- Management of Animal Care and Use Programs in Research, Education, and Testing: Evolution of Laboratory Animal Program Management [BOOK]
- BOOKCRC Press/Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton (FL)
- The use of animals for research and teaching began many hundreds of years ago, wherein animal dissection provided education and training for scientists, medical students, and physicians. Such animal …
The use of animals for research and teaching began many hundreds of years ago, wherein animal dissection provided education and training for scientists, medical students, and physicians. Such animal use coupled with human’s ownership and subsequent treatment of domesticated species eventually led to the creation of societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals; the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was the first one, created in the United Kingdom in 1824. The first national law addressing animal experimentation, the Cruelty to Animals Act, was passed in Britain in 1876. Since that time, the presence of those societies and antivivisection and animal welfare organizations, and the passage of associated animal anticruelty laws throughout the hemispheres eventually formed the societal posture upon which laws, regulations, and standards evolved that now form the regulatory and oversight environment we now work under in our pursuit of knowledge through the humane and responsible care and use of animals in biomedical research, education, and testing. In 1947, the Laboratory Animal Bureau was formed in the United Kingdom. The initial directors were R. E. Glover and W. Lane-Petter. They recognized that there was no standardized education system for laboratory animal care providers, and without a standard education and training program, the quality of animal care and research studies would be inconsistent and variable. The bureau organized the first of several conferences for animal care personnel on April 20, 1948, at the Royal Veterinary College of London. Subsequent conferences were held all around the United Kingdom. The organizational meeting for the new Animal Technician Association (ATA) was held on August 27, 1949 (renamed the Institute of Animal Technology [IAT] in 1965). Under the chairmanship of Dr. W. Lane-Petter, the association was ratified on March 30, 1950. The actions to establish a certification program and branches, appoint journal editors, and elect officers were also ratified.
- The Magnus-Rademaker Scientific Film Collection: Ethical Issues on Animal Experimentation (1908-1940). [Historical Article]
- JHJ Hist Neurosci 2016; 25(1):102-21
- The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried…
The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried out with animals (e.g., labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brain stem sections) as well as observations done on patients. The films were made for demonstrations at congresses as well as educational objectives and film stills were published in their books. The purpose of the present study is to position these films and their makers within the contemporary discourse on ethical issues and animal rights in the Netherlands and the earlier international debates. Following an introduction on animal rights and antivivisection movements, we describe what Magnus and Rademaker thought about these issues. Their publications did not provide much information in this respect, probably reflecting their adherence to implicit ethical codes that did not need explicit mentioning in publications. Newspaper articles, however, revealed interesting information. Unnecessary suffering of an animal never found mercy in Magnus' opinion. The use of cinematography was expanded to the reduction of animal experimentation in student education, at least in the case of Rademaker, who in the 1930s was involved in a governmental committee for the regulation of vivisection and cooperated with the antivivisection movement. This resulted not only in a propaganda film for the movement but also in films that demonstrate physiological experiments for students with the purpose to avert repetition and to improve the teaching of experiments. We were able to identify the pertinent films in the Magnus-Rademaker film collection. The production of vivisection films with this purpose appears to have been common, as is shown in news messages in European medical journals of the period.
- Recruiting "Friends of Medical Progress": Evolving Tactics in the Defense of Animal Experimentation, 1910s and 1920s. [Historical Article]
- JHJ Hist Med Allied Sci 2015; 70(3):365-93
- In 1923, Thomas Barbour of Harvard announced the creation of a national lay organization, the Society of Friends of Medical Progress (FMP), to defend animal research in the United States against a re…
In 1923, Thomas Barbour of Harvard announced the creation of a national lay organization, the Society of Friends of Medical Progress (FMP), to defend animal research in the United States against a resurgent antivivisection movement. After decades of successful behind-the-scenes lobbying and avoiding the public spotlight, medical scientists significantly altered their tactics and sought public engagement, at least by proxy. Although the authority of scientific medicine was rising, women's suffrage, the advent of the ballot initiative, and a growing alliance of antivivisectionists and other groups in opposition to allopathic medicine so altered the political landscape that medical scientists reconsidered formerly rejected ideas such partnering with laymen. Medical scientists, Walter B. Cannon and Simon Flexner chief among them, hoped that the FMP would relieve the scientists of a time-consuming burden and defend against government regulation of medical institutions without the charge of material self-interest. However, financial problems and the frequent conflicts that arose between the lay leadership and Flexner eventually undermined the FMP's value as a defender of animal experimentation and reveal the distrust of reformers like Flexner who did not believe that laymen could speak for scientific medicine.
- Standing up for science: The antivivisection movement and how to stand up to it. [Historical Article]
- EREMBO Rep 2014; 15(6):625-30
- Bram Stoker's brother, the brain surgeon. [Historical Article]
- PBProg Brain Res 2013; 205:197-218
- This essay examines the life and work of Sir William Thornley Stoker, 1st Baronet (1845-1912), the eldest brother of Bram Stoker (1847-1912), the author of Dracula (1897). Sir William or "Thornley," …
This essay examines the life and work of Sir William Thornley Stoker, 1st Baronet (1845-1912), the eldest brother of Bram Stoker (1847-1912), the author of Dracula (1897). Sir William or "Thornley," as he was commonly known, was one of Ireland's leading physicians. He performed some of the first brain surgeries in Ireland using Sir David Ferrier's maps of the cerebral cortex. From 1879 into the twentieth century, Thornley served as inspector for Ireland under the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act. In this role, Thornley was responsible for granting licenses to researchers who performed experiments on live animals. Due to his reservations about animal experimentation, Thornley eventually became an advocate for the antivivisection cause, testifying at the second Royal Commission on Vivisection (1906-1912). Thornley also influenced Irish literature, albeit indirectly. Bram Stoker's composition notes for Dracula show that he consulted his older brother about the medical scenes in his novel. Thornley's knowledge of cerebral localization and his animal rights advocacy both surface in Dracula.
- Vivisecting Major: a Victorian gentleman scientist defends animal experimentation, 1876-1885. [Historical Article]
- ISISIsis 2011; 102(2):215-37
- Through an investigation of the public, professional, and private life of the Darwinian disciple George John Romanes, this essay seeks a better understanding of the scientific motivations for defendi…
Through an investigation of the public, professional, and private life of the Darwinian disciple George John Romanes, this essay seeks a better understanding of the scientific motivations for defending the practice of vivisection at the height of the controversy in late Victorian Britain. Setting aside a historiography that has tended to focus on the arguments of antivivisectionists, it reconstructs the viewpoint of the scientific community through an examination of Romanes's work to help orchestrate the defense of animal experimentation. By embedding his life in three complicatedly overlapping networks-the world of print, interpersonal communications among an increasingly professionalized body of scientific men, and the intimacies of private life-the essay uses Romanes as a lens with which to focus the physiological apprehension of the antivivisection movement. It is a story of reputation, self-interest, and affection.
- Dog fight: Darwin as animal advocate in the antivivisection controversy of 1875. [Historical Article]
- SHStud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 2009; 40(4):265-71
- The traditional characterization of Charles Darwin as a strong advocate of physiological experimentation on animals was posited in Richard French's Antivivisection and medical science in Victorian En…
The traditional characterization of Charles Darwin as a strong advocate of physiological experimentation on animals was posited in Richard French's Antivivisection and medical science in Victorian England (1975), where French portrayed him as a soldier in Thomas Huxley's efforts to preserve anatomical experimentation on animals unfettered by government regulation. That interpretation relied too much on, inter alia, Huxley's own description of the legislative battles of 1875, and shared many historians' propensity to foster a legacy of Darwin as a leader among a new wave of scientists, even where personal interests might indicate a conflicting story. Animal rights issues concerned more than mere science for Darwin, however, and where debates over other scientific issues failed to inspire Darwin to become publicly active, he readily joined the battle over vivisection, helping to draft legislation which, in many ways, was more protective of animal rights than even the bills proposed by his friend and anti-vivisectionist, Frances Power Cobbe. Darwin may not have officially joined Cobbe's side in the fight, but personal correspondence of the period between 1870 and 1875 reveals a man whose first interest was to protect animals from inhumane treatment, and second to protect the reputations of those men and physiologists who were his friends, and who he believed incapable of inhumane acts. On this latter point he and Cobbe never did reach agreement, but they certainly agreed on the humane treatment of animals, and the need to proscribe various forms of animal experimentation.
- A history of antivivisection from the 1800s to the present: part III. [Historical Article]
- VHVet Herit 2009; 32(1):1-5
- A history of antivivisection from the 1800s to the present: Part II. [Historical Article]
- VHVet Herit 2008; 31(2):21-5
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- A history of antivivisection from the 1800s to the present. [Historical Article]
- VHVet Herit 2008; 31(1):1-9