an increased risk of milk-alkali syndrome. In case of a high calcium demand it is necessary to control renal function and monitor the level of calcium in the serum more frequently, aiming for the lower end of the reference range. If MAS has been confirmed or if there are alarming neurological symptoms suggestive of hypercalcemia, the patient must be sent to the hospital immediately. Treatment of MAS involves: discontinuation of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and intravenous infusion of normal saline solution to eliminate volume deficiencies and to achieve forced diuresis while maintaining proper fluid balance. As soon as there is improvement in the patient's clinical condition, it is necessary to begin the treatment of comorbidities increasing the risk of renal failure or alkalosis (i.e. vomiting, diarrhea).
- Acute kidney injury and infections in patients taking antihypertensive drugs: a self-controlled case series analysis. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Epidemiol 2018; 10:187-202
- CONCLUSIONS: Acute infections are associated with substantially increased transient AKI risk among antihypertensive users, with the highest risk after gastroenteritis. The increase in relative risk is not greater among users of ACEIs/ARBs compared with users of other antihypertensives.
- Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy and Survival Following Hospitalization in Patients with Heart Failure. [Journal Article]
- PPharmacotherapy 2018 Feb 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that GDMT initiation is associated with increased survival and discontinuation of therapy is associated with reduced survival in hospitalized patients with HF. Future studies should be conducted to confirm the impact of GDMT therapy modification in this population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Pharmacological treatments for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction-a systematic review and indirect comparison. [Review]
- HFHeart Fail Rev 2018 Feb 07
- Pharmacological interventions for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have failed to reduce mortality and hospitalization. Evidence for mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRAs), β-adre...
Pharmacological interventions for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have failed to reduce mortality and hospitalization. Evidence for mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRAs), β-adrenoceptor blockers (β-blockers), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs)-to reduce clinical outcomes in HFpEF remains unclear. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trials.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing pharmacological treatments in HFpEF diagnosed according the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2016 guidelines from inception to August, 2017. The study outcomes were mortality, hospitalization, changes in indexes of cardiac structure and function, biomarkers, and indexes of functional capacity-quality of life (QoL) assessment and 6-min walk distance test (6-MWD). The random-effects models were used to estimate pooled relative risks (RRs) for the binary outcomes and standardized mean differences for continuous outcomes, with 95% CI. A network meta-analysis using a random-effects model was employed to estimate the comparative efficacy of treatments. We included data from 15 RCTs comprising 5930 patients. There was no significant effect seen with all treatments compared with placebo and comparative efficacy of any two treatments on all outcomes assessed. However, mineralocorticoid antagonist spironolactone demonstrated a trend towards reducing mortality compared with placebo (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.79-1.08), sildenafil (0.14; 0.01-2.78), perindopril (0.87; 0.59-1.28), and eplerenone (0.91; 0.25-3.33). Similar trends in treatment effect were observed with spironolactone on surrogate outcomes while eplerenone demonstrated a trend of superior effect in reduction of hospitalizations compared with all other drug treatment. No drug treatment demonstrated statistically significant improvement in clinical and surrogate outcomes in HFpEF diagnosed according to the ESC 2016 guideline. Spironolactone and eplerenone showed clinically relevant reduction in mortality and hospitalization respectively compared with other drug treatments. Further trials with MRAs are warranted to confirm treatment effects in HFpEF.
- Ensuring safe drug administration to pediatric patients with renal dysfunction: a multicenter study. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Nephrol 2018 Feb 06
- CONCLUSIONS: For the majority of the investigated drugs, the awareness that we need to reduce dosages for patients with renal dysfunction was insufficient. To ensure safe drug administration, communication between physicians and pharmacists is paramount. There is an urgent need for the creation of a safe drug administration protocol for pediatric patients with renal dysfunction.
- Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases Among Elderly Residents of Long-term Care Facilities. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Feb 02
- CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the study showed that insufficient treatment of cardiovascular diseases among elderly residents of LTC facilities could be a potential risk factor of poor prognosis.
- Effect of Optimization of Medical Treatment on Long-Term Survival of Patients With Heart Failure After Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and Cardiac Resynchronization Device Implantation (from the French National EGB Database). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 03
- Prognosis of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is improved by drug optimization according to guidelines; however, little is known regarding such optimization in HFrEF patients with...
Prognosis of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is improved by drug optimization according to guidelines; however, little is known regarding such optimization in HFrEF patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This study aimed to describe implementation of this optimized strategy and its impact in patients implanted with an ICD/CRT. Using a 1/97th representative sample of the French national health-care insurance system claims database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted including HFrEF patients implanted with ICD or CRT between January 2009 and December 2014. HFrEF treatments were analyzed before and after ICD/CRT implantation. Heart failure (HF) hospitalization and survival were examined at 1, 3, and 5 years: 378 patients (135 CRT, 243 ICD) with a mean age of 68 ± 13 years were included. Mean follow-up was 23 months [11-42]. At baseline, 36% of patients had no or only 1 HFrEF drug among β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, whereas 26% of patients received an optimal treatment (all 3 classes). At 3 months after ICD/CRT implantation, the prescription rate of HFrEF drugs was higher than baseline but returned to preimplantation levels at the end of follow-up. HF hospitalization rate was higher in the nonoptimized patient group (28% vs 14%, p = 0.001). Optimal HFrEF treatment was associated with better survival (hazard ratio = 0.59 [0.4-0.86], p = 0.006). In conclusion, HFrEF drugs are underprescribed before and after ICD/CRT implantation despite the demonstration that HFrEF drug optimization also reduces death and HF hospitalization in this population.
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- Targeted therapy of underlying conditions improves sinus rhythm maintenance in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation: results of the RACE 3 trial. [Journal Article]
- EHEur Heart J 2018 Feb 01
- CONCLUSIONS: RACE 3 confirms that targeted therapy of underlying conditions improves sinus rhythm maintenance in patients with persistent AF.