- Left-sided Poland's syndrome associated with dextrocardia. [Case Reports]
- NCNorth Clin Istanb 2019; 6(2):192-195
- Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly accompanied by the absence of the pectoralis major, and the ipsilateral upper-limb and chest wall deformities. Hypoplasia of the breast, agenesis of the…
Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly accompanied by the absence of the pectoralis major, and the ipsilateral upper-limb and chest wall deformities. Hypoplasia of the breast, agenesis of the ipsilateral rib cartilage, athelia, and ipsilateral developmental finger anomalies such as syndactyly can also be seen. In the literature, only 56 cases of dextrocardia and left-sided Poland's syndrome have been described. Herein, a case of left-sided Poland's syndrome coexisting with dextrocardia and nasal hemangioma was presented.
- Inhibitory effect of Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharides on organ damage in lead-exposed Kunming strain mice. [Journal Article]
- FFFood Funct 2019 Feb 20; 10(2):1159-1166
- Herein, Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharides (AEPS) were used to alleviate organ damage in lead-exposed mice. Analysis of the body weight growth rate and visceral index revealed that AEPS maintained th…
Herein, Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharides (AEPS) were used to alleviate organ damage in lead-exposed mice. Analysis of the body weight growth rate and visceral index revealed that AEPS maintained the normal body weight growth rates in lead-exposed mice. Biochemical indicators (T-SOD, CAT, MDA) in serum revealed that AEPS increased the activity of T-SOD in the serum of lead-exposed mice. The lead concentrations in the brain, liver, kidneys, testis and faeces were measured by flame atomic absorption. The percent reductions in lead accumulation in these organs were 76.65% (brain), 60.42% (liver), 78.43% (kidneys) and 56.47% (testis). The data suggest that a significant portion of the lead was expelled in the faeces. The results proved that AEPS prevented lead accumulation in the organs of lead-exposed mice. A histological evaluation of the brain, liver, kidneys and testis also revealed that AEPS significantly alleviated liver and kidney damage caused by lead poisoning and protected neurons and sperm cells. We hypothesize that the ingested AEPS chelated the lead in the digestive system of the mice, leading to excretion through the faeces. Thus, AEPS represent a promising method of detoxification following lead poisoning.
- Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii in Allium sativum: potential biocontrol agents and their effects on plant metabolites. [Journal Article]
- AAAn Acad Bras Cienc 2018 Oct-Dec; 90(4):3949-3962
- Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plays an important role in popular culture due to its dietary and medicinal uses. It is also used to produce a wide range of pharmacologically interesting molecules. Severa…
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plays an important role in popular culture due to its dietary and medicinal uses. It is also used to produce a wide range of pharmacologically interesting molecules. Several pathogens affect garlic plants, especially Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii, a fungus that is widespread and causes large economic losses. It causes direct damage to crops and leads to plant stress, which induces secondary metabolite production in plants. The use of microorganisms as biocontrol agents may induce the production of beneficial metabolites in plants that will protect it and promote resistance to pathogen attack. In addition to suppressing disease, biological control agents may have elicitor effects that could induce an increase in the production of useful bioactive secondary metabolites in plants, some of which may be of pharmacological interest. Therefore, the search for new biological control agents should also consider their potential as elicitor agents. This paper presents an analysis of the biological control of Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii by antagonistic microrganisms, the potential of yeasts and bacteria of the genus Bacillus for the biocontrol of phytopathogens, microrganisms influence in nutritional and bioactive compounds content of interest to the pharmaceutical industry.
- Soil fungal biodiversity and pathogen identification of rotten disease in Aconitum carmichaelii (Fuzi) roots. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(10):e0205891
- Aconitum carmichaelii, commonly known as Fuzi, is a typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb that has been grown for more than one thousand years in China. Although root rot disease has been s…
Aconitum carmichaelii, commonly known as Fuzi, is a typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb that has been grown for more than one thousand years in China. Although root rot disease has been seriously threatening this crop in recent years, few studies have investigated root rot disease in Fuzi, and no pathogens have been identified. In this study, fungal libraries from rhizosphere soils were constructed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing using the HiSeq 2500 high-throughput platform. A total of 948,843 tags were obtained from 17 soil samples, and these corresponded to 195,583,495 nt. At 97% identity, the libraries yielded 12,266 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 97.5% could be annotated. In sick soils, Athelia, Mucor and Mortierella were the dominant fungi, comprising 10.3%, 10.1% and 7.7% of the fungal community, respectively. These fungi showed 2.6-, 1.53- to 6.31- and 1.38- to 2.65-fold higher enrichment in sick soils compared with healthy soils, and their high densities reduced the fungal richness in the areas surrounding the rotted Fuzi roots. An abundance analysis suggested that A. rolfsii and Mucor racemosus, as the dominant pathogens, might play important roles in the invading Fuzi tissue, and Phoma adonidicola could be another pathogenic fungus of root rot. In contrast, Mortierella chlamydospora, Penicillium simplicissimum, Epicoccum nigrum, Cyberlindnera saturnus and Rhodotorula ingeniosa might antagonize root rot pathogens in sick soils. In addition, A. rolfsii was further verified as a main pathogen of Fuzi root rot disease through hypha purification, morphological observation, molecular identification and an infection test. These results provide theoretical guidance for the prevention and treatment of Fuzi root rot disease.
- Effect of Headspace and Trapped Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of the Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), against Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Med Mushrooms 2018; 20(9):825-835
- Headspace volatile metabolites produced by Ophiocordyceps sinensis were tested against soil-borne plant pathogens (namely, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, Thanatep…
Headspace volatile metabolites produced by Ophiocordyceps sinensis were tested against soil-borne plant pathogens (namely, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, Thanatephorus cucumeris, Athelia rolfsii, and Macrophomina phaseolina). Diffusible volatile metabolites produced by O. sinensis inhibited 52% and 48% of the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, respectively. In addition to inhibiting mycelial growth, the headspace volatile metabolites also induced several morphological changes in the culture characteristics and mycelia of the tested fungi. Stunted and depressed colony growth was observed for F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The headspace volatile compounds produced by O. sinensis were trapped in a glass cartridge (Porapak Q). The trapped compounds were eluted from the column by using hexane and then, by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were identified as tetratetracontane, 1(2H)-naphthalenone, 3, 4-dihydro-3-methyl, 3-hexenoic acid, 1-methyl-3-ethyladamantane, and phenol, 3-ethyl.
- Incidence, Distribution, and Pathogenicity of Fungi Causing Root Rot in Idaho Long-Term Sugar Beet Storage Piles. [Journal Article]
- PDPlant Dis 2018; 102(11):2296-2307
- Fungal rots in sugar beet roots held in long-term storage can lead to considerable sucrose loss but the incidence and distribution of fungal rots inside sugar beet piles and pathogenicity for some sp…
Fungal rots in sugar beet roots held in long-term storage can lead to considerable sucrose loss but the incidence and distribution of fungal rots inside sugar beet piles and pathogenicity for some species is poorly understood. Thus, Idaho sugar beet held in five outdoor and two indoor piles in 2014 and 2015 were investigated. The root surface area covered by fungal growth and discolored and healthy tissue were assessed in nine 1-m2 areas per pile using a stratified random sampling design. Pathogenicity was evaluated indoors via plug inoculation in 2015 and 2016. Botrytis cinerea covered more root surface area inside indoor piles (6 to 22%) than outdoor piles (0 to 3%) (P < 0.0001). No trends were evident for the Athelia-like sp. (0 to 15%) and Penicillium-type spp. (0 to 8%). Penicillium-type isolates comprised the following species: 60% Penicillium expansum, 34% P. cellarum, 3% P. polonicum, and 3% Talaromyces rugulosus. Trace levels (<1% of root surface) of other fungi, including Cladosporium and Fusarium spp., were evident on roots and in isolations. Based on sample location in a pile, there were no trends or differences; however, two outdoor piles (OVP1 and OVP2) had more healthy tissue (90 to 96%) than other piles (28 to 80%) (P < 0.0001). When the pathogenicity tests were analyzed by species, all were significantly different from each other (P < 0.0001), except for P. polonicum and P. expansum: B. cinerea (61 mm of rot), P. polonicum (36 mm), P. expansum (35 mm), P. cellarum (28 mm), Athelia-like sp. (21 mm), T. rugulosus (0 mm; not different from check), and noninoculated check (0 mm). The OVP1 and OVP2 piles had negligible fungal growth on roots after more than 120 days of storage under ambient conditions, which indicates that acceptable storage can be achieved over this time period through covering piles with tarps and cooling with ventilation pipe.
- Rapid Microbial Community Changes During Initial Stages of Pine Litter Decomposition. [Journal Article]
- MEMicrob Ecol 2019; 77(1):56-75
- Plant litter decomposition is a process enabling biogeochemical cycles closing in ecosystems, and decomposition in forests constitutes the largest part of this process taking place in terrestrial bio…
Plant litter decomposition is a process enabling biogeochemical cycles closing in ecosystems, and decomposition in forests constitutes the largest part of this process taking place in terrestrial biomes. Microbial communities during litter decomposition were studied mainly with low-throughput techniques not allowing detailed insight, particularly into coniferous litter, as it is more difficult to obtain high quality DNA required for analyses. Motivated by these problems, we analyzed archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic communities at three decomposition stages: fresh, 3- and 8-month-old litter by 16/18S rDNA pyrosequencing, aiming at detailed insight into early stages of pine litter decomposition. Archaea were absent from our libraries. Bacterial and eukaryotic diversity was greatest in 8-month-old litter and the same applied to bacterial and fungal rDNA content. Community structure was different at various stages of decomposition, and phyllospheric organisms (bacteria: Acetobacteraceae and Pseudomonadaceae members, fungi: Lophodermium, Phoma) were replaced by communities with metabolic capabilities adapted to the particular stage of decomposition. Sphingomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae and fungal genera Sistotrema, Ceuthospora, and Athelia were characteristic for 3-month-old samples, while 8-month-old ones were characterized by Bradyrhizobiaceae and nematodes (Plectus). We suggest that bacterial and eukaryotic decomposer communities change at different stages of pine litter decomposition in a way similar to that in broadleaf litter. Interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes appear to be one of the key drivers of microbial community structure.
- Biopolymer from marine Athelia and its application on heavy oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoir. [Journal Article]
- CPCarbohydr Polym 2018 Sep 01; 195:53-62
- Biopolymer produced from marine Athelia strain presented unique Pseudoplastic behaviors under extremely-high temperature and salinity conditions. Characteristic analysis with FT-IR spectroscopy, high…
Biopolymer produced from marine Athelia strain presented unique Pseudoplastic behaviors under extremely-high temperature and salinity conditions. Characteristic analysis with FT-IR spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, 1H and 13C NMR and two-dimensional COSY and HMQC spectra showed the structure of β-(1-6) glucans. Single-factor and orthogonal experiment design were used to optimize the yield, the maximum yield of the biopolymer was 28.32 g/L with 56.64% carbon conversion rate under optimized conditions. Economic investigation demonstrated that this novel biopolymer has great potential of commercialization with the competitive cost of $2896.04-5228.94 per ton for powder. Resistance factor and residual resistance factor were evaluated with core flooding experiments showed that this biopolymer had excellent performance of plugging capacity and profile modification, and indicating the great potential of application on heavy oil recovery.
- Preparation, characterization and bioactivities of Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharide-zinc complex (AEPS-zinc). [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Jul 01; 113:20-28
- A new Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharides (AEPS) were purified by Sephacryl S-300 and S-200. The physicochemical characteristics of AEPS fractions were assayed by HPGPC and GC methods. The structures …
A new Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharides (AEPS) were purified by Sephacryl S-300 and S-200. The physicochemical characteristics of AEPS fractions were assayed by HPGPC and GC methods. The structures of AEPS and AEPS‑zinc complex were characterized by SEM, FTIR and NMR. Moreover, the bioactivities of complex were also evaluated by experiments in vitro and in vivo. AEPSI consisted of glucose, galacturonic acid, talose, galactose, mannose and xylose, the relative contents of them were 24.74, 19.60, 33.65, 8.77, 7.97 and 5.28%, respectively. AEPSII consisted of glucose, inositol, galacturonic acid, ribitol, gluconic acid, talose and xylose, whose relative contents were 36.06, 21.21, 12.78, 11.07, 6.58, 5.45 and 6.82%, respectively. The Mw and Mn of AEPSI were 6.1324×104 and 1.4218×104Da, those of AEPSII were 517 and 248Da. SEM observations showed that microstructures of AEPS and AEPS‑zinc complex were obviously different both in size and shape. FTIR and NMR analysis indicated that AEPS might chelate with zinc ion through hydroxy and carboxy group. In vitro experiments showed that AEPS‑zinc complex had a good bioavailability, in vivo experiments showed that it had good effect on improving zinc deficiency and antioxidant activities, which suggested that it could be used as zinc supplementation with high antioxidant activities.
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- Host Infection beyond the Traditional Range of Sclerotium (Athelia) rolfsii with Physalis minima. [Journal Article]
- BBioinformation 2017; 13(10):333-338
- Physalis minima is an herbaceous plant and inhabitant of the porous and organic matter containing soil of bunds in crop fields, wastelands, around the houses, and on the roadsides. S. rolfsii is soil…
Physalis minima is an herbaceous plant and inhabitant of the porous and organic matter containing soil of bunds in crop fields, wastelands, around the houses, and on the roadsides. S. rolfsii is soil borne and it can infect over 500 plant species of different families. It is of interest to study the pathogenesis of S. rolfsii on P. minima. The S. rolfsii isolated from P. minima (physr1) was characterized by morphology and sequence of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region. The population structure determination and phylogenetic analysis showed the isolate physr1 significantly differs from other isolates. The null hypothesis of equal evolutionary rate was rejected throughout the Maximum likelihood (ML) tree topology of different S. rolfsii ITS sequences. The site-specific mean (relative) evolutionary rate analysis showed that most of the sites (80.59 % sites) evolved at a slower rate than average. Finally, the result of Tajima's neutrality test indicated that the population of S. rolfsii has recently begun to expand and that's why the pathogen was infecting the new host P. minima and pose a serious threat of infecting several other cropped and non-cropped hosts.