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Unbound Medicine.
(antigen processing)
42,539 results
  • A proposed treatment for pathogenic enveloped viruses having high rates of mutation or replication. [Journal Article]
    Scand J Immunol. 2020 Jul 08 [Online ahead of print]Roe K
  • Several enveloped viruses, particularly some RNA viruses, have high rates of mutation or replication, which can make them virulent pathogens in humans and other mammals. A proposed treatment could use synthesized proteins to mask pathogenic viral surface proteins to quickly induce an immune attack on specific enveloped viruses by using existing immune cells. One treatment could inject dual-protei…
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the differentiation and effector functions of monocytes. [Journal Article]
    Innate Immun. 2020 Jul; 26(5):424-434.Maqbool M, Algraittee SJR, … Ramasamy R
  • Although monocytes represent an essential part of the host defence system, their accumulation and prolonged stimulation could be detrimental and may aggravate chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study has explored the less-understood immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells on monocyte functions. Isolated purified human monocytes were co-cultured with human umbilical cord-derived…
  • Key driver genes as potential therapeutic targets in renal allograft rejection. [Journal Article]
    JCI Insight. 2020 Jul 07 [Online ahead of print]Yi Z, Keung KL, … Zhang W
  • Acute rejection (AR) in renal transplantation is an established risk factor for reduced allograft survival. The incidence of AR is 10-20% despite standard of care immunosuppression, suggesting molecular pathways exist which are inadequately suppressed by current therapy. Molecules with regulatory control among these could serve as important targets for therapeutic manipulation to prevent rejectio…
  • The role of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in Immune Regulation and Diseases. [Journal Article]
    Curr Pharm Des. 2020 Jul 07 [Online ahead of print]Martinez GP, Zabaleta ME, … Mijares MR
  • Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are derivatives of the heterocyclic aromatic compound quinoline. These economical compounds were used as antimalarial agents for many years. Currently, they are used as monotherapy or in conjunction with other therapies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren's syndrome (S…
  • Unraveling the regulatory role of endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation in tumor immunity. [Journal Article]
    Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2020 Jul 07 [Online ahead of print]Qin X, Denton WD, … Feng H
  • During malignant transformation and cancer progression, tumor cells face both intrinsic and extrinsic stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in particular. To survive and proliferate, tumor cells use multiple stress response pathways to mitigate ER stress, promoting disease aggression and treatment resistance. Among the stress response pathways is ER-associated degradation (ERAD), which consis…
  • MHC Class I Downregulation in Cancer: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy. [Review]
    Cancers (Basel). 2020 Jul 02; 12(7)Cornel AM, Mimpen IL, Nierkens S
  • In recent years, major advances have been made in cancer immunotherapy. This has led to significant improvement in prognosis of cancer patients, especially in the hematological setting. Nonetheless, translation of these successes to solid tumors was found difficult. One major mechanism through which solid tumors can avoid anti-tumor immunity is the downregulation of major histocompatibility compl…
  • Mechanisms of Resistance to Immunotoxins Containing Pseudomonas Exotoxin A in Cancer Therapy. [Review]
    Biomolecules. 2020 Jun 30; 10(7)Dieffenbach M, Pastan I
  • Immunotoxins are a class of targeted cancer therapeutics in which a toxin such as Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is linked to an antibody or cytokine to direct the toxin to a target on cancer cells. While a variety of PE-based immunotoxins have been developed and a few have demonstrated promising clinical and preclinical results, cancer cells frequently have or develop resistance to these immunotoxi…
  • Hepatic Stellate Cells and Hepatocytes as Liver Antigen-Presenting Cells during B. abortus Infection. [Journal Article]
    Pathogens. 2020 Jun 30; 9(7)Arriola Benitez PC, Pesce Viglietti AI, … Delpino MV
  • In Brucellosis, the role of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in the induction of liver fibrosis has been elucidated recently. Here, we study how the infection modulates the antigen-presenting capacity of LX-2 cells. Brucella abortus infection induces the upregulation of class II transactivator protein (CIITA) with concomitant MHC-I and -II expression in LX-2 cells in a manner that is independent fro…
  • PD-L1 Expression Affects Neoantigen Presentation. [Journal Article]
    iScience. 2020 Jun 26; 23(6):101238.Okada M, Shimizu K, … Fujii SI
  • Although PD-L1 expression on tumor is related to the prognosis of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy, a recent study also demonstrated clinical benefits even in patients without PD-L1 expression. To understand the relationship between innate resistance and antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses especially against neoantigens, the interaction between PD-L1+ or genetically PD-L1-del…
  • Autophagy in immunity. [Journal Article]
    Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2020; 172:67-85.Münz C
  • The molecular machinery of macroautophagy consists of Atg proteins and supports cytoplasmic constituent degradation in lysosomes as its canonical function, phagosome maturation and exocytosis. These different biological processes contribute to cell intrinsic, innate and adaptive immunity. For the respective immune responses, Atg proteins mediate direct pathogen degradation, inflammation restricti…
  • Polymorphisms of HLA-B: influences on assembly and immunity. [Review]
    Curr Opin Immunol. 2020 Jun 30; 64:137-145.Olson E, Geng J, Raghavan M
  • The major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) complex functions in innate and adaptive immunity, mediating surveillance of the subcellular environment. In humans, MHC-I heavy chains are encoded by three genes: the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. These genes are highly polymorphic, which results in the expression, typically, of six different HLA class I (HLA-I) proteins on the ce…
  • Galectin-8 Enhances T cell Response by Promotion of Antigen Internalization and Processing. [Journal Article]
    iScience. 2020 Jun 17; 23(7):101278.Prato CA, Carabelli J, … Tribulatti MV
  • Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a mammalian lectin endowed with immunostimulatory ability. In the present work, we demonstrate that Gal-8-glycan interactions on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) promote antigen binding and internalization, independently from antigen nature. Both Gal-8 and antigen were together internalized and localized in early endosomes. Interestingly, antigen processing by …
  • The role of beta-cell dysfunction in early type 1 diabetes. [Journal Article]
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2020 Aug; 27(4):215-224.Sims EK, Mirmira RG, Evans-Molina C
  • CONCLUSIONS: This cumulative body of work shows clear evidence that β-cell stress, dysfunction, and death are harbingers of impending T1D and likely contribute to progression of disease and insulin deficiency. Treatment with agents targeting β-cell health could augment interventions with immunomodulatory therapies but will need to be tested in intervention studies with endpoints carefully designed to capture changes in β-cell function and health.
  • Adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: a new era in autoimmune diabetes. [Journal Article]
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2020 Aug; 27(4):187-193.Akturk HK, Michels AW
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced type 1 diabetes presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening adverse event of cancer immunotherapy. Healthcare providers should be aware of this adverse event to prevent morbidity and mortality related to diabetic ketoacidosis. Developing guidelines to identify and monitor risk groups are of utmost importance.
  • Molecular mechanisms of human herpes viruses inferring with host immune surveillance. [Review]
    J Immunother Cancer. 2020 Jul; 8(2)Jasinski-Bergner S, Mandelboim O, Seliger B
  • Several human herpes viruses (HHVs) exert oncogenic potential leading to malignant transformation of infected cells and/or tissues. The molecular processes induced by viral-encoded molecules including microRNAs, peptides, and proteins contributing to immune evasion of the infected host cells are equal to the molecular processes of immune evasion mediated by tumor cells independently of viral infe…
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