- Cerbera odollam toxicity: A review. [Review]
- JFJ Forensic Leg Med 2018 May 09; 58:113-116
- Cerbera odollam is a plant species of the Apocynaceae family. It is often dubbed the 'suicide tree' due to its strong cardiotoxic effects, which make it a suitable means to attempt suicide. The plant...
Cerbera odollam is a plant species of the Apocynaceae family. It is often dubbed the 'suicide tree' due to its strong cardiotoxic effects, which make it a suitable means to attempt suicide. The plant grows in wet areas in South India, Madagascar, and Southeast Asia; and its common names include Pong-Pong and Othalanga. The poison rich part of the plant is the kernel which is present at the core of its fruit. The bioactive toxin in the plant is cerberin, which is a cardiac glycoside of the cardenolide class. Cerberin has a mechanism of action similar to digoxin; hence, Cerbera odollam toxicity manifests similar to acute digoxin poisoning. Ingestion of its kernel causes nausea, vomiting, hyperkalemia, thrombocytopenia, and ECG abnormalities. Exposure to high doses of Cerbera odollam carries the highest risk of mortality. Initial management includes supportive therapy and administration of atropine followed by temporary pacemaker insertion. Administration of digoxin immune Fab may be considered in severe cases, although efficacy is variable and data limited to isolated case reports.
- Total pancreatic necrosis after organophosphate intoxication. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Med 2018 May 18
- Cases of acute pancreatitis induced by organophosphate intoxication are encountered occasionally in clinics, but very few of them develop into severe pancreas necrosis and irreversible pancreatic fun...
Cases of acute pancreatitis induced by organophosphate intoxication are encountered occasionally in clinics, but very few of them develop into severe pancreas necrosis and irreversible pancreatic function impairment. Here, we report a 47-year-old female organophosphate poisoning case after ingestion of massive insecticides; she was considered to have total necrosis and function failure of the pancreas via serum amylase test, glucose level test, and CT imaging. The patient exhibited no relief under the regular medicine treatment, which included sandostatin, antibiotics, intravenous atropine, and pralidoxime methiodide. She received percutaneous catheterization and drainage of pancreatic zone to expel hazardous necrotic waste, also by which the pathogenic evidence was obtained and the antibiotics were adjusted subsequently. The patient recovered gradually, was discharged after 2 weeks, and was prescribed with oral pancreatin capsules before meals and hypodermic insulin at meals and bedtime to compensate the impaired pancreatic function.
- New advances in amblyopia therapy I: binocular therapies and pharmacologic augmentation. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Ophthalmol 2018 May 18
- Amblyopia therapy options have traditionally been limited to penalisation of the non-amblyopic eye with either patching or pharmaceutical penalisation. Solid evidence, mostly from the Pediatric Eye D...
Amblyopia therapy options have traditionally been limited to penalisation of the non-amblyopic eye with either patching or pharmaceutical penalisation. Solid evidence, mostly from the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group, has validated both number of hours a day of patching and days per week of atropine use. The use of glasses alone has also been established as a good first-line therapy for both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. Unfortunately, visual acuity equalisation or even improvement is not always attainable with these methods. Additionally, non-compliance with prescribed therapies contributes to treatment failures, with data supporting difficulty adhering to full treatment sessions. Interest in alternative therapies for amblyopia treatment has long been a topic of interest among researchers and clinicians alike. Incorporating new technology with an understanding of the biological basis of amblyopia has led to enthusiasm for binocular treatment of amblyopia. Early work on perceptual learning as well as more recent enthusiasm for iPad-based dichoptic training have each generated interesting and promising data for vision improvement in amblyopes. Use of pharmaceutical augmentation of traditional therapies has also been investigated. Several different drugs with unique mechanisms of action are thought to be able to neurosensitise the brain and enhance responsiveness to amblyopia therapy. No new treatment has emerged from currently available evidence as superior to the traditional therapies in common practice today. But ongoing investigation into the use of both new technology and the understanding of the neural basis of amblyopia promises alternate or perhaps better cures in the future.
- Grape Seed Extract Alone or Combined with Atropine in Treatment of Malathion Induced Neuro- and Genotoxicity. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 Jan 01; 18(1):564-575
- The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with grape seed extract (GSE) on the neurotoxic and genotoxic effects of acute malathion exposure. Rats received malathion (150 mg/kg ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with grape seed extract (GSE) on the neurotoxic and genotoxic effects of acute malathion exposure. Rats received malathion (150 mg/kg by i.p. injection) for two successive days alone or combined with GSE at doses of 150 or 300 mg/kg, orally or with GSE at 300 mg/kg and atropine at a dose of 2 mg/kg, i.p. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, paraoxonase (PON1) were determined in cortex, striatum, and rest of brain tissue (subcortex). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were determined in brain regions. Cytogenetic analyses for chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells, micronucleus test, Comet assay, DNA fragmentation of liver cells and histopathological examination of brain and liver sections were also performed. Malathion resulted in an increase in MDA, nitric oxide; a decrease in GSH and PON1 activity in different brain regions. IL-1β increased, while BChE activity decreased in brain after the administration of malathion. The insecticide also caused marked structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations and increased liver DNA fragmentation. The Comet assay showed a significant increase in DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes. These effects of malathion were alleviated with the administration of GSE alone or combined with atropine. Addition of atropine to treatment with GSE was associated with significant decrease in MDA, BChE and chromosomal aberrations compared with GSE only treatment. Our data indicate that GSE protects against malathion neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, most likely through reducing brain oxidative stress and inflammatory response.
- Protection by Neostigmine and Atropine Against Brain and Liver Injury Induced by Acute Malathion Exposure. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 Jan 01; 18(1):510-521
- We examined the effect of treatment with neostigmine alone or with atropine on brain oxidative stress and on brain and liver tissue damage following acute malathion toxicity. Rats were intraperitonea...
We examined the effect of treatment with neostigmine alone or with atropine on brain oxidative stress and on brain and liver tissue damage following acute malathion toxicity. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with malathion 150 mg/kg along with neostigmine (200 or 400 μg/kg) or neostigmine (200 μg/kg) + atropine (1 mg/kg) and euthanized 4 h later. Results indicated that compared with the saline group, malathion resulted in (i) higher brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (46.4% and 86.2%); (ii) decreased brain reduced glutathione (GSH) (67.6%); (iii) decreased brain paraoxonase-1 (PON1), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities (31.2%, 21.6% and 60%); (iv) decreased brain glucose (-38.1%); (v) neuronal degeneration in cortex and hippocampus and markedly increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining in the hippocampus; (v) hydropic and fatty degeneration in liver. Rats treated with malathion along with neostigmine or neostigmine + atropine showed no change in brain MDA but decreased nitric oxide (-34.2%-48%). GSH increased after neostigmine 200 μg/kg or neostigmine + atropine (35.8% and 41%). PON1 activity increased (42%-35.2%) and glucose concentrations increased (91.5%-81.5%) by 400 μg/kg neostigmine or neostigmine + atropine. Brain AChE activity remained unchanged but BChE activity showed 18.3% increment after 400 μg/kg neostigmine. Rats treated with 400 μg/kg neostigmine or neostigmine + atropine had normal neuronal appearance in cortex and hippocampus and weak GFAP expression in hippocampus. Liver damage was prevented by neostigmine + atropine. These results suggest that treatment with neostigmine + atropine afforded protection against the deleterious effects of acute malathion on the brain and liver.
- Medical management of deep ulcerative keratitis in cats: 13 cases. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Feline Med Surg 2018 May 01; :1098612X18770514
- Case series summary Described are 13 cats diagnosed with deep ulcerative keratitis and successfully managed medically without grafting procedures. Typical treatment involved frequent topical applicat...
Case series summary Described are 13 cats diagnosed with deep ulcerative keratitis and successfully managed medically without grafting procedures. Typical treatment involved frequent topical application of serum and antibiotics (usually a fluoroquinolone and a cephalosporin). Seven cats also received systemic antibiotics. Analgesia was achieved using various combinations of topical atropine and systemic buprenorphine, robenacoxib or corticosteroids. Six cats were hospitalized for a median (range) period of 2.5 (1-8) days, typically because of frequent medication administration. Median (range) follow-up time was 41.5 (9-103) days. Median (range) number of recheck examinations was 4 (2-6). Median (range) time to corneal re-epithelialization was 21 (9-103) days. Median (range) topical antibiotic course was 29.5 (16-103) days. Median (range) duration of Elizabethan collar use was 28 (13-73) days. At the time of writing, no further recheck examinations were recommended for 10 cats; median (range) time between initial to final examinations in these cats was 35 (20-103) days. All cats retained the affected globes and were apparently comfortable and visual at the latest recheck examination. Relevance and novel information These cases reveal that aggressive medical management is highly successful in select cats with deep ulcerative keratitis, and can result in a cosmetically acceptable, apparently comfortable and visual globe. However, therapy is intensive with frequent administration of multiple topical and sometimes systemic medications, and requires multiple veterinary visits over many weeks. Referral to a veterinary ophthalmologist for consideration of surgical stabilization is recommended, as not all cases may be amenable to the medical therapy described here.
- Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Decreases Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Inflammatory Injury Through a Beta-Arrestin-1-Dependent Mechanism. [Journal Article]
- IInflammation 2018 May 15
- Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC), a type of hyoscyamus drug, has both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic activities and retains potent central and peripheral anticholinergic activities. Compared with ...
Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC), a type of hyoscyamus drug, has both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic activities and retains potent central and peripheral anticholinergic activities. Compared with other hyoscyamine, the notable advantage of PHC is that it has few M2 receptor-associated cardiovascular side effects. Recent studies and clinical trials have suggested that treatment with penehyclidine hydrochloride may also possess good effects in the treatment of lung injury. The mechanism responsible for this effect has yet to be determined; however, one possibility is that they might do so by a direct effect on pulmonary vascular endothelium. Since inflammatory reactions of the endothelium are signs of endothelial injury in the pathogenesis of lung injury, we determined the effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on endothelial inflammatory injury in cultured human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVEC). Furthermore, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were transfected with a shRNA-containing plasmid that specifically targets beta-arrestin-1 mRNA, to test whether the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial cell injury is dependent on its upregulation of beta-arrestin-1 or not. Penehyclidine hydrochloride reduced the inflammatory responses to LPS stimulation, as evidenced by reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukelin-6 (IL-6) levels, as well as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions. This was found to result from increased beta-arrestin-1 expression and decreased nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Expression of a shRNA-containing plasmid that specifically targets beta-arrestin-1 mRNA nullified these effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride. The results indicate that penehyclidine hydrochloride exerts a protective effect on pulmonary microvascular endothelial inflammatory injury induced by LPS. We also demonstrate that this is due to its ability to increase beta-arrestin-1, which in turn inhibits NF-κB activation.
- Carotid Stenting for Treatment of Symptomatic Carotid Webs: A Single-Center Case Series. [Journal Article]
- INInterv Neurol 2018; 7(5):233-240
- CONCLUSIONS: Stent placement for treatment of carotid webs can be performed safely. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Oxybutynin is an anticholinergic medication that is indicated in patients with overactive bladder or symptoms of detrusor overactivity, including urinary frequency and urgency. Animal studies have sh...
Oxybutynin is an anticholinergic medication that is indicated in patients with overactive bladder or symptoms of detrusor overactivity, including urinary frequency and urgency. Animal studies have shown that it has four to ten times the antispasmodic effect of atropine. It also is indicated in patients with detrusor instability related to neurogenic bladder. It has been studied in and approved for patients over 5 years of age. These are FDA-approved indications.
New Search Next
- Impact of Heart Rate on Flow Measurements in Aortic Regurgitation. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Heart Valve Dis 2017; 26(5):502-508
- CONCLUSIONS: An increased heart rate leads to a decreased RV. The RF is more stable and may therefore be preferable for severity grading in AR.