- Detection and identification of medically important alkaloids using the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy. [Journal Article]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Sep 09; 207:143-149
- Currently, trace detection of drugs, medicinal products, psychoactive substances, poisons and other natural or synthetic compounds in the human body has become one of the most important areas of inte...
Currently, trace detection of drugs, medicinal products, psychoactive substances, poisons and other natural or synthetic compounds in the human body has become one of the most important areas of interest in medicine, toxicology and forensic research. Due to the rapid development of nanotechnology, applications in forensic and biological sciences, food industry and art preservation there is an increasing interest in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as a technique capable of low detection limits in the analysis of small amounts of studied analytes. In this study, different excitation wavelengths (785 nm and 1064 nm) were used to find the appropriate experimental conditions for the detection and identification of medically significant alkaloids - atropine and pergolide - by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy. SERS spectra of selected alkaloids were measured in the concentration range 10-3-10-9 mol∙L-1 using large-scaled platinum substrates coated with electrochemically prepared gold or silver SERS-active layers. Identification was based on the assignment of surface-enhanced characteristic vibrational bands using theoretical (DFT) calculations and comparing them with normal (non-enhanced) Raman spectra of pure compounds. All sets of spectral data were subjected to multivariate statistical approach (partial least squares regression) aiming at prediction of alkaloids concentration in developed models and its comparison with experimental results.
- Low to Intermediate Dose Atropine Administration During Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in the Pre-Liver Transplant Population. [Journal Article]
- PTProg Transplant 2018 Sep 16; :1526924818800048
- CONCLUSIONS: Atropine, a hepatically metabolized medication, did not predispose patients with ESLD to an increased symptom burden, and clinical outcomes related to DSE were unaffected.
- Superior Efficacy of HI-6 Dimethanesulfonate Over Pralidoxime Methylsulfate Against Russian VX Poisoning in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). [Journal Article]
- TToxicology 2018 Sep 12
- Organophosphorus nerve agents still represent a serious risk to human health. In the French armed forces, the current emergency treatment against OP intoxications is a fully licensed wet-dry dual-cha...
Organophosphorus nerve agents still represent a serious risk to human health. In the French armed forces, the current emergency treatment against OP intoxications is a fully licensed wet-dry dual-chambered autoinjector (Ineurope ®), that contains pralidoxime methylsulfate (2-PAM) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE), atropine sulfate (AS) and avizafone chlorhydrate (AVZ). While this treatment is effective against several of the known nerve agents, it shows little efficacy against the Russian VX (VR), one of the most toxic compounds. HI-6 dimethanesulfonate (HI-6 DMS) is an oxime able to reactivate in vitro and in vivo VR-inhibited AChE. To confirm the superiority of HI-6 DMS towards 2-PAM prior to licensing, we compared the two 3-drug-combinations (HI-6 vs 2-PAM, 33 and 18 mg/kg respectively, equimolar doses; AS/AVZ 0.25/0.175 mg/kg respectively) in VR-poisoned cynomolgus macaques, the model required by the French drug regulatory agency. In parallel we performed HI-6 pharmacokinetics analysis using a one compartment model. A better efficacy of the HI-6 DMS combination was clearly observed: up to 5 LD50 of VR (i.m.), a single administration of the HI-6 DMS combination, shortly after the onset of clinical signs, prevented death of the four intoxicated animals. Conversely 2-PAM only prevented death in one out of three subjects exposed to the same amount of VR. As expected with V agents, reinhibition of blood AChE was observed but without any apparent impact on the clinical recovery of the animals. A single administration of the HI-6 DMS combination was still but partially effective at 15 LD50 of VR, allowing a 50 % survival rate.
- Effects of Neostigmine and Sugammadex for Reversal of Neuromuscular Blockade on QT Dispersion Under Propofol Anesthesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- CTCardiol Ther 2018 Sep 14
- CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, a mixture of neostigmine and atropine, but not sugammadex, increased QTc and QTcD under propofol anesthesia. Thus, neostigmine may cause electrocardiogram abnormalities that could precede the development of fatal arrhythmias.
- The effects of embryonic hypoxic programming on cardiovascular function and autonomic regulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at rest and during swimming. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Comp Physiol B 2018 Sep 14
- Reptilian embryos naturally experience fluctuating oxygen levels in ovo, and developmental hypoxia has been established to have long-term impacts on cardiovascular function in vertebrates. In the pre...
Reptilian embryos naturally experience fluctuating oxygen levels in ovo, and developmental hypoxia has been established to have long-term impacts on cardiovascular function in vertebrates. In the present study, we investigated the impact of developmental 21% (normoxia) and 10% O2 (hypoxia) on juvenile (4-year-old) American alligator cardiovascular function in animals at rest and during swimming. In both experimental groups, combined right aortic and right subclavian blood flow approximately doubled during swimming. Carotid blood flow increased during swimming in the hypoxia-programmed animals only, and both carotid and left aortic blood flow reached higher values in swimming hypoxic-programmed animals compared to the normoxic group. However, pulmonary blood flow, which increased two to threefold during swimming (in both groups), was higher in normoxic-programmed animals at both rest and swimming. The differences between programming groups were preserved after cholinergic blockade (atropine), but reduced by adrenergic receptor antagonists (propranolol and phentolamine). Propranolol and phentolamine also blunted the incremental increases in blood flows during swimming, which was especially clear in the hypoxia-programmed animals. Alteration in adrenergic control and relative cardiac size (which was increased in hypoxic-programmed alligators) may account for the differences between the experimental groups.
- Efficacy of atropine sulfate/obidoxime chloride co-formulation against sarin exposure in Guinea pigs. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Interact 2018 Sep 11
- The efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the aqueous co-formulation contents of the TROBIGARD™ (atropine sulfate, obidoxime chloride) auto-injector were evaluated in a sarin exposed guinea pig model. Two...
The efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the aqueous co-formulation contents of the TROBIGARD™ (atropine sulfate, obidoxime chloride) auto-injector were evaluated in a sarin exposed guinea pig model. Two subcutaneous (sc) sarin challenge doses were evaluated in guinea pigs instrumented with brain and heart electrodes for electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG). Sarin challenge doses were chosen to reflect exposure subclasses with sublethal (moderate to severe clinical signs) and lethal consequences. The level of protection of intramuscular human equivalent doses of the co-formulation was defined by (1) the mitigation of signs and symptoms at a sublethal level and (2) the increase of survival time at the supralethal sarin dose levels. Pharmacokinetics of both atropine sulfate and obidoxime were proportional at 1 and 3 human equivalent doses, and only a small increase in heart rate was observed briefly as a side effect. At both sarin challenge doses, 54 μg/kg and 84 μg/kg, the co-formulation treatment was effective against sarin-induced effects. Survival rates were improved at both sarin challenge levels, whereas clinical signs and changes in EEG activity could not in all cases be effectively mitigated, in particular at the supralethal sarin challenge dose level. Reactivation of sarin inhibited cholinesterase was observed in blood, and higher brain cholinesterase activity levels were associated with a better clinical condition of the co-formulation treated animals. Although the results cannot be directly extrapolated to the human situation, pharmacokinetics and the effects over time related to plasma levels of therapeutics in a freely moving guinea pig could aid translational models and possibly improve prediction of efficacy in humans.
- Anticholinergic Burden in Hospice Patients With Dementia. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hosp Palliat Care 2018 Sep 13; :1049909118800281
- CONCLUSIONS: Due to the limited benefit and increased harms with the use of DAPs, providers should aim to maximize nonpharmacologic options. By reducing the use of the top 5 DAPs identified in this study, the quality of life and care for EOL patients with dementia can potentially be improved.
- [Applications of Raman Spectroscopy on Quality Control of Hospital Formulations]. [Journal Article]
- YZYakugaku Zasshi 2018 Sep 12
- Hospital formulation has several advantages, including the flexibility of customization as per the disease state or the patients' precise requirements. However, compared with commercial formulation...
Hospital formulation has several advantages, including the flexibility of customization as per the disease state or the patients' precise requirements. However, compared with commercial formulations, hospital formulations are usually not under the same level of quality check. In the present study, we tested mixed powder formulations prepared in a hospital pharmacy using Raman spectroscopy to investigate the feasibility of applying Raman spectroscopy as a quality-control tool of hospital formulations. For this purpose, we first established a numerical evaluation method to determine the uniformity of a powder mixture using Raman chemical imaging data with atropine sulfate/lactose mixture samples and revealed that the mixing uniformity correlated to the experience level of the pharmacist. Next, we developed a content quantification method in a one-dose packaged powder formulation by measuring the Raman spectra from the outside of the package. Because this method allows for quantification of the components inside the package in a non-destructive and non-contact manner, it can be applied for content confirmation after one-dose packaging. Using this method, the content uniformity of the mixed powder formulation in the one-dose package was compared between the formulations prepared by the pharmacists and those prepared by a pharmacy robot. Our study indicates the possibility of applying Raman spectroscopy as a quality-control tool of hospital formulations. Studies on further applications of Raman spectroscopy in the field of clinical pharmacology are expected.
- Novel Group of AChE Reactivators-Synthesis, In Vitro Reactivation and Molecular Docking Study. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2018 Sep 07; 23(9)
- The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators (e.g., obidoxime, asoxime) became an essential part of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning treatment, together with atropine and diazepam. They are referred t...
The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators (e.g., obidoxime, asoxime) became an essential part of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning treatment, together with atropine and diazepam. They are referred to as a causal treatment of OP poisoning, because they are able to split the OP moiety from AChE active site and thus renew its function. In this approach, fifteen novel AChE reactivators were determined. Their molecular design originated from former K-oxime compounds K048 and K074 with remaining oxime part of the molecule and modified part with heteroarenium moiety. The novel compounds were prepared, evaluated in vitro on human AChE (HssAChE) inhibited by tabun, paraoxon, methylparaoxon or DFP and compared to commercial HssAChE reactivators (pralidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, asoxime) or previously prepared compounds (K048, K074, K075, K203). Some of presented oxime reactivators showed promising ability to reactivate HssAChE comparable or higher than the used standards. The molecular modelling study was performed with one compound that presented the ability to reactivate GA-inhibited HssAChE. The SAR features concerning the heteroarenium part of the reactivator's molecule are described.
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- The Synergistic Effects of Orthokeratology and Atropine in Slowing the Progression of Myopia. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Med 2018 Sep 07; 7(9)
- Atropine and orthokeratology (OK) are both effective in slowing the progression of myopia. In the current study, we studied the combined effects of atropine and OK lenses on slowing the progression o...
Atropine and orthokeratology (OK) are both effective in slowing the progression of myopia. In the current study, we studied the combined effects of atropine and OK lenses on slowing the progression of myopia. This retrospective study included 84 patients who wore OK lenses and received atropine treatment (OA) and 95 patients who wore OK lenses alone (OK) for 2 years. We stratified patients into low (<6 D, LM) and high (≥6 D, HM) myopia groups, as well as two different atropine concentrations (0.125% and 0.025%). Significantly better LM control was observed in OA1 patients, compared with OK1 patients. Axial length was significantly shorter in the OA1 group (24.67 ± 1.53 mm) than in the OK1 group (24.9 ± 1.98 mm) (p = 0.042); similarly, it was shorter in the OA2 group (24.73 ± 1.53 mm) than in the OK2 group (25.01 ± 1.26 mm) (p = 0.031). For the HM patients, OA3 patients compared with OK3 patients, axial length was significantly shorter in the OA3 group (25.78 ± 1.46 mm) than in the OK3 group (25.93 ± 1.94 mm) (p = 0.021); similarly, it was shorter in the OA4 patients (25.86 ± 1.21 mm) than in the OK4 patients (26.05 ± 1.57 mm) (p = 0.011). Combined treatment with atropine and OK lenses would be a choice of treatment to control the development of myopia.