- Using a Population Model to Inform the Management of River Flows and Invasive Carp (Cyprinus carpio). [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Manage 2017 Apr 18
- Carp are a highly successful invasive fish species, now widespread, abundant and considered a pest in south-eastern Australia. To date, most management effort has been directed at reducing abundances...
Carp are a highly successful invasive fish species, now widespread, abundant and considered a pest in south-eastern Australia. To date, most management effort has been directed at reducing abundances of adult fish, with little consideration of population growth through reproduction. Environmental water allocations are now an important option for the rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin. As carp respond to flows, there is concern that environmental watering may cause floodplain inundation and provide access to spawning habitats subsequently causing unwanted population increase. This is a management conundrum that needs to be carefully considered within the context of contemporary river flow management (natural, environmental, irrigation). This paper uses a population model to investigate flow-related carp population dynamics for three case studies in the Murray-Darling Basin: (1) river and terminal lakes; (2) wetlands and floodplain lakes; and (3) complex river channel and floodplain system. Results highlight distinctive outcomes depending on site characteristics. In particular, the terminal lakes maintain a significant source carp population regardless of river flow; hence any additional within-channel environmental flows are likely to have little impact on carp populations. In contrast, large-scale removal of carp from the lakes may be beneficial, especially in times of extended low river flows. Case studies 2 and 3 show how wetlands, floodplain lakes and the floodplain itself can now often be inundated for several months over the carp spawning season by high volume flows provided for irrigation or water transfers. Such inundations can be a major driver of carp populations, compared to within channel flows that have relatively little effecton recruitment. The use of a population model that incorporates river flows and different habitats for this flow-responsive species, allows for the comparison of likely population outcomes for differing hydrological scenarios to improve the management of risks relating to carp reproduction and flows.
- Oxygen uptake and body composition after aquatic physical training in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Phys Rehabil Med 2017 Apr 04
- CONCLUSIONS: APT with standardized intensities did not cause significant changes in body composition, but was effective in promoting increased VO2 at peak CPET in women with FMS. However, VO2 related to LBM more accurately reflected changes in aerobic functional capacity at VAT level after to APT.APT with standardized intensities at VAT level is of great interest, since VAT reflects better aerobic functional capacity of patients with FMS than maximum VO2.
- Activity-specific aquatic therapy targeting gait for a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. [Journal Article]
- PTPhysiother Theory Pract 2017 Apr 05; :1-14
- CONCLUSIONS: An activity-specific aquatic therapy program improved gait in a patient with iSCI. The properties of water create a practical environment for safe practice of skills. Further studies are warranted in large samples.
- Aquatic Therapy for People with Lymphedema: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- LRLymphat Res Biol 2017 Mar 27
- CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence indicates no significant benefit of ALT over standard land-based care for improving lymphedema status or physical function in people with UL lymphedema. Patient preference should guide the choice of care to facilitate adherence. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence from four studies in people with UL lymphedema, and to establish the efficacy of this intervention in people with lower limb lymphedema. Review registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015019900).
- Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(3):e0171972
- Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reduci...
Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36-55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in the course of rehabilitation or preventive therapies.
- Effects of a 6-Week Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Program on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Walking Endurance in Subacute Stroke Patients: A PILOT TRIAL. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2017 Mar 15
- CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study showed that a 6-week ATE program improved peak aerobic capacity and walking endurance in patients with subacute stroke. The improvement in V·o2peak after an ATE exercise program was greater than that observed after an LBE program. Therefore, ATE effectively improves cardiopulmonary fitness in patients with subacute stroke.
- Effects of aquatic exercise on physical function and fitness among people with spinal cord injury: A systematic review. [Review]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(11):e6328
- CONCLUSIONS: There is weak evidence supporting aquatic exercise training to improve physical function and aerobic fitness among adults with spinal cord injury. Suggestions for future research include reporting details of exercise interventions, evaluating other physical or fitness outcomes, and improving methodological quality.
- Simulation of fluid environment using a robotic orthosis on human lower extremity for therapeutic purposes. [Journal Article]
- CPConf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016; 2016:5015-5018
- Rehabilitation under water is a viable physical rehabilitation option, but it has some limitations in terms of adapting to needs of each patient. In addition, its facility requirements are relatively...
Rehabilitation under water is a viable physical rehabilitation option, but it has some limitations in terms of adapting to needs of each patient. In addition, its facility requirements are relatively high. Simulating the fluid environment using a robotic system would enable therapists adjust various parameters so that the therapy is tailored to the patient's unique state. Also, using a robotic system instead might be less costly and easily reachable. In this study, human lower extremity movement in fluids is modeled. This model is verified by comparing computer simulations with the results of previous experimental studies. Then, the model is used to create a control scheme which is implemented on a robotic gait trainer. Output torques are measured to check the effectiveness of the controller in simulating the fluid environment while compensating for weight and friction of the robotic system. Measurements showed that the desired joint torques were achieved and the controller was able to make the orthosis transparent to the patient. A hip extension exercise used in aquatic therapy was performed with the robotic system while varying drag coefficient, fluid density and flow velocity, and the data collected is presented.
- Effects of enhanced hydrological connectivity on Mediterranean salt marsh fish assemblages with emphasis on the endangered Spanish toothcarp (Aphanius iberus). [Journal Article]
- PPeerJ 2017; 5:e3009
- The hydrological connectivity between the salt marsh and the sea was partially restored in a Mediterranean wetland containing isolated ponds resulting from former salt extraction and aquaculture acti...
The hydrological connectivity between the salt marsh and the sea was partially restored in a Mediterranean wetland containing isolated ponds resulting from former salt extraction and aquaculture activities. A preliminary assessment provided evidence that ponds farther from the sea hosted very large numbers of the endangered Spanish toothcarp, Aphanius iberus, suggesting that individuals had been trapped and consequently reach unnaturally high densities. In order to achieve both habitat rehabilitation and toothcarp conservation, efforts were made to create a gradient of hydrologically connected areas, including isolated fish reservoirs, semi-isolated, and connected salt marsh-sea areas that could allow migratory movements of fish and provide some protection for A. iberus. The fish community was monitored prior to, and for three years after rehabilitation. Results showed an increase in the number of fish species within semi-isolated areas (Zone A), whereas areas adjacent to the sea (Zone B) increased the number of marine species and decreased that of estuarine species (ES). Yet overall differences in fish assemblages were much higher between zones than among study years. Generalized linear models (GLMs) evidenced that distance to the sea was the most important variable explaining the local diversity of the fish community after restoration, with occasional influence of other factors such as temperature, and depth. The abundance of A. iberus was consistently higher in semi-isolated areas at greater distances from the sea, but a decline occurred in both zones and in isolated reservoir ponds after restoration efforts, which may be attributable to interannual differences in recruitment success and, to a lesser extent, to dispersal into adjacent habitats. A negative effect of restoration works on fish population cannot be excluded, but the final outcome of the intervention likely needs a longer period.
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- Development and Reliability of the Timed Functional Arm and Shoulder Test (TFAST). [Journal Article]
- JOJ Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017 Mar 03; :1-41
- Study Design Repeated-measures clinical measurement reliability study. Background While there are some shoulder functional tests for athletes, no widely used performance test of arm and shoulder func...
Study Design Repeated-measures clinical measurement reliability study. Background While there are some shoulder functional tests for athletes, no widely used performance test of arm and shoulder function currently exists to assess lower level upper extremity functional demands, for example in a non-athlete population or elderly individuals. In these individuals, functional measures rely on patient self-report. Objectives Describe the development of the Timed Functional Arm and Shoulder Test (TFAST), age-related scores and between-session reliability in a group of asymptomatic high-school athletes, young, middle-aged and older adults, and a preliminary group of symptomatic patients. Methods 140 asymptomatic individuals: 36 high-school athletes (14-18 years), 34 young adults (19-35 years), 37 middle-aged adults (36-65 years), 33 older adults (over 65 years); and 16 symptomatic patients (22-66 years). The TFAST was a functional test which included 3 tasks -hand to head and back, wall wash and gallon lift. Total repetitions (reps) were noted for each task and total TFAST score was calculated. Results Mean (95%CI) total TFAST scores were higher for young adults (107.9 (102.5-113.4)) and middle-aged adults (105.2 (99.1-111.3)) as compared to the high-school athletes (89.9 (81.2 - 98.5)) and older adults (74.5 (65.6-83.5)), all groups were significantly different (p <0.05) from each other, except the young and middle-aged adults; for patients mean score for symptomatic side was 100.1 (89.6-110.5). The between-session reliability for the total TFAST scores in the asymptomatic individuals were ICC 0.93 (0.60-0.98, 95%CI), SEM 6.7 and MDC95 18.5 reps. The ICC values for individual tasks ranged from 0.80-0.94 (95% CI range 0.44-0.98). The reliability for the patient group was 0.83 (0.51-0.94, 95%CI). Conclusion The TFAST was sensitive to detect differences in functional performance between age groups, demonstrated adequate between-session reliability, and demonstrated feasibility in a symptomatic patient group. Further assessment is needed to refine the TFAST. Development of a feasible and valid test of arm function would enhance clinical evaluation and outcome measurement. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 3 Mar 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7136.