- Frequency of Ventricular Arrhythmias and Other Rhythm Abnormalities in Children and Young Adults With the Marfan Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 17
- Patients with the Marfan syndrome (MFS) are at risk for sudden death. The contribution of arrhythmias is unclear. This study examines the prevalence of arrhythmias in children with the MFS and their ...
Patients with the Marfan syndrome (MFS) are at risk for sudden death. The contribution of arrhythmias is unclear. This study examines the prevalence of arrhythmias in children with the MFS and their relation to clinical and/or echocardiographic factors. Data from the Pediatric Heart Network randomized trial of atenolol versus losartan in MFS were analyzed (6 months to 25 years old, aortic root diameter z-score > 3.0, no previous aortic surgery and/or dissection). Baseline 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring was performed. Significant ventricular ectopy (VE) and supraventricular ectopy (SVE) were defined as ≥10 VE or SVE/hour, or the presence of high-grade ectopy. Three-year composite clinical outcome of death, aortic dissection, or aortic root replacement was analyzed. There were 274 analyzable monitors on unique patients from 11 centers. Twenty subjects (7%) had significant VE, 13 (5%) significant SVE; of these, 2 (1%) had both. None had sustained ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia. VE was independently associated with increasing number of major Ghent criteria (odds ratio [OR] = 2.13/each additional criterion, p = 0.03) and greater left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z-score (OR = 1.47/each 1 unit increase in z-score, p = 0.01). SVE was independently associated with greater aortic sinotubular junction diameter z-score (OR = 1.56/each 1 unit increase in z-score, p = 0.03). The composite clinical outcome (14 events) was not related to VE or SVE (p ≥ 0.3), but was independently related to heart rate variability (higher triangular index). In conclusion, in this cohort, VE and SVE were rare. VE was related to larger BSA-adjusted left ventricular size. Routine ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring may be useful for risk stratification in select MFS patients.
- Impact of presence of excipients in drug analysis in fed-state gastric biorelevant media. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharm Biopharm 2018 Aug 12
- In this study, the influence of the presence of excipients in sample preparation and clean-up steps required prior to drug analysis in milk-based media which simulate the in vivo properties of the fe...
In this study, the influence of the presence of excipients in sample preparation and clean-up steps required prior to drug analysis in milk-based media which simulate the in vivo properties of the fed state stomach was investigated. 15 excipients, normally present in solid dosage forms of five APIs tested (atenolol, paracetamol, furosemide, nifedipine and propafenone hydrochloride) were mixed (one at a time) with the active pharmaceutical ingredient of interest either via vortexing, co-grinding or shaking of the physical mixture and dissolved in Fed State Simulated Gastric Fluid (FeSSGF). The objective of the study was the assessment of the extraction efficiency of three protein precipitation protocols (using MeOH, ΑCN and 10% w/v TCA), typically used in drug analysis, in milk-based biorelevant media in the presence of the excipients. The mixing technique, fat content of the medium and excipient and solvent effects were investigated. The efficiency of three different protein precipitation reagents in drug extraction when dissolved as API:excipient mixtures in the fed-state medium was compared against the equivalent drug amount recovered in the absence of the excipient in FeSSGF. Most excipients had a significant negative effect (p < 0.05) on drug recovery in the milk-based medium as indicated by the multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis performed. For magnesium stearate and HPMC, the % recovery values were the lowest in four out of the five drugs studied, with a range of 10-100% depending on the API, mixing technique and protein precipitation protocol selected. The negative excipient-dependent effect was more profound in nifedipine and propafenone hydrochloride, the most lipophilic compounds of the study. Acetonitrile was the most effective extraction reagent for most drugs in the presence of excipients, followed by methanol and 10% w/v trichloroacetic acid. Data analysis also revealed a dependence of the extraction method efficiency on the medium lipid content. Application of the above extraction protocols in commercially available formulations highlighted the need for assessment of the effect of excipients in extraction efficiency, before transferring the method directly to dissolution studies of formulations in milk-based fed gastric media. In conclusion, the presence of excipients and the selection of protein precipitation protocol are parameters which can affect significantly the efficiency of protein precipitation when FeSSGF is used as dissolution medium and need to be taken into consideration when developing a quantitative method based on the above sample clean-up technique.
- Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of antihypertensives distributed in Brazil by social programs: Are they safe? [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Aug 09; 63:1-5
- Hypertension, a chronic non-transmissible multifactorial condition, it is highly frequent in Brazil, affecting about 32.5% of the population over 25 years of age. It is characterized by the sustained...
Hypertension, a chronic non-transmissible multifactorial condition, it is highly frequent in Brazil, affecting about 32.5% of the population over 25 years of age. It is characterized by the sustained increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels above 140 mmHg and 90 mmHg, respectively. It is the major aggravating factor in cardiovascular complications and the appearance of other comorbidities. Aiming to promote greater adherence to treatment and improve the population's access to basic medicament, in 2004 the Federal Government created the Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil (PFPB); partnership with private institutions that provides the population with medicament to control hypertension, free of charge or subsidized at up to 90% of the value. The PFPB distributes the anti-hypertensives atenolol, captopril, enalapril, hydrochlorothiazide, losartan and propranolol. In this way, this work aims to evaluate the genotoxic potential of antihypertensives in human lymphocytes and macrophages, since they are widely used drugs and with few studies about their genotoxicological safety. The tests were developed from cell cultures treated with five different antihypertensive concentrations, all based on plasma peaks, evaluating cell viability, DNA damage index and DNA double strand breakdown. The results show that, as the concentration of captopril and enalapril maleate increased, cell viability decreased. In addition, a DNA damage was observed with the use Captopril and Enalapril in the higher concentrations. Hydrochlorothiazide also caused DNA damage in the five doses tested. Regarding the breaking of double strands of DNA, all the compounds showed increased ruptures. This decrease in dsDNA is dose dependent for all compounds tested. The set of results shows that the use although frequent still requires care and greater knowledge. In general, the antihypertensive drugs that proved to be safer in relation to the genetic damage tested were Losartan and Propranolol.
- Nephroprotective effects of nebivolol in 2K1C rats through regulation of the kidney ROS-ADMA-NO pathway. [Journal Article]
- PRPharmacol Rep 2018 Apr 13; 70(5):917-929
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that long-term treatment with nebivolol had renoprotective effect in 2K1C rats partly via regulation of kidney ROS-ADMA-NO pathway.
- Echocardiographic evaluation of velocity ratio, velocity time integral ratio, and pulmonary valve area in dogs with pulmonary valve stenosis. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Intern Med 2018 Aug 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Atenolol might reduce mean and max PG but does not alter less flow-dependent methods of assessment of PS severity (velocity ratio, VTI ratio, and iPVA) in dogs with PS. Results support an integrative approach to assessment of PS severity that includes less flow-dependent methods, particularly in states of altered flow or right ventricular function.
- Role of High-Dose Beta-Blockers in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and Elevated Heart Rate. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Med 2018 Aug 01
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HFpEF and heart rate ≥70 beats/minute, high-dose beta-blocker use was associated with a significantly lower risk of death. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to examine this association.
- Primary renal angiosarcoma. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 30; 2018
- An older male patient with a history of tachycardia treated with atenolol presented to an outside hospital on 22 February 2017 with acute right flank pain. He had a CT scan which revealed a large rig...
An older male patient with a history of tachycardia treated with atenolol presented to an outside hospital on 22 February 2017 with acute right flank pain. He had a CT scan which revealed a large right renal mass with acute haemorrhage. He was initially managed with interventional radiology guided embolism on 25 February 2017 due to the ongoing bleeding and haemodynamic instability. He was then transferred to our institution. He underwent right radical nephrectomy on 13 March 2017. His pathology revealed a 12.5×6×4.5 cm mass consistent with angiosarcoma of the right kidney with negative margins. Final pathology was pT2b with extension of the mass into the renal vein and perirenal adipose tissue. He was discharged soon after surgery. He was recommended to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy.
- Improved Enantioselectivity for Atenolol Employing Pivot Based Molecular Imprinting. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Jul 27; 23(8)
- In the last few decades, molecular imprinting technology went through a spectacular evolution becoming a well-established tool for the synthesis of highly selective biomimetic molecular recognition p...
In the last few decades, molecular imprinting technology went through a spectacular evolution becoming a well-established tool for the synthesis of highly selective biomimetic molecular recognition platforms. Nevertheless, there is still room for advancement in the molecular imprinting of highly polar chiral compounds. The aim of the present work was to investigate the favorable kosmotropic effect of a ternary complex involving a polar chiral template (eutomer of atenolol) and a functional monomer, bridged by a central metal ion through well-defined, spatially directional coordinate bonds. The efficiency of the chiral molecular recognition was systematically assessed on polymers obtained both by non-covalent and metal-mediated molecular imprinting. The influence on the chromatographic retention and enantioselectivity of different experimental variables (functional monomers, cross-linkers, chaotropic agents, metal ions, porogenic systems, etc.) were studied on both slurry packed and monolithic HPLC columns. Deliberate changes in the imprinting and rebinding (chromatographic) processes, along with additional thermodynamic studies shed light on the particularities of the molecular recognition mechanism. The best performing polymer in terms of enantioselectivity (α = 1.60) was achieved using 4-vinyl pyridine as functional monomer and secondary ligand for the Co(II)-mediated imprinting of S-atenolol in the presence of EDMA as cross-linker in a porogenic mixture of [BMIM][BF₄]:DMF:DMSO = 10:1:5, v/v/v.
- Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Induced Morphological Differentiation of Astrocytes Is Associated with Transcriptional Upregulation and Endocytosis of β2-AR. [Journal Article]
- MNMol Neurobiol 2018 Jul 27
- Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an important ω-3 fatty acid, is abundantly present in the central nervous system and is important in every step of brain development. Much of this knowledge has been based...
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an important ω-3 fatty acid, is abundantly present in the central nervous system and is important in every step of brain development. Much of this knowledge has been based on studies of the role of DHA in the function of the neurons, and reports on its effect on the glial cells are few and far between. We have previously reported that DHA facilitates astrocyte differentiation in primary culture. We have further explored the signaling mechanism associated with this event. It was observed that a sustained activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) appeared to be critical for DHA-induced differentiation of the cultured astrocytes. Prior exposure to different endocytic inhibitors blocked both ERK activation and differentiation of the astrocytes during DHA treatment suggesting that the observed induction of ERK-2 was purely endosomal. Unlike the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) antagonist, atenolol, pre-treatment of the cells with the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) antagonist, ICI-118,551 inhibited the DHA-induced differentiation process, indicating a downstream involvement of β2-AR in the differentiation process. qRT-PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated a significant induction in the mRNA and protein expression of β2-AR at 18-24 h of DHA treatment, suggesting that the induction of β2-AR may be due to transcriptional upregulation. Moreover, DHA caused activation of PKA at 6 h, followed by activation of downstream cAMP response element-binding protein, a known transcription factor for β2-AR. Altogether, the observations suggest that DHA upregulates β2-AR in astrocytes, which undergo endocytosis and signals for sustained endosomal ERK activation to drive the differentiation process.
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- Adrenoceptor blockade modifies regional cerebral blood flow responses to hyperbaric hyperoxia: Protection against CNS oxygen toxicity. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Physiol (1985) 2018 07 19
- Exposure to extreme-hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2), > 5-6 atmospheres absolute (ATA), produces baroreflex impairment, sympathetic hyperactivation, hypertension, tachycardia, and cerebral hyperemia, known a...
Exposure to extreme-hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2), > 5-6 atmospheres absolute (ATA), produces baroreflex impairment, sympathetic hyperactivation, hypertension, tachycardia, and cerebral hyperemia, known as Phase II, culminating in seizures. We hypothesized that attenuation of the effects of high sympathetic outflow would preserve regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and protect against HBO2-induced seizures. To explore this possibility, we tested four adrenoceptor antagonists in conscious and anesthetized rats exposed to HBO2 at 5 and 6 ATA, respectively: phentolamine (nonselective α1 and 2), prazosin (selective α1), propranolol (nonselective β1 and 2) and atenolol (selective β1). In conscious rats, 4 drug-doses were administered to rats prior to HBO2 exposures, and seizure latencies were recorded. Drug-doses that provided similar protection against seizures were administered before HBO2 exposures in anesthetized rats to determine the effects of adrenoceptor blockade on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, rCBF and EEG spikes. All four drugs modified cardiovascular and rCBF responses in HBO2 that aligned with epileptiform discharges, but only phentolamine and propranolol effectively increased EEG spike latencies by ~20 and 36 min, respectively. When phentolamine and propranolol were delivered during HBO2 at the onset of phase II, only propranolol led to sustained reductions in heart rate and rCBF, preventing the appearance of epileptiform discharges. The enhanced effectiveness of propranolol may extend beyond β-adrenoceptor blockade, i.e. membrane stability and reduced metabolic activity. These results indicate that adrenoceptor drug pre-treatment will minimize the effects of excessive sympathetic outflow on rCBF and extend HBO2 exposure time.