- Effect of adsorbent and acidulants on enzymatic browning of sugarcane juice. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci Technol 2018; 55(10):4356-4362
- Enzymatic browning is a major factor affecting the quality of sugarcane juice, mainly due to the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Effect of bentonite (0-1%, w/v) on the ac...
Enzymatic browning is a major factor affecting the quality of sugarcane juice, mainly due to the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Effect of bentonite (0-1%, w/v) on the activities of these enzymes, when employed alone and also in combination with acidulants, was determined. Bentonite alone could reduce the activities of PPO and POD enzymes to 160 and 24.2 u/mL, respectively. The PPO and POD activity was completely inhibited below pH 4.1 when ascorbic acid was used alone or in combination with bentonite. However, PPO and POD activity was inhibited to 60 and 51 u/mL, respectively, at pH 3.7 when citric acid was used individually and to 112 and 15.36 u/mL, respectively, when employed along with bentonite. In addition, color changes at 4 and 10 °C were measured during the storage of sugarcane juice.
- UPLC-DAD quantification of chemical constituents of Potentilla atrosanguinea roots and their antioxidant activity. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci Technol 2018; 55(10):4337-4345
- Potentilla atrosanguinea, native to Himalayan region, is well known for its curative effects in traditional medicinal system. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method f...
Potentilla atrosanguinea, native to Himalayan region, is well known for its curative effects in traditional medicinal system. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method for the quantification of constituents of root part of P. atrosanguinea has been developed along with antioxidant activity evaluation. A simple and sensitive quantification method developed for seven compounds however only four compounds; p-coumaric acid (4), rutin (7), tiliroside (14) and kaempferol (16) were quantified as others were in lesser amount. Syringic acid and quercetin were found in trace amount whereas chlorogenic acid was absent in the ethanol extract of roots of P. atrosanguinea. Total polyphenolic and flavonoid contents were determined to be 21.75 mg of gallic acid equivalent and 8.57 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry plant material, respectively. Antioxidant activity of extract was assessed using three assays; 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The IC50 values; 35.75 μg/ml and 30.35 μg/ml by DPPH and ABTS assays for ethanolic extract showed excellent free radical scavenging potential of its root part. The ferric reducing ability (FRAP) value, 26.67 mg of ascorbic acid per gram also indicated its higher antioxidant potential.
- Bioprocess development and preservation of functional food from tomato seed isolate fermented by kefir culture mixture. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci Technol 2018; 55(10):3911-3921
- The aim of this work was to explore the use of protein isolate from tomato seed enriched with the sucrose and the ascorbic acid as a medium for the growth of kefir mixture culture to develop a new no...
The aim of this work was to explore the use of protein isolate from tomato seed enriched with the sucrose and the ascorbic acid as a medium for the growth of kefir mixture culture to develop a new non-dairy functional food. Unstructured mathematical and logistic models were proposed to describe cell growth, kefiran production, nutriment consumption and antioxidant activity. It was found that the maximal cell mass in the culture reached 8.38 g L-1 after 24 h of fermentation. A significant amount of kefiran was also produced (0.65 g L-1). The kefir culture growth significantly decreased protein content and enhanced the antioxidant activity during varied fermentation through the production of bio active peptides. After 24 h of fermentation, IC50 value for protein isolate was estimated to be about 10.48 µg mL-1. The proposed models adequately described the changes during fermentation and as observed as a promising approach for the formulation of tomato seed-based functional foods. The preservation of the isolate was also investigated through a spray-drying process. The effect of spray-drying on the viability of lactic acid bacteria and stability of protein content and the antioxidant activity of the powder was also carried out. Results showed that the spray-drying method has great potential for the synthesis of powder from the fermented isolate that are rich in desirable properties. However, it was appropriate to preserve the powder for 10 days at 37 °C for the preservation of protein functionality.
- Vascular Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Sep 18
- CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for the hypothesis that vascular oxidative stress and inflammation develop with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
- Microbiosensor fabrication by polydimethylsiloxane stamping for combined sensing of glucose and choline. [Journal Article]
- AAnalyst 2018 Sep 18
- High performance microprobes for combined sensing of glucose and choline were fabricated using microcontact printing (μCP) to transfer choline oxidase (ChOx) and glucose oxidase (GOx) onto targeted s...
High performance microprobes for combined sensing of glucose and choline were fabricated using microcontact printing (μCP) to transfer choline oxidase (ChOx) and glucose oxidase (GOx) onto targeted sites on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Most electroenzymatic sensing sites on MEAs for neuroscience applications are created by manual enzyme deposition, which becomes problematic when the array feature size is less than or equal to ∼100 μm. The μCP process used here relies on use of soft lithography to create features on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstamp that correspond to the dimensions and array locations of targeted, microscale sites on a MEA. Precise alignment of the stamp with the MEA is also required to transfer enzyme only onto the specified microelectrode(s). The dual sensor fabrication process began with polyphenylenediamine (PPD) electrodeposition on all Pt microelectrodes to block common interferents (e.g., ascorbic acid and dopamine) found in brain extracellular fluid. Next, a chitosan film was electrodeposited to serve as an adhesive layer. The two enzymes, ChOx and GOx, were transferred onto different microelectrodes of 2 × 2 arrays using two different PDMS stamps and a microscope for stamp alignment. Using constant potential amperometry, the combined sensing microprobe was confirmed to have high sensitivity for choline and glucose (286 and 117 μA mM cm-2, respectively) accompanied by low detection limits (1 and 3 μM, respectively) and rapid response times (≤2 s). This work demonstrates the use of μCP for facile creation of multianalyte sensing microprobes by targeted deposition of enzymes onto preselected sites of a microelectrode array.
- Chemical Sensing at the Robot Fingertips: Towards Automated Taste Discrimination in Food Samples. [Journal Article]
- ASACS Sens 2018 Sep 18
- The development of robotic sensors that mimic the human sensing capabilities is critical for the interaction and cognitive abilities of modern robots. Though robotic skin with embedded pressure or te...
The development of robotic sensors that mimic the human sensing capabilities is critical for the interaction and cognitive abilities of modern robots. Though robotic skin with embedded pressure or temperature sensors have received recent attention, robotic chemical sensors have long been unnoticed due the challenges associated in realizing chemical sensing modalities on robotic platforms. For realizing such chemically-sensitive robotic skin, we exploit here the recent advances in wearable chemical sensor technology and flexible electronics, and describe chemical sensing robotic fingers for rapid screening of food flavors and additives. The stretchable taste-sensing finger electrochemical devices are printed on the robotic glove, which simulates the soft skin, and are integrated with a wireless electronic board for real-time data transmission. The printed middle, index and ring robotic fingers allow accurate discrimination between sweetness, sourness and spiciness, via direct electrochemical detection of glucose, ascorbic acid and capsaicin. The sweet-sensing ability has been coupled with a caffeine-sensing robotic finger for rapid screening of the presence of sugar and caffeine in common beverages. The 'sense of taste' chemically-sensitive robotic technology thus enables accurate discrimination between different flavors, as was illustrated in numerous tests involving a wide range of liquid and solid food samples. Such realization of advanced wearable taste-sensing systems at the robot fingertips should pave the way to automated chemical sensing machinery, facilitating robotic decision for practical food assistance applications, with broad implications to a wide range of robotic sensing applications.
- A photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles/ZnAgInS quaternary quantum dots for the high-performance determination of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chim Acta 2018 Dec 04; 1035:136-145
- ZnAgInS quaternary quantum dots were prepared using glutathione as the capped reagent. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were integrated with ZnAgInS QDs to provide a GNPs/ZnAgInS QDs nanocomposite. The morp...
ZnAgInS quaternary quantum dots were prepared using glutathione as the capped reagent. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were integrated with ZnAgInS QDs to provide a GNPs/ZnAgInS QDs nanocomposite. The morphological image, component and crystal structure of GNPs/ZnAgInS QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A glassy carbon electrode surface was coated with GNPs/ZnAgInS QDs nanocomposites to construct an interface for immobilizing the antibody of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg). By employing GNPs/ZnAgInS QDs as a photoactive element, a photoelectrochemical immunosensor for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) was developed. The results indicate that gold nanoparticles can dramatically enhance the photocurrent response of ZnAgInS QDs and thus improving the sensing performances of the immunosensor. The experimental conditions including incubation time, incubation temperature, and ascorbic acid concentration were optimized. The relative photocurrent decline [Ri = ΔI/I0= (I0 - I)/I0] shows a linear relationship to the logarithm of HBsAg concentration [lg(c, ng mL-1)] in the range from 0.005 to 30 ng mL-1. A detection limit of 0.5 pg mL-1 was obtained. The immunosensor shows excellent sensitivity, selectivity, stability and reproducibility. The HBsAg concentrations in clinical serum samples were also accurately determined with this new photoelectrochemical immunosensor.
- Beneficial Effects of Tomato Juice Fermented by Lactobacillus Plantarum and Lactobacillus Casei: Antioxidation, Antimicrobial Effect, and Volatile Profiles. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Sep 16; 23(9)
- Tomato juice was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei to produce an innovative high-bioactivity probiotic beverage. The levels of lycopene, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, t...
Tomato juice was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei to produce an innovative high-bioactivity probiotic beverage. The levels of lycopene, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and volatile compounds, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging capacities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Escherichia coli flora, as well as the inhibition of copper-induced human low-density lipoproteins (LDL)-cholesterol oxidation assays, were measured. The results revealed that the ABTS and DPPH inhibition values, as well as the FRAP and total phenolic content, were significantly increased. LDL-cholesterol oxidation was markedly delayed after the addition of the fermented juice. The in vitro inhibitory effects of Escherichia coli flora were substantially increased after being fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei. The results associated with the volatile compounds indicated that fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei is a meaningful strategy for modifying flavors.
- Copper-caused oxidative stress triggers the activation of antioxidant enzymes via ZmMPK3 in maize leaves. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0203612
- Copper (Cu) is a necessary trace element participated in many physiological processes in plants. But excessive Cu2+ is toxic, which can activate intracellular signals that lead to cellular damage. Th...
Copper (Cu) is a necessary trace element participated in many physiological processes in plants. But excessive Cu2+ is toxic, which can activate intracellular signals that lead to cellular damage. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is at the center of cell signal transduction and has been reported to be involved in stress-related signaling pathways. ZmMPK3, a kind of MAPKs in maize cells, can be activated by diverse abiotic stresses. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Cu2+ on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level, ZmMPK3 activity as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) using maize leaf as an experimental model. The results demonstrated that acute Cu2+ exposure for 24 hours led to rapid increases of H2O2 level and the increase in ZmMPK3 activity as well as the total activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and APX. H2O2 scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU), effectively inhibited the Cu2+-increased H2O2 level and the activity of ZmMPK3 as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and APX. Pre-treatment with the MAPK inhibitor, PD98059, significantly blocked the Cu2+-increased activities of ZmMPK3, CAT, APX and SOD, but didn't affect the accumulation of H2O2. Our results suggest that Cu2+ causes oxidative stress to the maize leaves which then activates defense antioxidant enzymes via MAPK pathway. Thus, the signaling pathway is Cu2+-H2O2-ZmMPK3-antioxidant enzymes.
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- Comments to Professor Halliwell's article "Artefacts with ascorbate and other redox-active compounds in cell culture: epigenetic modifications, and cell killing due to hydrogen peroxide generation in cell culture media". [Journal Article]
- FRFree Radic Res 2018 Sep 16; :1-61