- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- The cardio-selective beta blockers include atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, and nebivolol. FDA approved uses of beta-1-selective blockers include hypertension, chroni...
The cardio-selective beta blockers include atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, and nebivolol. FDA approved uses of beta-1-selective blockers include hypertension, chronic stable angina, heart failure, post-myocardial infarction, and decreased left ventricular function after a recent myocardial infarction. Non-FDA approved uses include migraine prophylaxis, treatment of arrhythmias, tremor reduction, and the symptomatic treatment of anxiety disorders. Their use is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality post-MI. Treatment with beta-1 blockers decreases the risk of stroke, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure.
- β-blockers interfere with cell homing receptors and regulatory proteins in a model of spontaneously hypertensive rats. [Journal Article]
- CTCardiovasc Ther 2018 May 12; :e12434
- CONCLUSIONS: β-blockers modulated tissue expression of the proteins and their interactions following 30 days of treatment. It evidences that this class of drugs can interfere with proteins of cell homing pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of the antidiabetic drug metformin and six others pharmaceuticals in wastewater. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2018 Jun 29; 1556:73-80
- A rapid and sensitive hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of the antidiabetic dr...
A rapid and sensitive hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of the antidiabetic drug metformin and six further pharmaceuticals (atenolol, gabapentin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, propranolol and trimethoprim) in influent and effluent wastewater. Five deuterated related compounds were used as internal standards in order to control the extraction, injection and ionization variability. Two solid phase extraction methods and Oasis HLB 1cc cartridge, using only 1mL sample with acid or basic pH-value were optimized and compared in order to match the specificity of both influent and effluent wastewater matrixes. The most important challenge was to efficiently extract the polar compound metformin from the aqueous matrix. This was possible by adjusting the sample pH to 10. On the other hand, the adjustment to acid pH prevents metformin binding on the SPE cartridges. Metformin was so directly recovered after passing through the cartridge and injected in the HPLC-MS/MS system without any other preparation. These two methods present advantages and drawbacks, but are both applicable to wastewater samples. The method with extraction at pH 3 was applied to influent wastewater samples and metformin concentrations higher than 625ng/L. On the other hand, the extraction method at pH 10 with a lower limit of quantification for metformin of 156ng/L was successfully applied to effluent water and to surface water samples. Both methods were fully validated. Limits of quantification were sufficiently low to provide good analytical performances for the determination of all drugs in both influent and effluent wastewater. Wastewater samples collected from six different wastewater treatment plants in Germany were analyzed. All analytes were present in influent samples at concentrations above the lower limit of quantification LLOQ, particularly metformin which presents concentrations up to 300μg/L.
- Correction to: First Development, Optimization, and Stability Control of a Pediatric Oral Atenolol Formulation. [Published Erratum]
- APAAPS PharmSciTech 2018 Apr 16
- In the INTRODUCTION section, Atenolol is defined in parenthesis as (ATN, Fig. 1.) The correct definition is (ATN). Fig 1 corresponds to the RESULTS section.
In the INTRODUCTION section, Atenolol is defined in parenthesis as (ATN, Fig. 1.) The correct definition is (ATN). Fig 1 corresponds to the RESULTS section.
- Intensification of UV-C tertiary treatment: Disinfection and removal of micropollutants by sulfate radical based Advanced Oxidation Processes. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hazard Mater 2018 Apr 21
- This study explores the enhancement of UV-C tertiary treatment by sulfate radical based Advanced Oxidation Processes (SR-AOPs), including photolytic activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and persulfa...
This study explores the enhancement of UV-C tertiary treatment by sulfate radical based Advanced Oxidation Processes (SR-AOPs), including photolytic activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and persulfate (PS) and their photocatalytic activation using Fe(II). Their efficiency was assessed both for the inactivation of microorganisms and the removal or micropollutants (MPs) in real wastewater treatment plant effluents. Under the studied experimental range (UV-C dose 5.7-57 J/L; UV-C contact time 3 to 28 s), the photolysis of PMS and PS (0.01 mM) increased up to 25% the bacterial removal regarding to UV-C system. The photolytic activation of PMS led to the total inactivation of bacteria (≈ 5.70 log) with the highest UV-C dose (57 J/L). However, these conditions were insufficient to remove the MPs, being required oxidant's dosages of 5 mM to remove above 90% of carbamazepine, diclofenac, atenolol and triclosan. The best efficiencies were achieved by the combination of PMS or PS with Fe(II), leading to the total removal of the MPs using a low UV-C dosage (19 J/L), UV-C contact time (9 s) and reagent's dosages (0.5 mM). Finally, high mineralization was reached (>50%) with photocatalytic activation of PMS and PS even with low reagent's dosages.
- Occurrence, control and fate of contaminants of emerging concern in environmental compartments in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hazard Mater 2018 Apr 22
- This is the first review to present data obtained in Brazil over the years regarding contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) and to contrast it with contamination in other countries. Data gathered ind...
This is the first review to present data obtained in Brazil over the years regarding contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) and to contrast it with contamination in other countries. Data gathered indicated that caffeine, paracetamol, atenolol, ibuprofen, cephalexin and bisphenol A occur in the μg L-1 range in streams near urban areas. While endocrine disruptors are frequently detected in surface waters, highest concentrations account for 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-estradiol. Organochlorine pesticides are the most frequently found and persistent in sediments in agricultural regions. Moreover, in tropical agricultural fields, pesticide volatilization and its implications to ecosystem protection must be better investigated. The reality represented here for Brazil may be transposed to other developing countries due to similarities related to primitive basic sanitation infrastructure and economic and social contexts, which contribute to continuous environmental contamination by CEC. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Brazil, treat up to the secondary stage and lead to limited CEC removal. This is also true for other nations in Latin America, such as Argentina, Colombia and Mexico. Therefore, it is an urgent priority to improve sanitation infrastructure and, then, the implementation of tertiary treatment shall be imposed.
- Evaluation of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by two-dimensional echocardiography in healthy dogs: repeatability, reference intervals, and comparison with M-mode assessment. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Cardiol 2018 Apr 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Two-dimensional echocardiography TAPSE appears well suited for clinical assessment of RV function. The TAPSE methods should not be used interchangeably.
- Cardioprotective effect of Amaranthus tricolor extract in isoprenaline induced myocardial damage in ovariectomized rats. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018 Apr 27; 103:1154-1162
- Red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor) has been reported to possess many benefits and medicinal properties and used as a part of traditional medicine in Ayurveda and Siddha. The aim of the study was to in...
Red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor) has been reported to possess many benefits and medicinal properties and used as a part of traditional medicine in Ayurveda and Siddha. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Amaranthus tricolor on isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress, fibrosis, and myocardial damage in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy surgery was conducted to remove both ovaries from the rats. After recovery, rats were administered with ISO subcutaneously (50 mg/kg) twice a week and were treated with ethanolic extracts of A. tricolor. This investigation showed that the level of oxidative stress markers was significantly increased while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased in ISO administered ovariectomized rats. A. tricolor extract and atenolol treatment prevented the rise of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and advanced protein oxidation product. Moreover, elevated activities of AST, ALT, and CK-MB enzymes were also lowered by both atenolol and A. tricolor treatment. Increased uric acid and creatinine levels were also normalized by atenolol, and A. Tricolor treatment in ISO administered ovariectomized rats. ISO-induced ovariectomized rats also showed massive inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis and iron deposition in heart compared to sham rats. Atenolol and A. tricolor treatment prevented the inflammatory cells infiltration, fibrosis, and iron deposition. These results suggest that A. tricolor treatment may protect against ISO administered myocardial infarction in ovariectomized rats probably by preventing inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Further research is warranted to examine molecular mechanism of cardioprotective effect of A. tricolor.
- Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in swimming pool waters. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Apr 20; 635:956-963
- The occurrence of illicit drugs (cocaine, opioids, amphetamines and cannabis derivatives), some of their metabolites and 48 pharmaceuticals, was investigated in pool and source waters in ten Italian ...
The occurrence of illicit drugs (cocaine, opioids, amphetamines and cannabis derivatives), some of their metabolites and 48 pharmaceuticals, was investigated in pool and source waters in ten Italian indoor swimming pools. The samples were analyzed by highperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), after solid phase extraction (SPE). Cocaine and its metabolites were found in nine swimming pools, at concentrations from 0.3 to 4.2 ng/L for cocaine, 1.1 to 48.7 ng/L for norcocaine, 0.7 to 21.4 ng/L for benzoylecgonine and 0.1 to 7.3 ng/L for norbenzoylecgonine. Opioids, amphetamines and cannabis derivatives were never detected. The most frequent pharmaceuticals were anti-inflammatory drugs: ibuprofen was found in all the pool waters, with a maximum 197 ng/L and ketoprofen was detected in 9/10 samples (maximum 127 ng/L). Among anticonvulsants, carbamazepine and its metabolite, 10,11-dihydro-10,11dihydroxycarbamazepine, were frequent in swimming pool water (8/10 samples) at concentrations up to 62 ng/L. The cardiovascular drug valsartan was also found frequently (8/10 samples), but at lower concentrations (up to 9 ng/L). Other pharmaceuticals were detected occasionally and at lower concentrations (atenolol, enalapril, paracetamol, hydroclorothiazide, irbesartan and dehydro-erythromycin). Carbamazepine, irbesartan and dehydroerythromycin were detected at very low levels (up to 5 ng/L) in only one of the four source water samples. A quantitative risk assessment showed that the health risk for humans to these substance in swimming pool waters was generally negligible, even for vulnerable subpopulations such as children and adolescents.
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- Sorption of pharmaceuticals to soil organic matter in a constructed wetland by electrostatic interaction. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Apr 23; 635:1345-1350
- There is a growing interest in the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater because pharmaceuticals have potential ecotoxicological effects. Among several removal mechanisms, the sorption of pharma...
There is a growing interest in the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater because pharmaceuticals have potential ecotoxicological effects. Among several removal mechanisms, the sorption of pharmaceuticals to sediment organic matter is an important mechanism related to the mobility of pharmaceuticals. This study investigated the sorption of pharmaceuticals to soil organic matter (SOM) by electrostatic interactions. SOM located on the surface of soil/sediment generally has a negative charge because of the functional groups present (i.e., carboxylic and phenolic groups). Thus, the electrical characteristics of SOM can induce electrical attraction with positively charged chemical compounds. In this study, SOM was extracted from soils under different aquatic plants (Acorus and Typha) in a constructed wetland in Korea. Experiments were carried out with the following three pharmaceuticals with different electrical characteristics at pH 7: atenolol (positive charge; pKa 9.5), carbamazepine (neutral; no pKa), and ibuprofen (negative charge; pKa 4.9). The SOM in the Acorus pond had a higher hydrophobicity and electrical charge density than that in the Typha pond. Regarding the sorption efficiency between SOM and charged pharmaceuticals, atenolol showed highest sorption efficiency (~60%), followed by carbamazepine (~40%) and ibuprofen (<~30%). In addition, the removal efficiency of the targeted pharmaceuticals in the constructed wetland was estimated by comparing the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals at sampling points with flowing water. The results showed that the removal efficiency of atenolol and carbamazepine was almost 50%, whereas that of ibuprofen was only ~10%. A comparison of the results of lab-scale and field experiments showed that electrostatic interaction is one of the major pharmaceutical removal mechanisms in a constructed wetland.