- Comparison of the Abbott Architect BRAHMS and the Biomérieux Vidas BRAHMS Procalcitonin Assays. [Journal Article]J Appl Lab Med 2019; 3(4):580-586JA
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show improved sensitivity and equivalent clinical performance of PCT-A compared to PCT-V. The availability of this test on common clinical immunoassay analyzers may help accelerate its adoption into antimicrobial stewardship programs and thereby improve antibiotic use and patient outcomes.
- Sunlight exposure, consumption of vitamin D-rich foods and vulvovaginal candidiasis in an African population: a prevalence case-control study. [Journal Article]Eur J Clin Nutr 2019EJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings should be confirmed in prospective studies and clinical trials to strengthen the evidence base for preventive action and to also inform clinical decision making.
- Investigation of differential somatic cell count as a potential new supplementary indicator to somatic cell count for identification of intramammary infection in dairy cows at the end of the lactation period. [Journal Article]Prev Vet Med 2019; 172:104803PV
- The objective of this study was to investigate the new differential somatic cell count (DSCC) as a supplementary indicator to SCC for the identification of intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy cows at the end of the lactation period. Different approaches for identification of cows with IMI (i.e. often based on SCC) and targeted antimicrobial treatment of those rather than of all cows have been d…
The objective of this study was to investigate the new differential somatic cell count (DSCC) as a supplementary indicator to SCC for the identification of intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy cows at the end of the lactation period. Different approaches for identification of cows with IMI (i.e. often based on SCC) and targeted antimicrobial treatment of those rather than of all cows have been developed (i.e. selective dry cow treatment). Recently, DSCC representing the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and lymphocytes, has been introduced as an additional indicator for the presence of IMI. We used the last dairy herd improvement (DHI) samples taken within 42 d prior to dry-off as well as hand-stripped samples collected within 5 days prior to dry-off to measure DSCC and SCC. The bacteriological status was determined using quarter foremilk samples collected close to drying off. In total, 582 cows were dried off during our study but not all of them could be included in the data analysis for different reasons (e.g. incomplete data, samples too old for reliable determination of SCC and DSCC, contamination). Eventually, the final data set comprised of 310 cows of which 64 and 149 were infected with major and minor pathogens, respectively, and 97 were uninfected. The area under receiver-operating characteristics curves (AUC) were calculated to compare the diagnostic abilities of the different parameters. The AUC for identification of IMI by major pathogens when using the combination of DSCC and SCC was 0.64 compared to 0.62 for SCC alone and 0.62 for DSCC alone. The different parameters were further compared based on test characteristics and predictive values. For example, classifying cows as infected based on a cut-off of 200,000 cells/ml for SCC alone and in terms of using DSCC combined with SCC based on either >60% and/or >200,000 cells/ml, the sensitivity changed from 47 to 66% and the specificity from 74 to 54%. At the same time, the negative predictive value changed from 84 to 86% and the positive predictive value from 32 to 27%. Test characteristics and predictive values of the parameters DSCC and SCC were similar using DHI and hand-stripped samples. In conclusion, our study provides first indications on test characteristics and predictive values for the combination of DSCC and SCC. However, more work on this subject and the actual practical application is needed.
- Can sputum gram stain be used to predict lower respiratory tract infection and guide empiric antimicrobial treatment: Experience from a tertiary care hospital. [Journal Article]J Microbiol Methods 2019; :105731JM
- CONCLUSIONS: Gram stain smear examination from respiratory samples can be used to guide empiric antibiotic therapy pending final culture sensitivity results if the attending physicians ensure appropriate sample collection and transport. In absence of these supportive measures smear examination should not be relied upon for empiric treatment.
- [Allokin-alpha - new approaches in the treatment of chronic virus Epstein-Barr infections.] [Journal Article]Vopr Virusol 2019; 64(3):118-124VV
- CONCLUSIONS: Allokin-alpha improves the recognition of virus-infected cells and helps suppress viral replication.Allocin-alpha therapy can be recommended for the treatment of chronic EBVI at a dose of 1 mg subcutaneously every other day with a course dose of at least 9 injections.
- Comprehensive analysis of machine learning models for prediction of sub-clinical mastitis: Deep Learning and Gradient-Boosted Trees outperform other models. [Journal Article]Comput Biol Med 2019; 114:103456CB
- Sub-clinical bovine mastitis decreases milk quality and production. Moreover, sub-clinical mastitis leads to the use of antibiotics with consequent increased risk of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, early detection of infected cows is of great importance. The Somatic Cell Count (SCC) day-test used for mastitis surveillance, gives data that fluctuate widely between days, …
Sub-clinical bovine mastitis decreases milk quality and production. Moreover, sub-clinical mastitis leads to the use of antibiotics with consequent increased risk of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, early detection of infected cows is of great importance. The Somatic Cell Count (SCC) day-test used for mastitis surveillance, gives data that fluctuate widely between days, creating questions about its reliability and early prediction power. The recent identification of risk parameters of sub-clinical mastitis based on milking parameters by machine learning models is emerging as a promising new tool to enhance early prediction of mastitis occurrence. To develop the optimal approach for early sub-clinical mastitis prediction, we implemented 2 steps: (1) Finding the best statistical models to accurately link patterns of risk factors to sub-clinical mastitis, and (2) Extending this application from the farms tested to new farms (method generalization). Herein, we applied various machine learning-based prediction systems on a big milking dataset to uncover the best predictive models of sub-clinical mastitis. Data from 364,249 milking instances were collected by an electronic automated in-line monitoring system where milk volume, lactose concentration, electrical conductivity (EC), protein concentration, peak flow and milking time for each sample were measured. To provide a platform for the application of the models developed to other farms, the Z transformation approach was employed. Following this, various prediction systems [Deep Learning (DL), Naïve Bayes, Generalized Liner Model, Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, Gradient-Boosted Tree (GBT) and Random Forest] were applied to the non-transformed milking dataset and to a Z-standardized dataset. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve), AUC (Area Under The Curve), and high accuracy demonstrated the high sensitivity of GBT and DL in detecting sub-clinical mastitis. GBT was the most accurate model (accuracy of 84.9%) in prediction of sub-clinical bovine mastitis. These data demonstrate how these models could be applied for prediction of sub-clinical mastitis in multiple bovine herds regardless of the size and sampling techniques.
- Isolation of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella sp. from bovine mastitis samples in Rangpur, Bangladesh. [Journal Article]J Adv Vet Anim Res 2019; 6(3):362-365JA
- CONCLUSIONS: This study helps to treat BM with effective antibiotics and helps in an epidemiological study in Rangpur division as well as helps to create public health awareness.
- Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on teeth with molar incisor hypomineralization-controlled clinical trial. [Journal Article]Medicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98(39):e17355M
- CONCLUSIONS: Often in the presence of severe MIH, the presence of dentin sensitivity is also associated with caries lesion, making it even more necessary to respect the principles of minimal intervention.
- The influence of interleukin 28B polymorphisms on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with HBV or HCV infection: An updated meta-analysis. [Meta-Analysis]Medicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98(38):e17275M
- Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin 28B (IL28B) gene has proven to be associated with the clinical outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis virus B or C (HBV or HCV) infections. However, whether IL28B SNPs have an influence on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with HBV or HCV infection remains controversial. Therefore, this study aims to determine t…
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin 28B (IL28B) gene has proven to be associated with the clinical outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis virus B or C (HBV or HCV) infections. However, whether IL28B SNPs have an influence on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with HBV or HCV infection remains controversial. Therefore, this study aims to determine the association between IL28B polymorphisms and the risk of HCC in individuals with HBV or HCV infection.PubMed, EMBASE, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were used to identify studies meeting the selection requirements using the terms "interleukin 28B", "IFN-lambda-3", "IFNL3", "single nucleotide polymorphisms", "SNPs", "hepatocellular carcinoma", "HCC", "liver cancer".A total of 24 eligible original studies (1 cohort study and 23 case-control studies) involved 20238 individuals (HCC group = 8725 vs control group = 11,513) were included. Both IL28B rs12979860 CC and rs8099917 TT genotypes were significantly associated with a decreased risk of HCC among patients with HBV or HCV infection (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.57-0.88; OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.72-0.94, respectively). Egger test and Begg test revealed no' publication bias (P > .05). Sensitivity analyses suggested the robustness of the results in this meta-analysis.Both IL28B rs12979860 CC and rs8099917 TT genotypes are protective factors for the development of HCC among patients with HBV or HCV infection. Future prospective studies examining the impact of IL28B polymorphisms on the risk of HCC and investigating the underlying mechanism for the protective role of IL28B polymorphisms in HCC development are warranted.
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- Assessing the Utility of GeneXpert MTB/Rif Assay in a Tertiary Care Centre in Southern India with Established Microscopy and Liquid Culture Facilities. [Journal Article]J Assoc Physicians India 2019; 67(8):31-34JA
- CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, though GeneXpert detects tuberculosis within the shortest possible time, it still suffers from intermediate level sensitivity, which makes culture facilities relevant even in settings that offer an Xpert/Rif assay.