- Assessment of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients. [Journal Article]Egypt Heart J. 2020 May 24; 72(1):27.EH
- CONCLUSIONS: Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio is a useful tool of risk assessment in patients presenting with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome including prediction of coronary multivessel affection. Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio was shown to be strongly related to risk of myocardial infarction. Higher ratios of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I were recorded in NSTE-ACS patients (versus stable angina patients). Higher apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratios were associated with more diseased coronaries and complex lesions. Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio is a useful tool for acute risk assessment in cardiac ischemic patients.
- Characterizing lipid profiles associated with asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis in rural-dwelling adults: A population-based study. [Journal Article]J Clin Lipidol. 2020 Apr 19 [Online ahead of print]JC
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that lipid profiles for aICAS among rural residents in China are characterized by high atherogenic cholesterol, low antiatherogenic cholesterol, and high ratios of atherogenic-to-antiatherogenic cholesterol or lipoproteins.
- Lipids, apolipoproteins, and prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [Journal Article]Neurology. 2020 Apr 28; 94(17):e1835-e1844.Neur
- CONCLUSIONS: Lipids and apolipoproteins are important prognostic indicators for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and should be monitored at the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
- The correlation between serum apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and brain necrosis in patients underwent radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. [Journal Article]Brain Behav. 2020 Mar; 10(3):e01554.BB
- CONCLUSIONS: Serum ApoB/ApoA1 ratio is positively correlated with RN volume, which indicated serum ApoB/ApoA1 ratio as an independent risk factor for lesion volume in patients with RN after radiotherapy for NPC, suggesting a bright intervention target in RN treatment.
- Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A-I Ratio Is a Better Predictor of Cancer Mortality Compared with C-Reactive Protein: Results from Two Multi-Ethnic US Populations. [Journal Article]J Clin Med. 2020 Jan 08; 9(1)JC
- CONCLUSIONS: In a large representative sample of the US adult population, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and apoB levels significantly predicted cancer mortality, independently of several cardiometabolic risk factors. The predictive value of apoB/apoA-I, but not apoB levels, remained significant after taking into account CRP, whereas CRP was not associated with cancer mortality after adjustment for apoB/apoA-I ratio. If further evidence supports our findings, apoA-I and apoB measurements could be considered in general healthcare policies.
- Association of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis: results of the CARMA study. [Journal Article]Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2019 Oct 30 [Online ahead of print]CE
- CONCLUSIONS: No association between ApoB/apoA1 ratio and CVE was found at the baseline visit of patients with RA from the CARMA study.
- Apolipoprotein B/AI ratio as an independent risk factor for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. [Journal Article]Aging (Albany NY). 2019 Sep 03; 11(17):6851-6862.A
- To investigate the relation of higher apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI (apoB/AI) ratio with the risk of suffering intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in both stroke and non-stroke population, we enrolled 1138 patients with acute ischemic stroke (359 with ICAS, 779 without ICAS) and 1072 non-stroke controls (239 with ICAS, 833 without ICAS) into the study. ICAS was defined as atheroscle…
To investigate the relation of higher apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI (apoB/AI) ratio with the risk of suffering intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in both stroke and non-stroke population, we enrolled 1138 patients with acute ischemic stroke (359 with ICAS, 779 without ICAS) and 1072 non-stroke controls (239 with ICAS, 833 without ICAS) into the study. ICAS was defined as atherosclerotic stenosis >50% or the occlusion of the several main intracranial arteries. ApoB/AI ratio of patients with ICAS was significantly higher than those of individuals without ICAS in both stroke group and non-stroke groups. Increased ratio of apoB/AI was an independent risk factor for ICAS in both stroke group (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.45-5.42, p=0.002) and non-stroke groups (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.61-7.12, p<0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile, the third (Stroke OR=1.71, 95%CI, 1.11-2.63, p=0.014; Non-stroke OR=1.71, 95%CI, 1.04-2.82, p=0.033) and forth quartiles (Stroke OR=2.06, 95%CI, 1.27-3.35, p=0.003; Non-stroke OR=2.00, 95%CI, 1.16-3.49, p=0.012) were independent risk factors for ICAS in both stroke (p value for trend=0.001)) and non-stroke (p value for trend=0.006) groups. In summary, increased apoB/AI ratio was a valuable independent risk factor for ICAS in stroke patients as well as in non-stroke controls.
- apoB/apoA-I Ratio and Lp(a) Associations With Aortic Valve Stenosis Incidence: Insights From the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study. [Journal Article]J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Aug 20; 8(16):e013020.JA
- Background Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I) ratio and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) are associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) disease progression. Clinical characteristics such as age, sex, and presence of concomitant coronary artery disease may strongly modify these associations; however, these effects have not been well defined in longitudinal studies. We set out to assess these…
Background Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I) ratio and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) are associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) disease progression. Clinical characteristics such as age, sex, and presence of concomitant coronary artery disease may strongly modify these associations; however, these effects have not been well defined in longitudinal studies. We set out to assess these associations between apoB/apoA-I ratio, Lp(a), and AVS incidence in a large population study. Methods and Results We analyzed data from 17 745 participants (mean age, 59.2±9.1 years; men, 44.9%) in the EPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer in Norfolk Prospective Population Study) population study in whom apoB/apoA-I and Lp(a) levels were measured. Participants were identified as having incident AVS if they were hospitalized or died with AVS as an underlying cause. After a median follow-up of 19.8 years (17.9-21.0 years) there were 403 (2.2%) incident cases of AVS. The hazard ratio for AVS risk was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.19-1.41; P<0.001) per SD increase in apoB/apoA-I. Adjusting for age, sex, and coronary artery disease, there was no significant association between apoB/apoA-I and AVS incidence (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.97-1.17 [P=0.215]). Elevated Lp(a) (>50 mg/dL) remained an independent risk factor for AVS after adjustment for age, sex, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and concomitant coronary artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.33-2.19 [P<0.001]). Conclusions In this population study, apoB/apoA-I ratio was associated with risk of AVS incidence, especially in younger and female participants and those without concomitant coronary artery disease. Lp(a) was an independent risk factor for AVS incidence. Interventional trials are needed to investigate whether modulating apoB/apoA-I or lowering Lp(a) can prevent or slow down AVS.
- Preoperative apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio is an independent prognostic factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. [Journal Article]Urol Oncol. 2019 03; 37(3):184.e9-184.e17.UO
- CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative Apo B/A1 ratio is an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS in patients with mRCC. Preoperative Apo B/A1 ratio can be useful in improving current prognostic evaluation and treatment decision for patients with mRCC.
- The Role of Physical Activity Prescription in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Amongst South Asian Canadians. [Review]Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018; 5:165.FC
- Unequivocal evidence suggests an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) amongst South Asian Canadians (SACs) compared to other ethnic cohorts, due to a combination of their unique cardiometabolic profile and environmental factors. This unfavorable CVD profile is characterized by an elevated risk of dyslipidemia, high apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, hypertension, glucose in…
Unequivocal evidence suggests an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) amongst South Asian Canadians (SACs) compared to other ethnic cohorts, due to a combination of their unique cardiometabolic profile and environmental factors. This unfavorable CVD profile is characterized by an elevated risk of dyslipidemia, high apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, hypertension, glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as increased BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal and visceral adiposity. Despite the overwhelming evidence for the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) in circumventing the onset of CVD and in the reduction of CVD risk factors, SACs are among the most physically inactive cohorts in Canada. This relates to a set of common and unique socio-cultural barriers, such as gender, beliefs and perceptions about illness, immigration, unfavorable PA environments, and their high prevalence of debilitating chronic diseases. Several strategies to improve PA participation rates in this high-risk population have been suggested, and include the implementation of culturally sensitive PA interventions, as well as clinician training in PA prescription through workshops that emphasize knowledge translation into clinical practice. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to highlight and discuss: (1) the burden of heart disease in SACs (2) the cardiovascular benefits of PA for SACs; (3) factors affecting PA participation among SACs and how they can be addressed; (4) the impact of culturally sensitive PA prescription on CVD prevention; (5) barriers to culture-specific PA prescription by clinicians, and strategies to improve its use and impact.
- Effect of gastrectomy on blood pressure in early gastric cancer survivors with hypertension. [Journal Article]Support Care Cancer. 2019 Jun; 27(6):2237-2245.SC
- CONCLUSIONS: In early gastric cancer survivors with hypertension, gastrectomy resulted in better BP control than did ESD, which may be due to the gastrectomy itself, beyond weight loss. Therefore, it should be remembered that the adequate reduction of antihypertensives may be necessary in early gastric cancer survivors after gastrectomy.
- Association of serum adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein and apolipoprotein B /apolipoprotein A1 ratio with intima media thickness of common carotid artery in dyslipidemic patients. [Journal Article]Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2019 Jun; 163(2):166-171.BP
- CONCLUSIONS: Using multiple linear regression models of C-IMT values for all individual data, healthy controls and dyslipidemic patients without metabolic syndrome (MetS-) A-FABP levels were not revealed as an important predictor of C-IMT in our model. In contrast, age, gender, waist circumference, nonHDL cholesterol levels and ApoB/ApoA1 ratio were important repressors of C- IMT in study individuals. This finding may be attributed to the overwhelming effect of other more robust risk factors for atherosclerosis in these individuals.
- Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and mortality among incident peritoneal dialysis patients. [Journal Article]Lipids Health Dis. 2018 May 17; 17(1):117.LH
- CONCLUSIONS: An increased apo B/apo A1 ratio was independently associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in PD patients.
- Preoperative apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio: a novel prognostic factor for gastric cancer. [Journal Article]Onco Targets Ther. 2018; 11:2169-2176.OT
- CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative serum ApoB/ApoA1 ratio might be used as a novel prognostic indicator of GC.
- ApoB/ApoA-I Ratio is Associated With Faster Hemodynamic Progression of Aortic Stenosis: Results From the PROGRESSA (Metabolic Determinants of the Progression of Aortic Stenosis) Study. [Journal Article]J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 02 10; 7(4)JA
- CONCLUSIONS: Higher apoB/apoA-I ratio is significantly associated with faster hemodynamic progression of AS in the younger patients. These findings suggest that atherogenic lipid factors may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AS in younger patients, but may be are less important in older patients.
- ApoB/ApoA-I ratio is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus with well-controlled LDL cholesterol levels. [Journal Article]Korean J Intern Med. 2018 01; 33(1):138-147.KJ
- CONCLUSIONS: A high ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM patients with LDL-C levels less than 100 mg/dL.
- Association of sleep duration with apolipoproteins and the apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio: the China health and nutrition survey. [Journal Article]Nutr Metab (Lond). 2018; 15:1.NM
- CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that short sleep duration is strongly associated with an increased risk of elevated apoB levels in women and that long sleep duration is correlated with decreased apoB/apoA1 levels in men. Sleep hygiene management could serve to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases by altering unfavourable apo profile.
- The effects of vildagliptin compared with metformin on vascular endothelial function and metabolic parameters: a randomized, controlled trial (Sapporo Athero-Incretin Study 3). [Randomized Controlled Trial]Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017 10 10; 16(1):125.CD
- CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of glycemic improvement, combination therapy of vildagliptin and metformin did not affect endothelial function but may exert favorable effects on adipokine levels and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes without advanced atherosclerosis.
- Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Cardiovascular Events in Diabetics With Coronary Artery Disease. [Journal Article]Am J Med Sci. 2017 08; 354(2):117-124.AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: In our primary study, data suggested that elevated TG/HDL-C value might be a useful predictor for future CVEs in Chinese patients with T2DM with stable CAD. Further study is needed to confirm our findings.
- A 13-week low glycemic load diet and lifestyle modification program combining low glycemic load protein shakes and targeted nutraceuticals improved weight loss and cardio-metabolic risk factors. [Randomized Controlled Trial]Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2017 Dec; 95(12):1414-1425.CJ
- An open-label, randomized, exploratory study of 44 healthy overweight subjects with cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a proprietary lifestyle modification program without (DIET) and with (PROG) targeted nutraceutical supplementation, including phytosterols, antioxidants, probiotics, fish oil, berberine, and soy, pea, and…
An open-label, randomized, exploratory study of 44 healthy overweight subjects with cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a proprietary lifestyle modification program without (DIET) and with (PROG) targeted nutraceutical supplementation, including phytosterols, antioxidants, probiotics, fish oil, berberine, and soy, pea, and whey proteins over 13 weeks. Key metrics were recorded at baseline and weeks 9 and 13. For the DIET and PROG groups, compliance was 85% and 86%, respectively, with no adverse events related to the diet or supplements. Twelve subjects discontinued participation before week 9 for reasons unrelated to the study. PROG subjects experienced greater decreases (p < 0.05) than DIET in body mass, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, TG, cholesterol / HDL ratio, TG/HDL ratio, apolipoprotein B / apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and hs-CRP. The Framingham 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score decreased by 40% (p < 0.01) in the PROG arm versus no change for the DIET arm. As a pilot study, it was not possible to state whether the observed effects were the result of nutraceutical supplementation alone or the result of additive or synergistic interactions among diet, lifestyle modifications, and nutraceutical supplementation. Moreover, individuals with CMS risk factors following a lifestyle modification program received additional health benefits from targeted nutraceutical supplementation.
- The gut microbiota metabolism of pomegranate or walnut ellagitannins yields two urolithin-metabotypes that correlate with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers: Comparison between normoweight, overweight-obesity and metabolic syndrome. [Journal Article]Clin Nutr. 2018 06; 37(3):897-905.CN
- CONCLUSIONS: UMs are potential CMR biomarkers. Overweight-obese individuals with UM-B are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease, whereas urolithin-A production could protect against CMR factors. Further research is warranted to explore these associations in larger cohorts and whether the effect of lipid-lowering drugs or ellagitannin-consumption on CMR biomarkers depends on individuals' UM.
- Associations of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio with pre-diabetes and diabetes risks: a cross-sectional study in Chinese adults. [Journal Article]BMJ Open. 2017 01 20; 7(1):e014038.BO
- CONCLUSIONS: The ApoB/ApoA-I ratio showed positive associations with the risk of diabetes and pre-diabetes in Chinese women.
- Reference values for 34 frequently used laboratory tests in 80-year-old men and women. [Journal Article]Maturitas. 2016 Oct; 92:97-101.M
- CONCLUSIONS: Reference values calculated from the whole population and a subpopulation without cardiovascular disease showed strong concordance. Several of the reference interval limits were outside the 90% confidence interval of NORIP.
- Effects of Liver Transplantation on Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease in Children With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia. [Journal Article]Am J Cardiol. 2016 08 15; 118(4):504-10.AJ
- Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare, inherited, life-threatening, metabolic disorder of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor function characterized by elevated serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and rapidly progressive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Since LDL receptors are predominantly found on hepatocytes, orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has emerged as …
Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare, inherited, life-threatening, metabolic disorder of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor function characterized by elevated serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and rapidly progressive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Since LDL receptors are predominantly found on hepatocytes, orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has emerged as a viable intervention for HoFH because LDL receptor activity is restored. This study assessed the effects of OLT on ACVD and ACVD risk factors in pediatric patients with HoFH. We analyzed lipids, lipoproteins, body mass index, glucose, blood pressure, and cardiovascular imaging in 8 pediatric patients who underwent OLT for HoFH. Total serum cholesterol, LDL-C, lipoprotein (a), and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio decreased to normal values in all subjects (p values <0.001) at 1 month after OLT and were maintained for the length of follow-up (2 to 6 years). There were few complications related to surgery or immunosuppressive therapy. Two patients developed mild hypertension. In the first 4 subjects monitored for 4 to 6 years after OLT, coronary artery disease did not develop or progress except in 1 minor artery in 1 subject and actually regressed in 2 subjects with >50% stenosis. However, aortic valve stenosis progressed in 2 of 4 subjects. In conclusion, OLT is an effective therapeutic option for patients with HoFH with coronary artery disease and persistently elevated serum LDL-C despite maximum medical therapy. Aortic valvular disease may progress. Long-term data are needed to evaluate the true risk-benefit ratio of this surgical approach.
- Korean traditional Chungkookjang improves body composition, lipid profiles and atherogenic indices in overweight/obese subjects: a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 10; 70(10):1116-1122.EJ
- CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these results suggest that supplementation with Chungkookjang may improve body composition and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese adults.
- APOLIPOPROTEINS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK BIOMARKERS IN ADOLESCENTS. [Journal Article]Nutr Hosp. 2015 Dec 01; 32(6):2674-83.NH
- CONCLUSIONS: the findings underline an important association of apolipoproteins A-I and B, and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio and their clinical, biochemical and anthropometric cardiometabolic risk. However, prospective studies are important to evaluate the pertinence of implementing these markers in the clinical practice.
- Could human cold adaptation decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease? [Journal Article]J Therm Biol. 2015 Aug; 52:192-8.JT
- The impact of repeated exposure to cold and cold adaptation on human cardiovascular health is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of cold adaptation on cardiovascular risk factors, thyroid hormones and the capacity of humans to reset the damaging effect of oxidative stress. Ten well cold-adapted winter swimmers (CA) and 16 non-adapted controls (CON) were enroled…
The impact of repeated exposure to cold and cold adaptation on human cardiovascular health is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of cold adaptation on cardiovascular risk factors, thyroid hormones and the capacity of humans to reset the damaging effect of oxidative stress. Ten well cold-adapted winter swimmers (CA) and 16 non-adapted controls (CON) were enroled in this experiment to test whether cold adaptation could influence the parameters of lipoprotein metabolism, cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), homocysteine, thyroid hormones, antioxidant defence markers (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1)) and oxidative stress markers (concentration of conjugated dienes (CD)). A decreased apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 (ApoB/ApoA1) ratio was found in the CA group (p<0.05), but other lipoprotein parameters, including CEC, did not differ significantly. Plasma homocysteine was lower in CA subjects in comparison with controls (p<0.05). Higher triiodothyronine (T3) values were observed in the CA compared to the CON (p<0.05) group, but TSH and other thyroid hormones did not differ between both groups. CA subjects had lower activity of GPX1 (p<0.05), lower concentrations of CD (p<0.05) and increased activities of PON1 (p<0.001) compared to CON subjects. A trend for decreased activity of CAT (p=0.06) in CA compared to CON groups was also observed, but GSH levels did not differ significantly. Zn concentration was higher in the CA group than in the CON group (p<0.001). Human cold adaptation can influence oxidative stress markers. Trends towards the improvement of cardiovascular risk factors in cold-adapted subjects also indicate the positive effect of cold adaptation on cardio-protective mechanisms.
- Clinical significance of serum apolipoproteins as a predictor of coronary heart disease risk in Korean men. [Journal Article]Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Jan; 84(1):63-71.CE
- CONCLUSIONS: Serum ApoB, ApoA-1 and ApoB/A-1 ratio levels are independently associated with CHD risk in Korean men.
- Potential role of milk fat globule membrane in modulating plasma lipoproteins, gene expression, and cholesterol metabolism in humans: a randomized study. [Randomized Controlled Trial]Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jul; 102(1):20-30.AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to milk fat without MFGM, milk fat enclosed by MFGM does not impair the lipoprotein profile. The mechanism is not clear although suppressed gene expression by MFGM correlated inversely with plasma lipids. The food matrix should be considered when evaluating cardiovascular aspects of different dairy foods. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01767077.
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- The apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio as a potential marker of plasma atherogenicity. [Journal Article]Dis Markers. 2015; 2015:591454.DM
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite normolipidemia, the subjects with the unfavorable apoB/apoA-I ratio had more atherogenic lipid profile.