- Evaluation of the Antispasmodic and Antisecretory Activities of the 80% Methanol Extracts of Verbena officinalis L: Evidence From In Vivo Antidiarrheal Study. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Evid Based Integr Med 2019 Jan-Dec; 24:2515690X19853264
- Verbena officinalis L. has a folkloric repute for the management of digestive disorders, including diarrhea. However, the safety and efficacy of the plant material has not been scientifically validat…
Verbena officinalis L. has a folkloric repute for the management of digestive disorders, including diarrhea. However, the safety and efficacy of the plant material has not been scientifically validated yet. This study was, therefore, aimed to evaluate the overall antidiarrheal activity of the 80% methanol extracts of V officinalis in mice. The antidiarrheal activity of the 80% methanol extracts of the roots (R-80ME) and the leaves (L-80ME) of V officinalis was tested in castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. R-80ME was further evaluated using charcoal meal and entero-pooling. In each test, group I and group II (controls) received 10 mL/kg distilled water and standard drug (5 mg/kg loperamide), respectively, whereas groups III, IV, and V (test groups) received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the 80ME, respectively. The R-80ME at 200 mg/kg (P < .01) and 400 mg/kg (P < .001) significantly delayed the onset of diarrhea compared with negative control. Both R-80ME and L-80ME at 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the frequency of wet fecal outputs (P < .01). Generally, 70.24% inhibition of the number of wet fecal output was recorded at R-80ME 400 mg/kg. Results from the charcoal meal test revealed that the R-80ME at 200 (P < .01) and 400 mg/kg (P < .001) produced a significant antimotility effect. In entero-pooling test, the R-80ME, at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses (P < .01), showed a significant decline in both the volume and weight of intestinal contents. The maximum in vivo antidiarrheal index was determined to be 95.25 at dose of 400 mg/kg R-80ME. This study demonstrated that the 80ME, mainly the root extract, produced promising antidiarrheal activity and hence provides a scientific support for acclaimed traditional use of the plant material for treatment of diarrheal diseases.
- Medicinal Properties and Active Constituents of Dracocephalum kotschyi and Its Significance in Iran: A Systematic Review. [Review]
- EBEvid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019; 2019:9465309
- CONCLUSIONS: This review has shown that D. kotschyi is an important medicinal plant with a large number of active constituents and great potential to safeguard human and animal health in Iran. However, over utilization of the D. kotschyi plant is already endangering its existence. Nevertheless, more studies need be conducted across the country.
- GeneReviews®: Spastic Paraplegia 4 [BOOK]
- BOOKUniversity of Washington, Seattle: Seattle (WA)
- Spastic paraplegia 4 (SPG4; also known as SPAST-HSP) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral lower-limb gait spasticity. More than 50% of affected individuals have some weakness in the …
Spastic paraplegia 4 (SPG4; also known as SPAST-HSP) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral lower-limb gait spasticity. More than 50% of affected individuals have some weakness in the legs and impaired vibration sense at the ankles. Sphincter disturbances are very common. Onset is insidious, mostly in young adulthood, although symptoms may start as early as age one year and as late as age 76 years. Intrafamilial variation is considerable.
- Factors associated with polyp detection during colonoscopy: A retrospective observational study. [Journal Article]
- KJKaohsiung J Med Sci 2019 Jun 04
- The polyp detection rate (PDR) is an important quality indicator for colonoscopy. Several factors have been shown to be associated with PDR. However, whether the moderate sedation is a factor for pol…
The polyp detection rate (PDR) is an important quality indicator for colonoscopy. Several factors have been shown to be associated with PDR. However, whether the moderate sedation is a factor for polyp detection remains controversial. This study aims to assess factors associated with polyp detection including the moderate sedation factor during colonoscopy. Patients who underwent colonoscopy from June 1, 2014 to May 31, 2015 were enrolled into this retrospective study. Patients with poor colon preparation and failure to reach the cecum were excluded. The clinical factors, including patient's sex, age, midazolam/fentanyl sedation, indications, endoscopist colonoscopy volume, and use of antispasmodic agent were evaluated by multivariate analysis. A total of 3373 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 55.8 years, and 1980 patients (58.7%) were male. Among the 3373 patients, 2513 (74.5%) underwent midazolam/fentanyl-based sedated colonoscopy. The multivariate analysis showed that male sex, age over 50 years old, midazolam/fentanyl sedation and indications of screening and surveillance were significantly associated with polyp detection. Moreover, when stratified by sex and age, the midazolam/fentanyl sedation was associated with polyp detection in male patients and patients over 50 years old. This study has highlighted the role of midazolam/fentanyl sedation administered by colonoscopists as a modifiable factor that may increase polyp detection during colonoscopy.
- Application of surface molecular imprinted magnetic graphene oxide and high performance mimetic behavior of bi-metal ZnCo MOF for determination of atropine in human serum. [Journal Article]
- TTalanta 2019 Aug 15; 201:286-294
- Herein, high performance peroxidase-like activity of zinc and cobalt bi-metal metal-organic framework (ZnCo MOF) is reported and applied for the sensitive measurement of atropine. ZnCo MOF was synthe…
Herein, high performance peroxidase-like activity of zinc and cobalt bi-metal metal-organic framework (ZnCo MOF) is reported and applied for the sensitive measurement of atropine. ZnCo MOF was synthesized by the reaction of 2-methylimidazole with Zn and Co (II) cations in aqueous media. The colorimetric and fluorometric experiments were applied to investigate the catalytic activity of obtained MOF, using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) and terephthalic acid (TA) peroxidase substrates, respectively. The results demonstrated the more efficient mimetic behavior of ZnCo MOF compared with common Zn or Co MOFs. Besides, it was found that atropine hindered the catalytic action of ZnCo MOF and this effect was intensified by increasing the atropine concentration. So, it was considered to design a sensitive analytical assay for atropine detection. To assure a high specific recognition, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based extraction using magnetic graphene oxide supports was applied to extract atropine before its determination. The combination between the high specific extraction and great catalytic activity of ZnCo MOF led to the ultrasensitive and reliable determination of atropine. The best linear range of calibration graph was achieved using fluorometric detection system for 0.1-45 ng mL-1 atropine concentrations, and detection limit (3Sb/m) was 27 pg mL-1. The relative standard deviations (RSD %) for the determination of 1, and 10 ng mL-1 atropine (n = 5) were 2.13% and 3.08%, respectively. The explained fluorometric assay was examined for the measurement of atropine in biological fluids (Recoveries were in the range of 95.90-103.57%), and the results were validated by an official method.
- Mometasone or Tiotropium in Mild Asthma with a Low Sputum Eosinophil Level. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 2019 05 23; 380(21):2009-2019
- CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with mild, persistent asthma had a low sputum eosinophil level and had no significant difference in their response to either mometasone or tiotropium as compared with placebo. These data provide equipoise for a clinically directive trial to compare an inhaled glucocorticoid with other treatments in patients with a low eosinophil level. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; SIENA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02066298.).
- How Should We Treat Patients with Mild Asthma? [Editorial]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 2019 05 23; 380(21):2064-2066
- Baclofen Unusual Response In Spinal Cord Injury Patients. [Case Reports]
- JAJ Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Apr-Jun; 31(2):269-271
- Spasticity after spinal cord injury is a major problem that can limit the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. Oral baclofen is more frequently used in treating spasticity than other antispasmod…
Spasticity after spinal cord injury is a major problem that can limit the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. Oral baclofen is more frequently used in treating spasticity than other antispasmodic agents due to its proven overall efficacy. Herein, we are reporting two SCI patients who reported unusual response to baclofen. Case 1 (28-year-old male) his injury was classified as T3 AIS-A. Case 2 (36-year-old male) his injury was classified as T4 AIS-A. Both cases reported worsening of spasms with the initiation of baclofen and the rapid improvement upon discontinuing the medication. The effect was dose-dependent as reported by both of our patients. Our impression is a rebound spasm secondary to baclofen as evident by the severity of spasm and spasticity that were directly proportional to the baclofen dose. Awareness of this reversible side effect is essential for its management. Moreover, it might provide a clue to understanding the mechanism of action of baclofen.
- The Diagnostic Performance of MRI for Detection of Extramural Venous Invasion in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- AAAJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 May 07; :1-11
- CONCLUSIONS: MRI shows moderate sensitivity and good specificity for the detection of EMVI in colorectal cancer. The use of high-resolution MRI may improve diagnostic performance.
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- Progress in Pharmacological and Surgical Management of Tourette Syndrome and Other Chronic Tic Disorders. [Review]
- NNeurologist 2019; 24(3):93-108
- CONCLUSIONS: Both typical and atypical antipsychotic agents are mainstays of pharmacological treatment of TS and other chronic tic disorder patients; however, their use is limited by serious side effects considering their potential of dopamine blockade. Because of the phenotypic variability, no medication has proven effective for all persons with TS and other chronic tic disorders. Botulinum toxin has emerged as a good therapeutic option, especially for focal and dystonic tics. But, their uses are limited by lack of sufficient evidence and high cost. Surgical treatment is considered in medically refractory and severely disabled tics patients. Deep brain stimulation has replaced lesional surgeries; however, there is uncertainty regarding the selection of patients and target of stimulation.