- Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Synergistic Combinations of a Commercially Available Small Compound Library With Colistin Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2018; 9:2541
- Biofilm-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections remain a significant clinical challenge since the conventional antibiotic treatment or combination therapies are largely ineffective; and new appr...
Biofilm-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections remain a significant clinical challenge since the conventional antibiotic treatment or combination therapies are largely ineffective; and new approaches are needed. To circumvent the major challenges associated with discovery of new antimicrobials, we have screened a library of compounds that are commercially available and approved by the FDA (Prestwick Chemical Library) against P. aeruginosa for effective antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. A preliminary screen of the Prestwick Chemical Library alone did not yield any repositionable candidates, but in a screen of combinations with a fixed sub-inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic colistin we observed 10 drugs whose bacterial inhibiting activity was reproducibly enhanced, seven of which were enhanced by more than 50%. We performed checkerboard assays of these seven drugs in combination with colistin against planktonic cells, and analysis of their interactions over the complete combination matrix using the Zero Interaction Potency (ZIP) model revealed interactions that varied from highly synergistic to completely antagonistic. Of these, five combinations that showed synergism were down-selected and tested against preformed biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Two of the five combinations were active against preformed biofilms of both laboratory and clinical strain of P. aeruginosa, resulting in a 2-log reduction in culturable cells. In summary, we have identified synergistic combinations of five commercially available, FDA-approved drugs and colistin that show antimicrobial activity against planktonic P. aeruginosa (Clomiphene Citrate, Mitoxantrone Dihydrochloride, Methyl Benzethonium Chloride, Benzethonium Chloride, and Auranofin) as well as two combinations (Auranofin and Clomiphene Citrate) with colistin that show antibiofilm activity.
- Inhibition of thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase induces synthetic lethality in lung cancers with compromised glutathione homeostasis. [Journal Article]
- CRCancer Res 2018 Nov 06
- Glutathione (GSH)/GSH reductase (GSR) and thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) are two major compensating thiol-dependent antioxidant pathways that maintain protein dithiol/disulfide balance. We...
Glutathione (GSH)/GSH reductase (GSR) and thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) are two major compensating thiol-dependent antioxidant pathways that maintain protein dithiol/disulfide balance. We hypothesized that functional deficiency in one of these systems would render cells dependent on compensation by the other system for survival, providing a mechanism-based synthetic lethality approach for treatment of cancers. The human GSR gene is located on chromosome 8p12, a region frequently lost in human cancers. GSR deletion was detected in about 6% of lung adenocarcinomas in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. To test whether loss of GSR sensitizes cancer cells to TXNRD inhibition, we knocked out or knocked down the GSR gene in human lung cancer cells and evaluated their response to the TXNRD inhibitor auranofin. GSR deficiency sensitized lung cancer cells to this agent. Analysis of a panel of 129 NSCLC cell lines revealed that auranofin sensitivity correlated with the expression levels of the GSR, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) genes. In NSCLC patient-derived xenografts with reduced expression of GSR and/or GCLC, growth was significantly suppressed by treatment with auranofin. Together these results provide a proof of concept that cancers with compromised expression of enzymes required for GSH homeostasis or with chromosome 8p deletions that include the GSR gene may be targeted by a synthetic lethality strategy with inhibitors of TXNRD.
- Early antischistosomal leads identified from in vitro and in vivo screening of the Medicines for Malaria Venture Pathogen Box. [Journal Article]
- AIACS Infect Dis 2018 Nov 06
- As part of the control and elimination strategy of human schistosomiasis, preventive chemotherapy relies on a single drug, praziquantel. Facing an almost dry drug development pipeline, screening the ...
As part of the control and elimination strategy of human schistosomiasis, preventive chemotherapy relies on a single drug, praziquantel. Facing an almost dry drug development pipeline, screening the Pathogen Box from the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), provides a unique opportunity to possibly expand the pool of potent molecules against schistosomiasis. The activity of 400 compounds from this open-access library was first screened in vitro on the larval stage of Schistosoma mansoni. The hits were then tested on adult worms. Eleven leads were identified and tested for albumin-binding and activity on adult S. haematobium. In parallel, a rudimental structure-activity relationship analysis was performed on the 112 available analogues of three leads, yielding another 30 molecules active against both larval and adult stages of S. mansoni. Seven leads - selected on druglikeness, pharmacokinetic properties and availability - plus auranofin were tested in mice harboring a chronic S. mansoni infection. MMV022029 and MMV022478 revealed the highest worm burden reductions of 67.8% and 70.7%, respectively. This study provided a series of new potent scaffolds and pharmacophores that could be used to design and develop suitable alternative(s) to praziquantel.
- Bimetallic titanocene-gold phosphane complexes inhibit invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis-associated signaling molecules in renal cancer. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2019 Jan 01; 161:310-322
- Following promising recent in vitro and in vivo studies of the anticancer efficacies of heterometallic titanocene-gold chemotherapeutic candidates against renal cancer, we report here on the synthesi...
Following promising recent in vitro and in vivo studies of the anticancer efficacies of heterometallic titanocene-gold chemotherapeutic candidates against renal cancer, we report here on the synthesis, characterization, stability studies and biological evaluation of a new titanocene complex containing a gold-triethylphosphane fragment [(η-C5H5)2TiMe(μ-mba)Au(PEt3)] (4) Titanofin. The compound is more stable in physiological fluid than those previously reported, and it is highly cytotoxic against a line of human clear cell renal carcinoma. We describe here preliminary mechanistic data for this compound and previously reported [(η-C5H5)2TiMe(μ-mba)Au(PPh3)] (2) Titanocref which displayed remarkable activity in an in vivo mouse model. Mechanistic studies were carried out in the human clear cell renal carcinoma Caki-1 line for the bimetallic compounds [(η-C5H5)2TiMe(μ-mba)Au(PR3)] (PR3 = PPh32 Titanocref and PEt34 Titanofin), the two monometallic gold derivatives [Au(Hmba)(PR3)] (PR3 = PPh31 cref; PEt33 fin), titanocene dichloride and Auranofin as controls. These studies indicate that bimetallic compounds Titanocref (2) and Titanofin (4) are more cytotoxic than gold monometallic derivatives (1 and 3) and significantly more cytotoxic than titanocene dichloride while being quite selective. Titanocref (2) and Titanofin (4) inhibit migration, invasion, and angiogenic assembly along with molecular markers associated with these processes such as prometastatic IL(s), MMP(s), TNF-α, and proangiogenic VEGF, FGF-basic. The bimetallic compounds also strongly inhibit the mitochondrial protein TrxR often overexpressed in cancer cells evading apoptosis and also inhibit FOXC2, PECAM-1, and HIF-1α whose overexpression is linked to resistance to genotoxic chemotherapy. In summary, bimetallic titanocene-gold phosphane complexes (Titanocref 2 and Titanofin 4) are very promising candidates for further preclinical evaluations for the treatment of renal cancer.
- Antibacterial and antivirulence activities of auranofin against Clostridium difficile. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Sep 28
- Clostridium difficile is a deadly, opportunistic bacterial pathogen. In the last two decades, C. difficile infections (CDIs) have become a national concern due to the emergence of hypervirulent mutan...
Clostridium difficile is a deadly, opportunistic bacterial pathogen. In the last two decades, C. difficile infections (CDIs) have become a national concern due to the emergence of hypervirulent mutants armed with a higher capability of producing toxins and spores. This has resulted in an increased number of infections and death associated with CDI. The scarcity of anticlostridial drugs has led to unsatisfactory cure rates, elevated recurrence rates and permitted enhanced colonization with other drug-resistant pathogens (such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci), in afflicted patients. Therefore, both patients and physicians are facing an urgent need for more effective therapies to treat CDI. In an effort to find new anticlostridial drugs, we investigated auranofin, an FDA-approved oral antirheumatic drug which has recently been found to also possess antibacterial activity. Auranofin exhibited potent activity against C. difficile isolates inhibiting growth at a concentration of 1 μg/ml against 50% of all the tested isolates. Auranofin inhibited both toxin production and spore formation, a property that is lacking in both vancomycin and metronidazole (the primary agents used to treat CDI). Auranofin had a direct protective activity against C. difficile toxin-mediated inflammation and inhibited the growth of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Overall, auranofin is a promising candidate that warrants further investigation as a treatment option for C. difficile infections.
- Auranofin and its Analogues Show Potent Antimicrobial Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens: Structure-Activity Relationships. [Journal Article]
- CChemMedChem 2018 Sep 25
- Due to the so-called "antibiotic resistance crisis" new antibacterial agents are urgently sought to treat multidrug-resistant pathogens. A group of gold- or silver-based complexes, of general formula...
Due to the so-called "antibiotic resistance crisis" new antibacterial agents are urgently sought to treat multidrug-resistant pathogens. A group of gold- or silver-based complexes, of general formula [M(PEt3 )X] (with M=Au or Ag, and X=Cl, Br or I), alongside with three complexes bearing a positive or negative charge-[Au(PEt3 )2 ]Cl, K[Au(CN)2 ] and [Ag(PEt3 )2 ]NO3 -were prepared and comparatively tested with auranofin on a representative panel of pathogens including Gram-positive, Gram-negative and Candida strains. Interestingly, all the gold and silver complexes tested were active on Gram-positive strains, with the gold complexes having greater efficacy. The effects of the gold compounds were potentiated to a larger extent than silver compounds when tested in combination with a permeabilizing agent. A number of relevant structure-activity relationships emerged from the comparative analysis of the observed antibacterial profiles, shedding new light on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the action of these compounds.
- Selenium supplementation of lung epithelial cells enhances nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation following thioredoxin reductase inhibition. [Journal Article]
- RBRedox Biol 2018; 19:331-338
- The trace element selenium (Se) contributes to redox signaling, antioxidant defense, and immune responses in critically ill neonatal and adult patients. Se is required for the synthesis and function ...
The trace element selenium (Se) contributes to redox signaling, antioxidant defense, and immune responses in critically ill neonatal and adult patients. Se is required for the synthesis and function of selenoenzymes including thioredoxin (Trx) reductase-1 (TXNRD1) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx). We have previously identified TXNRD1, primarily expressed by airway epithelia, as a promising therapeutic target to prevent lung injury, likely via nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent mechanisms. The present studies utilized the TXNRD1 inhibitor auranofin (AFN) to test the hypothesis that Se positively influences Nrf2 activation and selenoenzyme responses in lung epithelial cells. Murine transformed Club cells (mtCCs) were supplemented with 0, 10, 25, or 100 nM Na2SeO3 to create a range of Se conditions and were cultured in the presence or absence of 0.5 μM AFN. TXNRD1 and GPX2 protein expression and enzymatic activity were significantly greater upon Se supplementation (p < 0.05). AFN treatment (0.5 μM AFN for 1 h) significantly inhibited TXNRD1 but not GPx activity (p < 0.001). Recovery of TXNRD1 activity following AFN treatment was significantly enhanced by Se supplementation (p < 0.041). Finally, AFN-induced Nrf2 transcriptional activation was significantly greater in mtCCs supplemented in 25 or 100 nM Na2SeO3 when compared to non-supplemented controls (p < 0.05). Our novel studies indicate that Se levels positively influence Nrf2 activation and selenoenzyme responses following TXNRD1 inhibition. These data suggest that Se status significantly influences physiologic responses to TXNRD1 inhibitors. In conclusion, correction of clinical Se deficiency, if present, will be necessary for optimal therapeutic effectiveness of TXNRD1 inhibitors in the prevention of lung disease.
- Reactions of Auranofin and Its Pseudohalide Derivatives with Serum Albumin Investigated through ESI-Q-TOF MS. [Journal Article]
- ICInorg Chem 2018 Sep 04; 57(17):10507-10510
- The reactions of auranofin and three pseudohalide derivatives with bovine serum albumin were explored by ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry; a detailed molecular description of the resulting adducts is achi...
The reactions of auranofin and three pseudohalide derivatives with bovine serum albumin were explored by ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry; a detailed molecular description of the resulting adducts is achieved revealing even subtle differences in reactivity within this series of gold(I) complexes. Our study shows that this kind of investigative approach, formerly applied to the interactions of metal-based drugs with small model proteins of MW 10-15 kDa, e.g., cytochrome c and lysozyme, may now be extended with success to far larger proteins such as serum albumin (MW 66 kDa).
- Auranofin Enhances Ibrutinib's Anticancer Activity in EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cancer Ther 2018; 17(10):2156-2163
- We previously found that ibrutinib has anticancer activity in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One of our recent studies showed that auranofin, a gold complex that has been used to tre...
We previously found that ibrutinib has anticancer activity in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One of our recent studies showed that auranofin, a gold complex that has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and promoted apoptosis in some NSCLC cells. Because the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is one of the major downstream pathways of EGFR, we hypothesized that ibrutinib's activity might be enhanced by combination therapy with auranofin in NSCLC cells. To this end, we examined ibrutinib's dose responses in EGFR-mutant H1975, PC9, and H1650 cells and in EGFR wild-type Calu3 and H460 cells in the presence or absence of auranofin. Although low concentrations of auranofin alone demonstrated mild anticancer activities, its presence dramatically enhanced ibrutinib's activity in H1975, PC9, and H1650 cells (IC50 value reduced 10- to 100-fold), but had only mild effect on Calu3 and H460 cells, demonstrating that ibrutinib's anti-EGFR activity is enhanced when it is combined with auranofin. A mechanistic analysis revealed that ibrutinib alone induced dramatic inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway in both H1975 and H1650 cells, whereas auranofin alone inhibited the AKT/mTOR pathway. The combination of ibrutinib and auranofin led to a dramatically enhanced inhibition of the expression or phosphorylation of multiple key nodes in the AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways in both cell lines. In mice, the combination of ibrutinib and auranofin significantly suppressed the growth of H1975 xenografted tumors without inducing obvious toxic effects. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of improving ibrutinib's anti-EGFR activity for NSCLC using combination therapy with auranofin. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(10); 2156-63. ©2018 AACR.
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- The thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin induces heme oxygenase-1 in lung epithelial cells via Nrf2-dependent mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 Oct 01; 315(4):L545-L552
- Thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1) inhibition effectively activates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) responses and attenuates lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
Thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1) inhibition effectively activates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) responses and attenuates lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) models. Upon TXNRD1 inhibition, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is disproportionally increased compared with Nrf2 target NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1). HO-1 has been investigated as a potential therapeutic target in both ARDS and BPD. TXNRD1 is predominantly expressed in airway epithelial cells; however, the mechanism of HO-1 induction by TXNRD1 inhibitors is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that TXNRD1 inhibition induces HO-1 via Nrf2-dependent mechanisms. Wild-type (WT), Nrf2KO1.3, and Nrf2KO2.2 cells were morphologically indistinguishable, indicating that Nrf2 can be deleted from murine-transformed club cells (mtCCs) using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. Hemin, a Nrf2-independent HO-1-inducing agent, significantly increased HO-1 expression in WT, Nrf2KO1.3, and Nrf2KO2.2. Auranofin (AFN) (0.5 µM) inhibited TXNRD1 activity by 50% and increased Nqo1 and Hmox1 mRNA levels by 6- and 24-fold, respectively, in WT cells. Despite similar levels of TXNRD1 inhibition, Nqo1 mRNA levels were not different between control and AFN-treated Nrf2KO1.3 and Nrf2KO2.2. AFN slightly increased Hmox1 mRNA levels in Nrf2KO1.3 and Nrf2KO2.2 cells compared with controls. AFN failed to increase HO-1 protein in Nrf2KO1.3 and Nrf2KO2.2 compared with a 36-fold increase in WT mtCCs. Our data indicate that Nrf2 is the primary mechanism by which TXNRD1 inhibitors increase HO-1 in lung epithelia. Future studies will use ARDS and BPD models to define the role of HO-1 in attenuation of lung injury by TXNRD1 inhibitors.