- Induction of Nephrotic Syndrome in Mice by Retrobulbar Injection of Doxorubicin and Prevention of Volume Retention by Sustained Release Aprotinin. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vis Exp 2018 May 06; (135)
- Nephrotic syndrome is the most extreme manifestation of proteinuric kidney disease and characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema due to sodium retention and hyperlipidemia. To st...
Nephrotic syndrome is the most extreme manifestation of proteinuric kidney disease and characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema due to sodium retention and hyperlipidemia. To study the pathophysiology of this syndrome, rodent models have been developed based on the injection of toxic substances such as doxorubicin causing podocyte damage. In mice, only few strains are susceptible to this model. In wildtype 129S1/SvImJ mice, the administration of doxorubicin by rapid intravenous injection to the retrobulbar sinus induces experimental nephrotic syndrome that features all the symptoms of human disease including sodium retention and edema. After the onset of proteinuria, mice exhibit increased urinary serine protease activity that leads to the activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and sodium retention. Pharmacological inhibition of urinary serine proteases by the treatment with sustained release aprotinin abrogates ENaC activation and prevents sodium retention. This model is ideal to study the pathophysiology of proteasuria, i.e., the excretion of active serine proteases that cause ENaC activation by the proteolysis of its γ-subunit. This can be regarded as the primary mechanism of ENaC activation and sodium retention in proteinuric kidney disease.
- Corticosteroids and Other Anti-Inflammatory Strategies in Pediatric Heart Surgery: A National Survey of Practice. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2018; 9(3):289-293
- CONCLUSIONS: We found wide variability in practice in the administration of CSs for pediatric cardiac surgery, both within and between units. While most anesthetists administer CSs in at least some cases, there is no consensus on the type of steroid, the dose, and at which patient groups this should be directed. Modified ultrafiltration is still used by most of the centers. Almost half of consultants use aprotinin, while heparin-coated circuits are infrequently used.
- Three-Dimensional Hydrogel-Based Culture to Study the Effects of Toxicants on Ovarian Follicles. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2018; 1758:55-72
- Various toxicants, such as drugs and their metabolites, can cause potential ovarian toxicity. As the functional units of the ovary, ovarian follicles are susceptible to this type of damage at all dev...
Various toxicants, such as drugs and their metabolites, can cause potential ovarian toxicity. As the functional units of the ovary, ovarian follicles are susceptible to this type of damage at all developmental stages. Studying the effects of toxicants on ovarian follicles is an important task. Three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels, such as fibrin alginate interpenetrating networks (FA-IPNs), can support ovarian follicle culture in vitro for extended periods of time and serve as a suitable tool for studying ovotoxicity. Growing follicles encapsulated in the FA-IPN can proteolytically degrade the fibrin component in the FA-IPN. The degradation of fibrin mirrors the follicle growth and serves as a surrogate reporter for follicle health. The speed of fibrin degradation can be further controlled by aprotinin, a small molecule that inhibits plasmin-driven proteolytic degradation, which further expands the application of the described system. In this chapter, we describe methods to (1) isolate and encapsulate mouse ovarian follicles in FA-IPN, (2) follow follicle growth and development in vitro, and (3) evaluate the effects of toxicants on folliculogenesis using fibrin degradation.
- Reply to: aprotinin and coronary artery bypass surgery. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Anaesthesiol 2018; 35(1):69-70
- Aprotinin and coronary artery bypass surgery. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Anaesthesiol 2018; 35(1):68-69
- 7.5% NaCl Resuscitation Leads to Abnormal Clot Fibrinolysis after Severe Hemorrhagic Shock and its Correction with 7.5% NaCl Adenosine, Lidocaine, and Mg2. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Emerg Trauma Shock 2018 Jan-Mar; 11(1):15-24
- CONCLUSIONS: Small-volume 7.5% NaCl resuscitation exacerbated coagulopathy and fibrinolysis that was not corrected by APTEM test. Fibrinolysis appears to be associated with altered fibrin structure during early clot formation and elongation. In contrast, 7.5% NaCl ALM rapidly corrected both coagulopathy and hyperfibrinolysis.
- Aprotinin Impacts 8-Isoprostane after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. [Journal Article]
- SJScand J Surg 2018 Apr 01; :1457496918766720
- CONCLUSIONS: According to the pulmonary artery/radial artery equation, the impact of aprotinin on 8-isoprostane after coronary artery bypass grafting is dose dependent. Aprotinin may aid the lung passage of circulating factors toward a beneficial anti-inflammatory milieu.
- Short-term outcome of cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass in patients who refuse transfusion: a controlled study. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2018 Apr 03
- CONCLUSIONS: Low-risk JW had significantly higher mortality than controls. Bleeding related deaths tended to be more frequent in JW. Blood-sparing manoeuvres should be intensively implemented in both JW and patients permitting transfusion in order to reduce bleeding and the need for transfusion with its harmful effects.
- Significance of 11C-PIB PET/CT in cardiac amyloidosis compared with 99mTc-aprotinin scintigraphy: A pilot study. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nucl Cardiol 2018 Mar 27
- CONCLUSIONS: In a small sample of subjects, the present study showed that 11C-PIB accumulation in myocardium indicated cardiac amyloidosis with poor prognosis. Uptake of 11C-PIB may be related to progressive amyloid deposition to the heart and can predict patient prognosis.
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- Participation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in paclitaxel-induced acute visceral and peripheral nociception in rodents. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Jun 05; 828:42-51
- The clinical use of paclitaxel as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by the severe acute and chronic hypersensitivity caused when it is administered via intraperitoneal or intravenous routes. Thus f...
The clinical use of paclitaxel as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by the severe acute and chronic hypersensitivity caused when it is administered via intraperitoneal or intravenous routes. Thus far, evidence has suggested that transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has a key role in the chronic neuropathy induced by paclitaxel. Despite this, the role of TRPV1 in paclitaxel -related acute nociception, especially the development of visceral nociception, has not been evaluated. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the participation of TRPV1 in a model of acute nociception induced by paclitaxel in rats and mice. A single intraperitoneal (i.p.) paclitaxel administration (1 mg/kg, i.p.) produced an immediate visceral nociception response 1 h after administration, caused mechanical and heat hypersensitivity, and diminished burrowing behaviour 24 h after administration. These nociceptive responses were reduced by SB-366791 treatment (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a TRPV1 antagonist). In addition, TRPV1-positive sensory fibre ablation (using resiniferatoxin, 200 µg/kg, s.c.) reduced visceral nociception and mechanical or heat hypersensitivity caused by paclitaxel injection. Similarly, TRPV1 deficient mice showed a pronounced reduction in mechanical allodynia to paclitaxel acute injection and did not develop heat hypersensitivity. Moreover, 24 h after its injection, paclitaxel induced chemical hypersensitivity to capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist, 0.01 nmol/site) and increased TRPV1 immunoreactivity in the dorsal root ganglion and sciatic nerve. In conclusion, TRPV1 is involved in mechanical and heat hypersensitivity and spontaneous-pain behaviour induced 24 h after a single paclitaxel injection. This receptor is also involved in visceral nociception induced immediately after paclitaxel administration.