- In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from plants against fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candida albicans. [Journal Article]
- CMCurr Med Mycol 2017; 3(2):1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the anti-Candida effects of six essential oils against both azoles-resistant and azoles-susceptible isolates were similar. Given the documented resistance of different Candida species to synthetic and chemical antifungals, these essential oils are effective replacement treatments for cutaneous and mucosal Candida infections, especially in resistant or recurrent cases.
- Nanolipid Gel of an Antimycotic Drug for Treating Vulvovaginal Candidiasis-Development and Evaluation. [Journal Article]
- APAAPS PharmSciTech 2018 Jan 16
- This paper focuses on the development and evaluation of mucoadhesive vaginal gel of fluconazole using nanolipid carriers to enhance tissue deposition in treating vulvovaginal candidiasis. Treatment o...
This paper focuses on the development and evaluation of mucoadhesive vaginal gel of fluconazole using nanolipid carriers to enhance tissue deposition in treating vulvovaginal candidiasis. Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis includes antimycotic agents prescribed for 1 to 7 days or longer, in relapse either orally or topically. The delivery of fluconazole as nanolipid carriers in vaginal gel can be proposed as suitable alternative to the existing conventional formulations to improve the patient acceptability, compliance and localized drug action. The nanolipid carriers of fluconazole were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique and incorporated into Carbopol 974P as gelling polymer. GRAS excipients selected and optimized were Precirol ATO 5, oleic acid and Kolliphor RH 40 to produce nanolipid dispersions. Stable nanolipid dispersions were developed using sodium dodecyl sulfate as the charge inducer. The optimized nanolipid dispersion of fluconazole had particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential value of 158.33 ± 2.55 nm, 0.278 ± 0.003 and - 27.33 ± 0.40 mV, respectively and the average entrapment of fluconazole in the lipid carriers was found to be 67.24 ± 0.87%. The optimized vaginal gel had satisfactory mucoadhesive strength and rheological properties to facilitate vaginal application. The fluconazole release from the gel was sustained showing 30.69 ± 1.02% drug deposition in the porcine vaginal mucosa at the end of 8 h with improved antifungal activity against Candida albicans during well diffusion studies. The optimized gel was non-irritant to the vaginal mucosa of female Wistar rats with no signs of erythema or edema.
- Proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens are effective against Candida spp. isolates and for vaginal candidiasis treatment. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Jan 08; 216:184-190
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins obtained from S. adstringens have antifungal activity in vitro against C. albicans and CNA (including fluconazole-resistant isolates) and presented efficacy in the control of candidiasis in murine model. Therefore, these tannins have potential use in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, representing interesting alternatives to current antifungals.
- Recent advances in delivery of antifungal agents for therapeutic management of candidiasis. [Review]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2017; 96:1478-1490
- Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus Candida. There are over twenty species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is Ca...
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus Candida. There are over twenty species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans. Candida yeasts normally reside in the intestinal tract and can be found on mucous membranes and skin without causing infection; however, overgrowth of these organisms can cause symptoms to develop. Presence of other diseases that compromises the patient's immunity makes it more difficult to treat. Candidiasis is majorly divided into superficial infections (oral or vaginal) and systemic infections, also known as invasive candidiasis. The conventional therapeutic modalities used to treat candidiasis are associated with several side effects that limits the dose and dosing frequency. Development of novel drug delivery systems for reduction in dose and alleviation of side effects is an important strategy to improve the clinical efficacy and patient acceptability. This review gives a bird's eye view of the classification and current therapeutic regime of candidiasis. It presents the varied types of drug delivery systems that have been exploited for delivery of antifungal agents with measurable benefits. It also touches upon echinocandins a relatively new class of drugs that are amenable for translation into novel dosage forms with application against biofilm producing and fluconazole resistant strains contributing to a better therapeutic management of candidiasis.
- In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(11):e0188567
- The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective s...
The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.
- Probiotics for vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant women. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 11 23; 11:CD010496
- CONCLUSIONS: Low and very low quality evidence shows that, compared with conventional treatment, the use of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy could increases the rate of short-term clinical and mycological cure and decrease the relapse rate at one month but this did not translate into a higher frequency of long-term clinical or mycological cure. Probiotics use does not seem to increase the frequency of serious or non-serious adverse events. There is a need for well-designed RCTs with standardized methodologies, longer follow-up and larger sample size.
- Effects of long-term weekly iron and folic acid supplementation on lower genital tract infection - a double blind, randomised controlled trial in Burkina Faso. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Med 2017 Nov 23; 15(1):206
- CONCLUSIONS: Periconceptional weekly iron supplementation of young women did not increase the risk of lower genital tract infections but did increase general morbidity in the non-pregnant cohort. Unabsorbed gut iron due to malaria could induce enteric infections, accounting for the increased administration of antibiotics and antifungals in the iron-supplemented arm. This finding reinforces concerns about routine iron supplementation in highly malarious areas.
- Discovery of simplified sampangine derivatives as novel fungal biofilm inhibitors. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2018 Jan 01; 143:1510-1523
- Lack of novel antifungal agents and severe drug resistance have led to high incidence and associated mortality of invasive fungal infections. To tackle the challenges, novel antifungal agents with ne...
Lack of novel antifungal agents and severe drug resistance have led to high incidence and associated mortality of invasive fungal infections. To tackle the challenges, novel antifungal agents with new chemotype, fungicidal activity and anti-resistant potency are highly desirable. On the basis of our previously identified simplified analogue of antifungal natural product sampangine, systemic structure-activity relationships were clarified and two novel derivatives showed promising features as novel antifungal lead compounds. Compounds 22b and 22c showed good fungicidal activity against both fluconazole-sensitive and fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains. Moreover, they were proven to be potent inhibitors of Candida albicans biofilm formation and yeast-to-hypha morphological transition by down-regulating biofilm-associated genes. In a rat vaginal Candida albicans infection model, compounds 22b and 22c showed excellent therapeutic effects with low toxicity. The results highlighted the potential of sampangine derivatives to overcome fluconazole-related and biofilm-related drug resistance.
- Antifungal susceptibility results of vaginal yeast isolates from New Zealand women, 2001-2015. [Letter]
- NZN Z Med J 2017 11 10; 130(1465):112-115
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- In vitro and in vivo effects of suloctidil on growth and biofilm formation of the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2017 Sep 19; 8(41):69972-69982
- As the most frequent fungal pathogen in humans, Candida albicans can develop serious drug resistance because its biofilms are resistant to most antifungal agents; this leads to an urgent need to deve...
As the most frequent fungal pathogen in humans, Candida albicans can develop serious drug resistance because its biofilms are resistant to most antifungal agents; this leads to an urgent need to develop novel antifungals. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of an antithrombotic drug, suloctidil, against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and in vivo. We found that suloctidil is effective to inhibit C. albicans biofilm, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC80) of 4 μg/mL, a biofilm inhibiting concentration (BIC80) of 16 μg/mL and a biofilm eradicating concentration (BEC80) of 64 μg/mL. Furthermore, the concentration-dependent characteristics of suloctidil were shown by its time-kill curves. Scanning electron microscopy images clearly revealed the morphological effects of suloctidil on biofilm. Yeast-to-hyphal form switching is a key virulence factor of C. albicans; therefore, we performed hyphal growth tests and observed that suloctidil inhibited yeast-to-hyphal form switching. This result was consistent with the down-regulation of hypha-specific gene (HWP1, ALS3, and ECE1) expression levels after suloctidil treatment. In vivo, 256 μg/mL of suloctidil significantly reduced fungal counts (P<0.01) compared to that in groups without treatment; the treatment group induced a slight histological reaction, especially when the treatment lasted for 5 days (P<0.01). Taken together, our data suggest that suloctidil is a potential antifungal agent.