- No blue-yellow color vision impairment after acute ethanol ingestion. [Journal Article]Alcohol 2019; 76:59-63A
- Several studies showed that chronic ethanol exposure can cause color vision deficiencies. There has been no agreement about the axis of color defects due to alcohol misuse since changes in the red-green and the blue-yellow axis have been described in literature. The acute influence of alcohol on the blue-yellow color vision has not been studied as well. The aim of this study was to determine the …
Several studies showed that chronic ethanol exposure can cause color vision deficiencies. There has been no agreement about the axis of color defects due to alcohol misuse since changes in the red-green and the blue-yellow axis have been described in literature. The acute influence of alcohol on the blue-yellow color vision has not been studied as well. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute alcohol ingestion on blue-yellow color vision by using short wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP) and anomaloscopy with the Moreland equation. This is the first study evaluating that question by using SWAP and anomaloscopy. Sixteen healthy subjects without a history of alcohol-related and ophthalmological problems were examined by SWAP and anomaloscopy (Moreland equation) before and after alcohol ingestion. Mean sensitivity (MS), mean deviation (MD), loss of variance (LV), reliability factor (RF), and duration of examination were assessed for perimetry and match midpoint (MP), matching range (MR), and duration of examination for anomaloscopy. Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) were determined by gas chromatography and phosphatidylethanol concentrations (marker of an alcohol misuse) by liquid-chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry in venous blood samples from a cubital vein. Mean blood BAC was 0.86 ± 0.20 g/kg while performing perimetry and 0.84 ± 0.20 g/kg while performing anomaloscopy (BAC: 0.1 g/kg ≈ 0.01 g/dL). MS, MD, RF, MP, MR, and duration of perimetry examination were not altered significantly after alcohol intake. LV showed a significant increase. The duration of anomaloscope testing was shortened significantly under the influence of alcohol. The subjects also revealed a significantly narrower matching range after alcohol intake. In the range of 0.8 g/kg BAC, no blue-yellow vision deficiencies could be demonstrated. In further studies, the effect of higher BAC on blue-yellow vision should be investigated by different methods.
- Review of the main colour vision clinical assessment tests. [Review]Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2019; 94(1):25-32AS
- CONCLUSIONS: The Anomaloscope is the "gold standard" in terms of colour vision testing, despite its incompatibility with daily clinical practice. It is fairly complex to use, difficult to understand for children, and its practice requires having the time available. Nevertheless, it is possible to reach an accurate approximation through the combination of some of the tests listed in this article. The above mentioned tests are a good alternative to determine the presence of dyschromatopsia in settings closer to daily clinical practice or in less controlled settings than a clinical study. The major drawback among the wide range of tests available for the study of colour vision is the difficulty to compare results between tests, since units of the reported data are usually different, and experience is required for its correct interpretation. Currently, there is no consensus on which colour test is the most complete. It is, therefore, advisable to use at least 2 tests in order to ensure diagnoses, and have more extensive information about the visual perception of patients.
- Color Vision Tests in Pilots' Medical Assessments. [Journal Article]Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2018; 89(8):737-743AM
- CONCLUSIONS: The discrepancy in results confirms that current color vision test protocols need to be reassessed. The CAD test could be an interesting alternative to the series of tests used to assess flight crew, but it seems more selective than current tests.Marechal M, Delbarre M, Tesson J, Lacambre C, Lefebvre H, Froussart-Maille F. Color vision tests in pilots' medical assessments. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(8):737-743.
- Assessment of #TheDress With Traditional Color Vision Tests: Perception Differences Are Associated With Blueness. [Journal Article]Iperception 2018 Mar-Apr; 9(2):2041669518764192I
- Based on known color vision theories, there is no complete explanation for the perceptual dichotomy of #TheDress in which most people see either white-and-gold (WG) or blue-and-black (BK). We determined whether some standard color vision tests (i.e., color naming, color matching, anomaloscope settings, unique white settings, and color preferences), as well as chronotypes, could provide informatio…
Based on known color vision theories, there is no complete explanation for the perceptual dichotomy of #TheDress in which most people see either white-and-gold (WG) or blue-and-black (BK). We determined whether some standard color vision tests (i.e., color naming, color matching, anomaloscope settings, unique white settings, and color preferences), as well as chronotypes, could provide information on the color perceptions of #TheDress. Fifty-two young observers were tested. Fifteen of the observers (29%) reported the colors as BK, 21 (40%) as WG, and 16 (31%) reported a different combination of colors. Observers who perceived WG required significantly more blue in their unique white settings than those who perceived BK. The BK, blue-and-gold, and WG observer groups had significantly different color preferences for the light cyan chip. Moreland equation anomaloscope matching showed a significant difference between WG and BK observers. In addition, #TheDress color perception categories, color preference outcomes, and unique white settings had a common association. For both the bright and dark regions of #TheDress, the color matching chromaticities formed a continuum, approximately following the daylight chromaticity locus. Color matching to the bright region of #TheDress showed two nearly distinct clusters (WG vs. BK) along the daylight chromaticity locus and there was a clear cutoff for reporting WG versus BK. All results showing a significant difference involved blue percepts, possibly due to interpretations of the illuminant interactions with the dress material. This suggests that variations in attributing blueness to the #TheDress image may be significant variables determining color perception of #TheDress.
- Can the Farnsworth D15 Color Vision Test Be Defeated through Practice? [Journal Article]Optom Vis Sci 2018; 95(5):452-456OV
- CONCLUSIONS: Practice of the Farnsworth D15 test can lead to perfect performance for some patients with color vision deficiency, and this should be considered in certain cases where occupational entry is dependent on D15 testing.
- Case Report: Invalidation of the Farnsworth D15 Test in Dichromacy Secondary to Practice. [Journal Article]Optom Vis Sci 2018; 95(3):272-274OV
- CONCLUSIONS: All studies to date have shown that patients with dichromacy fail the Farnsworth D15 test. This case report shows that it is indeed possible for highly motivated patients to subvert the test through practice, and knowledge of this possibility is very important, especially in occupational testing.
- Validity of the Worth 4 Dot Test in Patients with Red-Green Color Vision Defect. [Journal Article]Optom Vis Sci 2017; 94(5):626-629OV
- CONCLUSIONS: Congenital red-green color vision defect patients of different types and variable degree of binocularity could successfully perform the Worth four dot test. They showed reliable results that were in accordance with their estimated binocular sensory status.
- Diagnosis of Normal and Abnormal Color Vision with Cone-Specific VEPs. [Journal Article]Transl Vis Sci Technol 2016; 5(3):8TV
- CONCLUSIONS: Cone-specific VEPs offer a rapid, objective test to diagnose hereditary CVD and show potential for detecting acquired CVD in various diseases.
- [Investigation of Color Vision Using Pigment Color Plates and a Tablet PC]. [Journal Article]Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2016; 233(7):856-9KM
- CONCLUSIONS: Testing colour vision using book and tablet pc only gives roughly comparable results. However, separation with the book was better and the colour plates differed in validity. For this reason, only some of the colour plates could be used on a tablet PC.
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- A Performance Comparison of Color Vision Tests for Military Screening. [Clinical Trial]Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2016; 87(4):382-7AM
- CONCLUSIONS: The current U.S. Army CV screening tests demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity, as did the automated tests. In addition, some current PIP tests (Dvorine, PIPC), and the CCT performed no worse statistically than the anomaloscope with regard to sensitivity/specificity. The CCT letter presentation is randomized and results would not be confounded by potential memorization, or fading, of book plates.