- Community approach for reducing small field measurement errors: Experience over 24 centres. [Journal Article]
- RORadiother Oncol 2018 Oct 29
- CONCLUSIONS: The proposed approach could allow one to envision high-skilled therapy centres providing support to those featuring minor experience and could represent an important strategy for the clinical implementation of emerging technologies at high quality levels. The methodology adopted exploits crowd knowledge methods which could be applied in others areas of radiation dosimetry.
- Chemical composition of essential oils from the apiaceae family, cytotoxicity, and their antifungal activity in vitro against candida species from oral cavity. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Biol 2018 Oct 11
- The aims of this research were: evaluate the chemical composition and the cytotoxicity of the Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Anethum graveolens (dill), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Foeniculum vulgare (fen...
The aims of this research were: evaluate the chemical composition and the cytotoxicity of the Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Anethum graveolens (dill), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oils, as well as their antifungal activity in vitro against ten Candida spp. isolates. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The cytotoxicity assays were performed, using the cell proliferation reagent WST-1 in L929 mouse fibroblasts (20x103 well-1). The determinate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), was performed through the Broth Microdilution technique (CLSI). The chemical main components were the cuminaldehyde (32.66%) for cumin, carvone (34.89%) for the dill, trans-anethole (94.01%) for the anise and anethole (79.62%) for the fennel. Anise and fennel did not were cytotoxic in all the tested concentrations, however the cumin oil was cytotoxic in the concentration of 20 mg.mL-1 and the dill in the concentrations of 20 and 8 mg.mL-1. All yeasts were susceptible against the evaluated essential oils. Cumin presented the lowest MIC against yeasts. We concluded that all the essential oils presented inhibitory action against Candida spp., and C . cyminum, P. anisum and F. vulgare were not cytotoxic in the same minimum inhibitory concentrations for the fungi.
- Antimicrobial activity of spices essential oils and its effectiveness on mature biofilms of human pathogens. [Journal Article]
- NPNat Prod Res 2018 Oct 13; :1-8
- The antibacterial activity of Pimpinella anisum L., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Cuminum cyminum L. essential oils (EOs) against some common pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococc...
The antibacterial activity of Pimpinella anisum L., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Cuminum cyminum L. essential oils (EOs) against some common pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 14990, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 1915, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 10005, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231) and their biofilms was studied. The EOs inhibitory effects were evaluated by both Agar Well Diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination. The most active EOs, cinnamon and cloves, were also tested on 18, 24, 48, 72 hours mature biofilms. Cinnamon and cloves exhibited the best results showing a significant activity against all the tested bacteria. Concerning biofilm, results suggest that Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil may be a useful approach to impair the biofilm produced by the tested Gram-negative bacteria.
- Metabolome based volatiles mapping of roasted umbelliferous fruits aroma via HS-SPME GC/MS and peroxide levels analyses. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2018 Nov 01; 1099:117-126
- Despite studies on umbelliferous fruits flavor makeup, nothing is known regarding roasting impact on their fruit aroma. Five major umbelliferous crops viz., anise, caraway, coriander, cumin and fenne...
Despite studies on umbelliferous fruits flavor makeup, nothing is known regarding roasting impact on their fruit aroma. Five major umbelliferous crops viz., anise, caraway, coriander, cumin and fennel were analyzed via headspace solid-phase microextraction to reveal for 117 volatile constituents. Oxygenated monoterpenes amounted for the major volatile class in raw fruits at 75% with (E)-anethole, carvone, β-linalool, cuminaldehyde and estragole as major components in anise, caraway, coriander, cumin, and fennel, respectively. Difference was observed in fennel fruit "estragole" levels derived from different origins. Upon roasting, several novel volatiles were detected viz. pyrazines and flavored Milliard type volatiles. Major flavor intensified response was detected in cumin with an increase in its "cuminaldehyde" levels versus a decrease of estragole levels in fennel. Roasted cumin exhibited highest peroxide value 14.2 mEq O2/Kg, whereas the least was detected in fennel at 6.1 mEq O2/Kg, though with both values not representing a health hazard.
- Phytotoxicity of Essential Oils on Selected Weeds: Potential Hazard on Food Crops. [Journal Article]
- PPlants (Basel) 2018 Sep 22; 7(4)
- The chemical composition of winter savory, peppermint, and anise essential oils, and in vitro and in vivo phytotoxic activity against weeds (Portulaca oleracea, Lolium multiflorum, and Echinochloa cr...
The chemical composition of winter savory, peppermint, and anise essential oils, and in vitro and in vivo phytotoxic activity against weeds (Portulaca oleracea, Lolium multiflorum, and Echinochloa crus-galli) and food crops (maize, rice, and tomato), have been studied. Sixty-four compounds accounting for between 97.67⁻99.66% of the total essential oils were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. Winter savory with carvacrol (43.34%) and thymol (23.20%) as the main compounds produced a total inhibitory effect against the seed germination of tested weed. Menthol (48.23%), menthone (23.33%), and iso-menthone (16.33%) from peppermint only showed total seed germination inhibition on L. multiflorum, whereas no significant effects were observed with trans-anethole (99.46%) from anise at all concentrations (0.125⁻1 µL/mL). Low doses of peppermint essential oil could be used as a sustainable alternative to synthetic agrochemicals to control L. multiflorum. The results corroborate that in vivo assays with a commercial emulsifiable concentrate need higher doses of the essential oils to reproduce previous in vitro trials. The higher in vivo phytotoxicity of winter savory essential oil constitutes an eco-friendly and less pernicious alternative to weed control. It is possible to achieve a greater in vivo phytotoxicity if less active essential oil like peppermint is included with other active excipients.
- The Safety of Mother's Milk® Tea: Results of a Randomized Double-Blind, Controlled Study in Fully Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Infants. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hum Lact 2018 Jul 01; :890334418787474
- CONCLUSIONS: This double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an herbal galactagogue versus placebo among healthy, exclusively/fully breastfeeding mothers and infants found no adverse events associated with the test tea across the 30-day study or the first year of their infant's life. This composite tea appears to present no safety risk for mothers or their young babies.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Anise (Pimpinella anisum) seeds contain anethole, which is a phytoestrogen. Anise is a purported galactogogue, and is included in some proprietary mixtures promoted to increase milk...
Anise (Pimpinella anisum) seeds contain anethole, which is a phytoestrogen. Anise is a purported galactogogue, and is included in some proprietary mixtures promoted to increase milk supply; however, no scientifically valid clinical trials support this use. Galactogogues should never replace evaluation and counseling on modifiable factors that affect milk production. Maternal anise ingestion reportedly imparts an odor to breastmilk, possibly because anethole is excreted into breastmilk. Anise is "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) as a flavoring by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Elevated liver enzymes occurred in a woman taking Mother's Milk Tea, which contains anise. Excessive maternal use of an herbal tea containing anise and other herbs appeared to cause toxicity in two breastfed newborns, consistent with toxicity caused by anethole. Dietary supplements do not require extensive pre-marketing approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Manufacturers are responsible to ensure the safety, but do not need to prove the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements before they are marketed. Dietary supplements may contain multiple ingredients, and differences are often found between labeled and actual ingredients or their amounts. A manufacturer may contract with an independent organization to verify the quality of a product or its ingredients, but that does not certify the safety or effectiveness of a product. Because of the above issues, clinical testing results on one product may not be applicable to other products. More detailed information about dietary supplements is available elsewhere on the LactMed Web site.
- Pimpinelol, a novel atypical Sesquiterpene lactone from Pimpinella haussknechtii fruits with evaluation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in breast cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- FFitoterapia 2018; 129:198-202
- Pimpinella haussknechtii is an annual native plant grows in west of Iran. Phytochemical study of the fruits of P. haussknechtii led to the isolation of a novel irregular sesquiterpene lactone with a ...
Pimpinella haussknechtii is an annual native plant grows in west of Iran. Phytochemical study of the fruits of P. haussknechtii led to the isolation of a novel irregular sesquiterpene lactone with a new skeletone and oxidation pattern named: pimpinelol. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Cytotoxic activity of Pimpinelol was evaluated using standard MTT assay against breast cancer cells. Induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and related gene expressions were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy analysis and real time PCR, respectively. These findings confirmed that Pimpinelol concentrations dependently increased protein aggregation and the mRNA expression of ATF-4, CHOP, GADD34 and TRIB3 in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. According to the obtain results, we demonstrated for the first time that Pimpinelol decreased breast cancer cell viability by inducing ER stress.
- Polyphyletic origin in Pimpinella (Apiaceae): evidence in Western Europe. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Plant Res 2018; 131(5):747-758
- The genus Pimpinella L. comprises about 150 species, being one of the largest genera within the family Apiaceae (subfamily Apioideae). Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that Pimpinel...
The genus Pimpinella L. comprises about 150 species, being one of the largest genera within the family Apiaceae (subfamily Apioideae). Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that Pimpinella is a taxonomically complex group. In this study, evolutionary relationships among representatives from Western Europe have been inferred from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1 and ITS 2) and plastid sequences (trnL intron and the trnL-F spacer), with a representative sampling included (168 accessions in the ITS analysis, representing 158 species; and 42 accessions in the cpDNA analysis representing 35 taxa of Pimpinella and closely related species). All analyses resolved that Pimpinella is a non-monophyletic group, and Pimpinella's taxa that grow in Western Europe are part of phylogenetically independent groups that correspond to three different tribes of the subfamily Apioideae: Pimpinelleae (core group), Pyramidoptereae and Smyrnieae.
New Search Next
- Cross-reactivity by botanicals used in dietary supplements and spices using the multiplex xMAP food allergen detection assay (xMAP FADA). [Journal Article]
- ABAnal Bioanal Chem 2018; 410(23):5791-5806
- Food allergies affect some 15 million Americans. The only treatment for food allergies is a strict avoidance diet. To help ensure the reliability of food labels, analytical methods are employed; the ...
Food allergies affect some 15 million Americans. The only treatment for food allergies is a strict avoidance diet. To help ensure the reliability of food labels, analytical methods are employed; the most common being enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). However, the commonly employed ELISAs are single analyte-specific and cannot distinguish between false positives due to cross-reactive homologous proteins; making the method of questionable utility for regulatory purposes when analyzing for unknown or multiple food allergens. Also, should the need arise to detect additional analytes, extensive research must be undertaken to develop new ELISAs. To address these and other limitations, a multiplex immunoassay, the xMAP® food allergen detection assay (xMAP FADA), was developed using 30 different antibodies against 14 different food allergens plus gluten. Besides incorporating two antibodies for the detection of most analytes, the xMAP FADA also relies on two different extraction protocols; providing multiple confirmatory end-points. Using the xMAP FADA, the cross-reactivities of 45 botanicals used in dietary supplements and spices commercially sold in the USA were assessed. Only a few displayed cross-reactivities with the antibodies in the xMAP FADA at levels exceeding 0.0001%. The utility of the xMAP FADA was exemplified by its ability to detect and distinguish between betel nut, saw palmetto, and acai which are in the same family as coconut. Other botanicals examined included allspice, amchur, anise seed, black pepper, caraway seed, cardamom, cayenne red pepper, sesame seed, poppy seed, white pepper, and wheat grass. The combination of direct antibody detection, multi-antibody profiling, high sensitivity, and a modular design made it possible for the xMAP FADA to distinguish between homologous antigens, provide multiple levels of built-in confirmatory analysis, and optimize the bead set cocktail to address specific needs.