- In-vitro Post-antifungal Effect of Posaconazole and its Impact on Adhesion related Traits and Hemolysin Production of Oral Candida dubliniensis Isolates. [Journal Article]
- MPMed Princ Pract 2019 Jun 28
- CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of C. dubliniensis isolates to posaconazole for a brief period induced an antimycotic impact by subduing its growth in addition to suppressing pathogenic adherence-associated attributes, as well as production of hemolysin.
- Hepatotoxicity Due to Azole Antimycotic Agents in a HLA B*35:02-Positive Patient. [Case Reports]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2019; 10:645
- We will present a 42-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia and pulmonary aspergillosis. She was treated with several antifungal agents, including three triazoles. Voriconazole, posaconazole, and…
We will present a 42-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia and pulmonary aspergillosis. She was treated with several antifungal agents, including three triazoles. Voriconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole all led to hepatocellular liver injury. Voriconazole administration led to a peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) value of 1,793 U/L (normal range, 9-59 U/L). After posaconazole and isavuconazole treatment, ALT rose over 500 U/L. The typical course of events, exclusion of differential diagnoses, and normalization of the liver function tests (LFTs) after stopping the triazoles were highly suspicious for a drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Interestingly, our patient carries a rare HLA B allele (HLA B*35:02), which occurs in less than 1% of the population and is known to be associated with minocycline-induced liver injury. Over the course of 4 months, the patient received two induction chemotherapies and afterward underwent a successful allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Her liver function recovered rapidly and favorable clinical findings concerning the aspergillosis led to a de-escalation of the antifungal treatment to prophylactic dose fluconazole. Delayed hepatotoxicity suggested a dose dependency and a cumulative effect. The question of a common pathophysiology and a cross-toxicity was raised. At the present time, only a few case reports describe cross-toxicity or its absence after rechallenge with different azoles. The pathophysiology is not well understood. Ketoconazole was found to impair rat mitochondrial function in vitro. Further investigations showed cell membrane toxicity and ATP depletion in isolated human liver cancer cells. Our case report suggests a cross-toxicity, dose-dependency, and a possible genetic predisposition of triazole-induced liver injury.
- Antimycotic Activity of Seaweed Extracts（ Caulerpa lentillifera and Eucheuma cottonii） against Two Genera of Marine Oomycetes, Lagenidium spp. and Haliphthoros spp. [Journal Article]
- BSBiocontrol Sci 2019; 24(2):73-80
- Fungal infection mostly caused by marine oomycetes had hindered crustacean production thus searching for natural and safe treatment is currently needed. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate …
Fungal infection mostly caused by marine oomycetes had hindered crustacean production thus searching for natural and safe treatment is currently needed. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the antimycotic effect of different seaweed extract against marine oomycetes (Lagenidium spp. and Haliphthoros spp) . Two seaweeds species (Eucheuma cottonii and Caulerpa lentillifera) were extracted using ethanol, methanol and water. Each extracts was tested on four fungi strains of marine oomycetes species for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fungicidal activities. C. lentillifera ethanol extract showed the highest antifungal effect where it can inhibit three from four fungal strains. Meanwhile, E. cottonii ethanol extract has lowest MIC (500 ppm) and inhibit L. thermophilum IPMB 1401 and H. sabahensis IPMB 1402 hyphal growths. Antimycotic effect on zoospores production shows reduction in production after 12 h immersion for three marine oomycetes species. Seaweed extracts toxicity on Artemia sp. showed approximately 5% mortality at 12 h immersion. It is suggested that 12 h immersion of seaweed extract is a suitable treatment for marine oomycetes in aquaculture. This study does not only show potential alternative control method for crab larvae health management, it may also contribute to the sustainable development and food security of aquaculture industry.
- Candida glabrata Fungemia Following Robotic Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy in a Patient with Recurrent Vulvovaginitis: A Case Report. [Case Reports]
- CCureus 2019 Mar 30; 11(3):e4349
- Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common gynecologic diagnosis that can be treated empirically with fluconazole. We present a patient that developed post-operative Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) fungemia…
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common gynecologic diagnosis that can be treated empirically with fluconazole. We present a patient that developed post-operative Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) fungemia after being empirically treated for vulvuovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole multiple times throughout the year prior to robotic total laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. C. glabrata is becoming increasingly resistant to azole antimycotic therapy. It is likely that this patient had undertreated fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata vulvovaginitis prior to surgery, and that the pelvic infection was the source of fungemia.
- Yeast cell wall - Silver nanoparticles interaction: A synergistic approach between surface-enhanced Raman scattering and computational spectroscopy tools. [Journal Article]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 May 31; 222:117223
- Candida species are becoming one of the pathogens developing antifungal resistance due to inappropriate treatment and overuse of antimycotic drugs in building construction and agriculture. Further, f…
Candida species are becoming one of the pathogens developing antifungal resistance due to inappropriate treatment and overuse of antimycotic drugs in building construction and agriculture. Further, fungal infections are often difficult to detect, also due to slow in vitro growth of the organisms from clinical specimens. Thus, fast detection and discrimination of yeast cells in direct patient materials is essential for an adequate treatment and success rate. In this work, we investigated Candida species isolated from patients, by using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) combined with computational spectroscopy tools, aiming to detect and discriminate between the three considered species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate Raman spectra of yeasts' main cell wall components for elucidating the origin of the observed bands. Accurate assignments of normal modes helped for a better understanding of the interaction between silver nanoparticles with yeasts' cell wall. Further, SERS spectra were used as samples in a database on which we performed multivariate analyses. By Principal component analysis (PCA), we obtained a maximum variation of 79% between the three samples. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was successfully used to discriminate between the three species.
- Optimization of Innovative Three-Dimensionally-Structured Hybrid Vesicles to Improve the Cutaneous Delivery of Clotrimazole for the Treatment of Topical Candidiasis. [Journal Article]
- PPharmaceutics 2019 Jun 06; 11(6)
- New three-dimensionally-structured hybrid phospholipid vesicles, able to load clotrimazole in a high amount (10 mg/mL), were obtained for the first time in this work by significantly reducing the amo…
New three-dimensionally-structured hybrid phospholipid vesicles, able to load clotrimazole in a high amount (10 mg/mL), were obtained for the first time in this work by significantly reducing the amount of water (≤10%), which was replaced with a mixture of glycerol and ethanol (≈90%). A pre-formulation study was carried out to evaluate the effect of both the composition of the hydrating medium and the concentration of the phospholipid on the physico-chemical properties of hybrid vesicles. Four different three-dimensionally-structured hybrid vesicles were selected as ideal systems for the topical application of clotrimazole. An extensive physico-chemical characterization performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), 31P-NMR, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) displayed the formation of small, multi-, and unilamellar vesicles very close to each other, and was capable of forming a three-dimensional network, which stabilized the dispersion. Additionally, the dilution of the dispersion with water reduced the interactions between vesicles, leading to the formation of single unilamellar vesicles. The evaluation of the in vitro percutaneous delivery of clotrimazole showed an improved drug deposition in the skin strata provided by the three-dimensionally-structured vesicles with respect to the commercial cream (Canesten®) used as a reference. Hybrid vesicles were highly biocompatible and showed a significant antifungal activity in vitro, greater than the commercial cream Canesten®. The antimycotic efficacy of formulations was confirmed by the reduced proliferation of the yeast cells at the site of infection in vivo. In light of these results, clotrimazole-loaded, three-dimensionally-structured hybrid vesicles appear to be one of the most innovative and promising formulations for the treatment of candidiasis infections.
- Invasive Fungal Infection. [Journal Article]
- DADtsch Arztebl Int 2019 04 19; 116(16):271-278
- CONCLUSIONS: Invasive fungal infections are often overlooked in routine hospital care. They should be incorporated into antimicro- bial stewardship programs as an essential component. There is also a pressing need for the development of new classes of antimycotic drug.
- Otomycosis With Tympanic Membrane Perforation: A Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- ENEar Nose Throat J 2019 May 29; :145561319851499
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available literature, it seems that tympanic membrane perforation secondary to otomycosis is not uncommon. The presence of this complication is associated with 2 problems: Antimycotic solutions are irritant to middle ear and may be ototoxic to the cochlea. Although most cases of fungus caused tympanic membrane (TM) perforation resolve with proper medical treatment, in a few patients a tympanoplasty may be required.
- [Dermatophytosis caused by rare anthropophilic and zoophilic agents]. [Review]
- HHautarzt 2019 May 28
- The basis for effective treatment of any dermatomycosis is the correct and timely identification of the pathogen, which allows the targeted choice of the most suitable antimycotic and is important fo…
The basis for effective treatment of any dermatomycosis is the correct and timely identification of the pathogen, which allows the targeted choice of the most suitable antimycotic and is important for the prevention of repeated infections. In recent years, infections with dermatophytes seem to have increased. In fact, from 2007 to 2018, there was an increase in the number of samples processed in the Mycology Laboratory of the Department of Dermatology at the University Hospital Jena. The most common isolated dermatophytes between 2007 and 2018 were Trichophyton (T.) rubrum, T. interdigitale, Microsporum (M.) canis and T. benhamiae. However, dermatophytoses may also be caused by rare anthropophilic agents such as Epidermophyton floccosum, zoophiles such as T. verrucosum, T. quinckeanum or Nannizzia (N.) persicolor as well as by geophiles such as N. gypsea. Therefore, these dermatophytes should at least be known, so that in case of unusual observations investigations can be performed accordingly. Changes in the pathogen spectrum of dermatophytoses have taken place over time and it is expected that the occurrence of dermatophytes will be subject of continuous fluctuations, which may mean that the incidence of some of these "rare" dermatophytes, as described here in five clinical examples, may be changing.
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- [Fungal infections]. [Review]
- IInternist (Berl) 2019; 60(7):684-689
- CONCLUSIONS: An interdisciplinary approach with microbiologists, infectious diseases specialists and radiologists is needed for diagnostics and treatment of invasive fungal diseases.