- Risk of major congenital malformations following first trimester exposure to vaginal azoles used for treating vulvovaginal candidiasis: a population based retrospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- BJOGBJOG 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Intrauterine exposure to vaginal azoles during the first trimester of pregnancy was not associated with either major or specific malformations according to organ systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Loss of Upc2p-Inducible ERG3 Transcription Is Sufficient To Confer Niche-Specific Azole Resistance without Compromising Candida albicans Pathogenicity. [Journal Article]
- MBIOMBio 2018 May 22; 9(3)
- Inactivation of sterol Δ5,6-desaturase (Erg3p) in the prevalent fungal pathogen Candida albicans is one of several mechanisms that can confer resistance to the azole antifungal drugs. However, loss o...
Inactivation of sterol Δ5,6-desaturase (Erg3p) in the prevalent fungal pathogen Candida albicans is one of several mechanisms that can confer resistance to the azole antifungal drugs. However, loss of Erg3p activity is also associated with deficiencies in stress tolerance, invasive hyphal growth, and attenuated virulence in a mouse model of disseminated infection. This may explain why relatively few erg3-deficient strains have been reported among azole-resistant clinical isolates. In this study, we examined the consequences of Erg3p inactivation upon C. albicans pathogenicity and azole susceptibility in mouse models of mucosal and disseminated infection. While a C. albicanserg3Δ/Δ mutant was unable to cause lethality in the disseminated model, it induced pathology in a mouse model of vaginal infection. The erg3Δ/Δ mutant was also more resistant to fluconazole treatment than the wild type in both models of infection. Thus, complete loss of Erg3p activity confers azole resistance but also niche-specific virulence deficiencies. Serendipitously, we discovered that loss of azole-inducible ERG3 transcription (rather than complete inactivation) is sufficient to confer in vitro fluconazole resistance, without compromising C. albicans stress tolerance, hyphal growth, or pathogenicity in either mouse model. It is also sufficient to confer fluconazole resistance in the mouse vaginal model, but not in the disseminated model of infection, and thus confers niche-specific azole resistance without compromising C. albicans pathogenicity at either site. Collectively, these results establish that modulating Erg3p expression or activity can have niche-specific consequences on both C. albicans pathogenicity and azole resistance.IMPORTANCE While conferring resistance to the azole antifungals in vitro, loss of sterol Δ5,6-desaturase (Erg3p) activity has also been shown to reduce C. albicans pathogenicity. Accordingly, it has been presumed that this mechanism may not be significant in the clinical setting. The results presented here challenge this assumption, revealing a more complex relationship between Erg3p activity, azole resistance, C. albicans pathogenicity, and the specific site of infection. Most importantly, we have shown that even modest changes in ERG3 transcription are sufficient to confer azole resistance without compromising C. albicans fitness or pathogenicity. Given that previous efforts to assess the importance of ERG3 as a determinant of clinical azole resistance have focused almost exclusively on detecting null mutants, its role may have been grossly underestimated. On the basis of our results, a more thorough investigation of the contribution of the ERG3 gene to azole resistance in the clinical setting is warranted.
- Antifungal activity of essential oils against azole-resistant and azole-susceptible <i></i>Candida glabrata<i></i> strains vaginal isolates. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Microbiol 2018 May 10
- <i></i>Candida glabrata<i></i> is an opportunistic pathogen, associated with endocarditis, meningitis and disseminated disease and also with complicated vaginitis. Essential oils derived from aromati...
<i></i>Candida glabrata<i></i> is an opportunistic pathogen, associated with endocarditis, meningitis and disseminated disease and also with complicated vaginitis. Essential oils derived from aromatic plants are known in traditional medicine as antimicrobial agents and have antifungal properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the twelve tested essential oils (tea tree, laurel, anise, basil, bergamot, lavender, mint, oregano, grapefruit, rosemary, winter savory and ginger) could have a transverse effect on <i></i>C. glabrata<i></i> sensitive strains but, above all, on strains resistant to the three main used azole antifungals (clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole). For this reason, different strains of <i></i>C. glabrata<i></i>, vaginal isolated, were characterized (disk diffusion assay, MIC) with respect to their response to such antifungals. Electron microscopy analyses were performed to examine in depth cellular damages. Subsequently, we wanted to evaluate the effect of the oils also on human cells in order to estimate their potential cytotoxicity. Oregano and winter savory were the two most effective essential oils inducing: growth inhibition, cell damage of <i></i>C. glabrata<i></i> strains (both sensitive and resistant to azole antifungal drugs) and medium-high level of toxicity against human keratinocytes. The results of this work support the research for new alternatives or complementary therapies against vaginal candidiasis.
- Effect of 2-Phenylethanol as Antifungal Agent and Common Antifungals (Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Itraconazole) on Candida Species Isolated from Chronic and Recurrent Cases of Candidal Vulvovaginitis. [Journal Article]
- ADAssay Drug Dev Technol 2018; 16(3):141-149
- The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol are clearly visible through its intervention in Candida morphogenesis. Chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, however, does not respond to this standard exper...
The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol are clearly visible through its intervention in Candida morphogenesis. Chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, however, does not respond to this standard experimental therapy; therefore, the study presented in this article investigated the effect of common antifungal drugs (amphotericin B [AMB], fluconazole [FLU], and itraconazole [ITC]), in combination with 2-phenylethanol, on the Candida species isolated from cases of chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, thereby allowing the recommendation of a more appropriate treatment option. Forty isolates from patients with chronic and recurrent vaginal candidiasis were investigated in this experimental study. The specimens were examined by direct microscopy, culturing, and PCR to identify the species. The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol and conventional drugs, both alone and in combination, were determined in duplicate. Finally, the findings were analyzed. In this study, 40 strains of Candida species were identified, whose agents were Candida albicans (95%) and Candida africana (5%). After 48 h, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of the 2-phenylethanol was 800-3,200 μg/mL. Also, in the final study on the MIC levels of common antifungal drugs, AMB (0.42 μg/mL) had the lowest MIC, FLU (40.51 μg/mL) had the highest MIC, and the combination of ITC and 2-phenylethanol had the lowest fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of any of the combinations (FICI range, 0.26-1.03). Combining FLU and ITC with 2-phenylethanol can effectively increase their antifungal effect.
- Antifungal susceptibility testing of vulvovaginalCandidaspecies among women attending antenatal clinic in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Drug Resist 2018; 11:447-456
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study, frequency of VVC was noted to be high in the second trimester of pregnancy, with the highest frequency ofC. albicansisolated, followed byC. tropicalisandC. krusei. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed that fluconazole was exceedingly resistant againstCandidaspecies (62%), followed by clotrimazole (59.3%) and nystatin (58.3%). On the contrary, voriconazole had the highest antimicrobial activity againstCandidaspecies (85.2%).
- Modulation of Cyp450, ALS1 and COX-2 signaling pathways induced byCandida albicansinfection via novel antifungal agents. [Journal Article]
- SPSaudi Pharm J 2018; 26(3):349-357
- Although, fluconazole is widely used in clinical treatment as an antifungal drug, it recorded potential problems as resistance and intracellular accumulation. Female albino mice were injected with si...
Although, fluconazole is widely used in clinical treatment as an antifungal drug, it recorded potential problems as resistance and intracellular accumulation. Female albino mice were injected with singleipdose ofCandida albicans(1.5 × 106CFU).Three weeks post treatment with fluconazole and two novel synthesized compounds [(2-(4-(Pyridin-2-yl) aminosulfonylphenylamino)-6-(naphthalen-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl) pyridine-3carbonitrile) and (2-(4-(Pyrimidin-2-yl) aminosulfonylphenylamino)-6-(naphthalen-2-yl)-4-(pyridine-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile) (13b & 14b, respectively)] in both low and high doses (50 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg), liver function and vaginal inflammation were assessed.Candida albicanssignificantly elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and butrylcholinesterase (BCHE) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). Molecular analysis confirmed a significant up-regulation in mRNA gene expression of Agglutinin-like sequence (ALS1), hepatic cytochrome p450 (Cyp450). Vaginal COX-2 gene expression was also elevated. Nevertheless, a significant down-regulation was apparent in mice treated with the aforementioned compounds. Meanwhile, administration of 14b in a high dose noticeably down-regulated the altered parameters expression showing a significant effect in comparison to animals treated with the variable doses of the tested compounds. Histopathological finding confirmed the obtained results. The current work investigated the efficiency of new synthetic pyrimidine derivatives 14bas anti-microbial agents and recommended to be improved and evaluated as a novel antifungal drug to overcome the emergence of resistance problem.
- Formulation, stability study, and pre-clinical evaluation of a vaginal cream containing curcumin in a rat model of vulvovaginal candidiasis. [Journal Article]
- MMycoses 2018 Mar 08
- Owing to the growing resistance among isolates of Candida species to usual antifungal agents and the well-known therapeutic potential of curcumin, the purpose of this study was to develop and validat...
Owing to the growing resistance among isolates of Candida species to usual antifungal agents and the well-known therapeutic potential of curcumin, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate a vaginal formulation containing this substance and to evaluating its effectiveness in the treatment of experimental vulvovaginal candidiasis METHODS: Curcumin was incorporated in a vaginal cream in three concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%). The different concentrations of the cream and its controls were intravaginally administered in an immunosuppressed rat model to evaluate the efficacy in the treatment of experimental vulvovaginal candidiasis. Samples of the cream were also subjected to centrifugation and physical stability tests and an analytical method for quantification of curcumin was validated based on HPLC RESULTS: The formulation was stable and the HPLC method could be considered suitable for the quantitative determination of curcumin in the cream. After six days of pre-clinical study, the number of infected animals was 1/6 in all groups treated with curcumin vaginal cream and the fungal burden showed a progressive reduction. Reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the group treated with 1.0% cream CONCLUSION: Vaginal cream containing curcumin could be considered a promising effective antifungal medicine in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Reduced Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal Candida Species at Normal Vaginal pH Levels: Clinical Implications. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Low Genit Tract Dis 2018; 22(2):152-158
- CONCLUSIONS: Antifungals have reduced in vitro potency when tested at lower pH. Candida glabrata is more affected than C. albicans. The impact may be greatest for the antifungal terconazole and against C. glabrata isolates.
- In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from plants against fluconazole-susceptible and -resistantCandida albicans. [Journal Article]
- CMCurr Med Mycol 2017; 3(2):1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the anti-Candidaeffects of six essential oils against both azoles-resistant and azoles-susceptible isolates were similar. Given the documented resistance of differentCandidaspecies to synthetic and chemical antifungals, these essential oils are effective replacement treatments for cutaneous and mucosalCandidainfections, especially in resistant or recurrent cases.
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- Nanolipid Gel of an Antimycotic Drug for Treating Vulvovaginal Candidiasis-Development and Evaluation. [Journal Article]
- APAAPS PharmSciTech 2018; 19(3):1297-1307
- This paper focuses on the development and evaluation of mucoadhesive vaginal gel of fluconazole using nanolipid carriers to enhance tissue deposition in treating vulvovaginal candidiasis. Treatment o...
This paper focuses on the development and evaluation of mucoadhesive vaginal gel of fluconazole using nanolipid carriers to enhance tissue deposition in treating vulvovaginal candidiasis. Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis includes antimycotic agents prescribed for 1 to 7 days or longer, in relapse either orally or topically. The delivery of fluconazole as nanolipid carriers in vaginal gel can be proposed as suitable alternative to the existing conventional formulations to improve the patient acceptability, compliance and localized drug action. The nanolipid carriers of fluconazole were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique and incorporated into Carbopol 974P as gelling polymer. GRAS excipients selected and optimized were Precirol ATO 5, oleic acid and Kolliphor RH 40 to produce nanolipid dispersions. Stable nanolipid dispersions were developed using sodium dodecyl sulfate as the charge inducer. The optimized nanolipid dispersion of fluconazole had particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential value of 158.33 ± 2.55 nm, 0.278 ± 0.003 and - 27.33 ± 0.40 mV, respectively and the average entrapment of fluconazole in the lipid carriers was found to be 67.24 ± 0.87%. The optimized vaginal gel had satisfactory mucoadhesive strength and rheological properties to facilitate vaginal application. The fluconazole release from the gel was sustained showing 30.69 ± 1.02% drug deposition in the porcine vaginal mucosa at the end of 8 h with improved antifungal activity against Candida albicans during well diffusion studies. The optimized gel was non-irritant to the vaginal mucosa of female Wistar rats with no signs of erythema or edema.