- Deubiquitinase Inhibitor Auranofin Attenuated Cardiac Hypertrophy by Blocking NF-κB Activation. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018; 45(6):2421-2430
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that Aur blocks the development of left ventricular hypertrophy induced by abdominal aortic constriction. This phenomenon might be attributed to inhibition of the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinase that can lead to aggregation of IκBα and inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. Thus, Aur could be a potential anti-cardiac hypertrophy agent.
- Aurothioglucose does not improve alveolarization or elicit sustained Nrf2 activation in C57BL/6 models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 May 01; 314(5):L736-L742
- We previously showed that the thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) inhibitor aurothioglucose (ATG) improves alveolarization in hyperoxia-exposed newborn C3H/HeN mice. Our data supported a mechanism by whi...
We previously showed that the thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) inhibitor aurothioglucose (ATG) improves alveolarization in hyperoxia-exposed newborn C3H/HeN mice. Our data supported a mechanism by which the protective effects of ATG are mediated via sustained nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation in hyperoxia-exposed C3H/HeN mice 72 h after ATG administration. Given that inbred mouse strains have differential sensitivity and endogenous Nrf2 activation by hyperoxia, the present studies utilized two C57BL/6 exposure models to evaluate the effects of ATG on lung development and Nrf2 activation. The first model (0-14 days) was used in our C3H/HeN studies and the 2nd model (4-14 days) is well characterized in C57BL/6 mice. ATG significantly inhibited lung TrxR1 activity in both models; however, there was no effect on parameters of alveolarization in C57BL/6 mice. In sharp contrast to C3H/HeN mice, there was no effect of ATG on pulmonary NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1) and heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1) at 72 h in either C57BL/6 model. In conclusion, although ATG inhibited TrxR1 activity in the lungs of newborn C57BL/6 mice, effects on lung development and sustained Nrf2-dependent pulmonary responses were blunted. These findings also highlight the importance of strain-dependent hyperoxic sensitivity in evaluation of potential novel therapies.
- Targeting redox homeostasis in rhabdomyosarcoma cells: GSH-depleting agents enhance auranofin-induced cell death. [Journal Article]
- CDCell Death Dis 2017 Oct 05; 8(10):e3067
- Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells have recently been reported to be sensitive to oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated whether concomitant inhibition of the two main antioxidant defense pathways, t...
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells have recently been reported to be sensitive to oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated whether concomitant inhibition of the two main antioxidant defense pathways, that is, the thioredoxin (TRX) and the glutathione (GSH) systems, presents a new strategy to trigger cell death in RMS. In this study, we discover that GSH-depleting agents, i.e. γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter inhibitor erastin (ERA), synergize with thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) inhibitor auranofin (AUR) to induce cell death in RMS cells. Interestingly, AUR causes accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins when combined with BSO or ERA, in line with recent reports showing that AUR inhibits the proteasome besides TrxR. Consistently, AUR/BSO or AUR/ERA cotreatment increases ubiquitination and expression of the short-lived proteins NOXA and MCL-1, accompanied by increased binding of NOXA to MCL-1. Notably, NOXA knockdown significantly rescues RMS cells from AUR/BSO- or AUR/ERA-induced cell death. In addition, AUR acts together with BSO or ERA to stimulate BAX/BAK and caspase activation. Of note, BSO or ERA abolish the AUR-stimulated increase in GSH levels, leading to reduced GSH levels upon cotreatment. Although AUR/BSO or AUR/ERA cotreatment enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, only thiol-containing antioxidants (i.e., N-acetylcysteine (NAC), GSH), but not the non-thiol-containing ROS scavenger α-Tocopherol consistently suppress AUR/BSO- and AUR/ERA-stimulated cell death in both cell lines. Importantly, re-supply of GSH or its precursor NAC completely prevents AUR/ERA- and AUR/BSO-induced accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, NOXA upregulation and cell death, indicating that GSH depletion rather than ROS production is critical for AUR/BSO- or AUR/ERA-mediated cell death. Thus, by demonstrating that GSH-depleting agents enhance the antitumor activity of AUR, we highlight new treatment options for RMS by targeting the redox homeostasis.
- Selective inhibition of endogenous antioxidants with Auranofin causes mitochondrial oxidative stress which can be countered by selenium supplementation. [Journal Article]
- BPBiochem Pharmacol 2017 Dec 15; 146:42-52
- Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase ...
Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), resulting in oxidative stress and the initiation of a pro-apoptotic cascade. The effect of Auranofin exposure on TrxR and GPx, and the potential for cellular protection through selenium supplementation was examined in the non-cancerous human cell line Swan-71. Auranofin exposure resulted in a concentration dependent differential inhibition of selenoprotein antioxidants. Significant inhibition of TrxR was observed at 20nM Auranofin with inhibition of GPx from 10µM. Significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were associated with antioxidant inhibition at Auranofin concentrations of 100nM (TrxR inhibition) and 10µM (TrxR and GPx inhibition), respectively. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiration demonstrated significant reductions in routine and maximal respiration at both 100nM and 10μM Auranofin. Auranofin treatment at concentrations of 10μM and higher concentrations resulted in a ∼68% decrease in cellular viability and was associated with elevations in pro-apoptotic markers cytochrome c flux control factor (FCFc) at concentration of 100nM and mitochondrial Bax at 10μM. The supplementation of selenium (100nM) prior to treatment had a generalized protective affect through the restoration of antioxidant activity with a significant increase in TrxR and GPx activity, a significant reduction in ROS and associated improvement in mitochondrial respiration and cellular viability (10µM ∼48% increase). Selenium supplementation reduced the FCFc at low doses of Auranofin (<10μM) however no effect was noted on either FCFc or Bax at concentrations above 10μM. The inhibition of antioxidant systems in non-cancerous cells by Auranofin is strongly dose dependent, and this inhibition can be altered by selenium exposure. Therefore, Auranofin dose and the selenium status of patients are important considerations in the therapeutic use of Auranofin as an agent of chemosensitization.
- Drug susceptibility testing in microaerophilic parasites: Cysteine strongly affects the effectivities of metronidazole and auranofin, a novel and promising antimicrobial. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2017; 7(3):321-327
- The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Met...
The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Metronidazole is the most often prescribed drug but also other drugs are in use, and novel drugs with improved characteristics are constantly being developed. One of these novel drugs is auranofin, originally an antirheumatic which has been relabelled for the treatment of parasitic infections. Drug effectivity is arguably the most important criterion for its applicability and is commonly assessed in susceptibility assays using in vitro cultures of a given pathogen. However, drug susceptibility assays can be strongly affected by certain compounds in the growth media. In the case of microaerophilic parasites, cysteine which is added in large amounts as an antioxidant is an obvious candidate because it is highly reactive and known to modulate the toxicity of metronidazole in several microaerophilic parasites. In this study, it was attempted to reduce cysteine concentrations as far as possible without affecting parasite viability by performing drug susceptibility assays under strictly anaerobic conditions in an anaerobic cabinet. Indeed, T. vaginalis and E. histolytica could be grown without any cysteine added and the cysteine concentration necessary to maintain G. lamblia could be reduced to 20%. Susceptibilities to metronidazole were found to be clearly reduced in the presence of cysteine. With auranofin the protective effect of cysteine was extreme, providing protection to concentrations up to 100-fold higher as observed in the absence of cysteine. With three other drugs tested, albendazole, furazolidone and nitazoxanide, all in use against G. lamblia, the effect of cysteine was less pronounced. Oxygen was found to have a less marked impact on metronidazole and auranofin than cysteine but bovine bile which is standardly used in growth media for G. lamblia, displayed a marked synergistic effect with metronidazole.
- Attenuation of MUC4 potentiates the anticancer activity of auranofin via regulation of the Her2/Akt/FOXO3 pathway in ovarian cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- OROncol Rep 2017; 38(4):2417-2425
- Previously, we reported that auranofin induces apoptosis in SKOV3 cells via regulation of the IKKβ/FOXO3 pathway. In the present study, we reveal that the anticancer activity of auranofin in SKOV3 ce...
Previously, we reported that auranofin induces apoptosis in SKOV3 cells via regulation of the IKKβ/FOXO3 pathway. In the present study, we reveal that the anticancer activity of auranofin in SKOV3 cells could be enhanced by the attenuation of MUC4 through the regulation of the Her2/Akt/FOXO3 pathway. Compared to the control-siRNA, siRNA transfection against MUC4 into SKOV3 cells accelerated the protein degradation of Her2. Under the same conditions, the expression level of phosphorylated Akt was also downregulated leading to an increase of FOXO3 in the nucleus. Notably, auranofin treatment in SKOV3 cells also resulted in the downregulation of the expression levels of both Her2 and phosphorylated Akt. Thus, Her2 was identified as the common molecular target protein by siRNA transfection against MUC4. Western blot analysis of total and nuclear fraction lysates from SKOV3 cells revealed that attenuation of MUC4 combined with auranofin treatment in SKOV3 cells synergistically activated FOXO3 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus through the regulation of the Her2/Akt/FOXO3 pathway. Attenuation of MUC4 by siRNA transfection potentiated the antitumor effect of auranofin which was examined by performing in vitro assays such as WST-1, cell counting, colony formation, TUNEL and Annexin V staining. In addition, western blot analysis of the apoptosis‑related proteins such as PARP1, caspase-3, Bim extra large (EL), Bax and Bcl2 revealed that the attenuation of MUC4 by siRNA transfection potentiates the pro-apoptotic activity of auranofin in SKOV3 cells. Collectively, auranofin could regulate the Her2/Akt/FOXO3 signaling pathway in SKOV3 cells and be used as a potential antitumor agent considering the expression of MUC4 in ovarian cancer patients.
- Influence of the Linker Length on the Cytotoxicity of Homobinuclear Ruthenium(II) and Gold(I) Complexes. [Journal Article]
- ICInorg Chem 2017 Aug 21; 56(16):9617-9633
- Dinuclear metal complexes have emerged as a promising class of anticancer compounds with the ability to cross-link biomolecular targets. Here, we describe two novel series of phosphine-linked dinucle...
Dinuclear metal complexes have emerged as a promising class of anticancer compounds with the ability to cross-link biomolecular targets. Here, we describe two novel series of phosphine-linked dinuclear ruthenium(II) p-cymene and gold(I) complexes, in which the length of the connecting poly(ethylene glycol) chain has been systematically modified. The impact of the multinuclearity, lipophilicity, and linker length on the antiproliferative activity of the compounds on tumorigenic (A2780 and A2780cisR) and nontumorigenic (HEK-293) cell lines was assessed. The dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes were considerably more cytotoxic than their mononuclear counterparts, and a correlation between the lipophilicity of the linker and the cytotoxicity was observed, whereas the cytotoxicity of the gold(I) series is independent of these factors.
- Thioredoxin reductase 1 and NADPH directly protect protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B from inactivation during H2O2 exposure. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2017 Sep 01; 292(35):14371-14380
- Regulation of growth factor signaling involves reversible inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) through the oxidation and reduction of their active site cysteine. However, there is lim...
Regulation of growth factor signaling involves reversible inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) through the oxidation and reduction of their active site cysteine. However, there is limited mechanistic understanding of these redox events and their co-ordination in the presence of cellular antioxidant networks. Here we investigated interactions between PTP1B and the peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2)/thioredoxin 1 (Trx1)/thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) network. We found that Prx2 becomes oxidized in PDGF-treated fibroblasts, but only when TrxR1 has first been inhibited. Using purified proteins, we also found that PTP1B is relatively insensitive to inactivation by H2O2 but found no evidence for a relay mechanism in which Prx2 or Trx1 facilitates PTP1B oxidation. Instead, these proteins prevented PTP1B inactivation by H2O2 Intriguingly, we discovered that TrxR1/NADPH directly protects PTP1B from inactivation when present during the H2O2 exposure. This protection was dependent on the concentration of TrxR1 and independent of Trx1 and Prx2. The protection was blocked by auranofin and required an intact selenocysteine residue in TrxR1. This activity likely involves reduction of the sulfenic acid intermediate form of PTP1B by TrxR1 and is therefore distinct from the previously described reactivation of end-point oxidized PTP1B, which requires both Trx1 and TrxR1. The ability of TrxR1 to directly reduce an oxidized phosphatase is a novel activity that can help explain previously observed increases in PTP1B oxidation and PDGF receptor phosphorylation in TrxR1 knockout cells. The activity of TrxR1 is therefore of potential relevance for understanding the mechanisms of redox regulation of growth factor signaling pathways.
- Novel Gold(I) Thiolate Derivatives Synergistic with 5-Fluorouracil as Potential Selective Anticancer Agents in Colon Cancer. [Journal Article]
- ICInorg Chem 2017 Jul 17; 56(14):8562-8579
- New gold(I) thiolate complexes have been synthesized and characterized, and their physicochemical properties and anticancer activity have been tested. The coordination of PTA derivatives provides opt...
New gold(I) thiolate complexes have been synthesized and characterized, and their physicochemical properties and anticancer activity have been tested. The coordination of PTA derivatives provides optimal hydrophilicity/lipophilicity properties to the complexes, which present high solution stability. Moreover, the complexes show a high anticancer activity against Caco-2 cells, comparable to that of auranofin, and a very low cytotoxic activity against enterocyte-like differentiated cells. Their activity has been shown to produce cell death by apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle because of interaction with the reductase enzymes and consequent reactive oxygen species production. Some of these new complexes are also able to decrease the necessary dose of 5-fluorouracil, a drug used for the treatment of colon cancer, by a synergistic mechanism.
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- Mononuclear gold(III) complexes with phenanthroline ligands as efficient inhibitors of angiogenesis: A comparative study with auranofin and sunitinib. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Inorg Biochem 2017; 174:156-168
- Gold(III) complexes with 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthroline ligands, [AuCl3(1,7-phen-κN7)] (1) and [AuCl3(4,7-phen-κN4)] (2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, IR and UV-...
Gold(III) complexes with 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthroline ligands, [AuCl3(1,7-phen-κN7)] (1) and [AuCl3(4,7-phen-κN4)] (2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, IR and UV-vis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In these complexes, 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthrolines are monodentatedly coordinated to the Au(III) ion through the N7 and N4 nitrogen atoms, respectively. In comparison to the clinically relevant anti-angiogenic compounds auranofin and sunitinib, gold(III)-phenanthroline complexes showed from 1.5- to 20-fold higher anti-angiogenic potential, and 13- and 118-fold lower toxicity. Among the tested compounds, complex 1 was the most potent and may be an excellent anti-angiogenic drug candidate, since it showed strong anti-angiogenic activity in zebrafish embryos achieving IC50 value (concentration resulting in an anti-angiogenic phenotype at 50% of embryos) of 2.89μM, while had low toxicity with LC50 value (the concentration inducing the lethal effect of 50% embryos) of 128μM. Molecular docking study revealed that both complexes and ligands could suppress angiogenesis targeting the multiple major regulators of angiogenesis, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2), the matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1), where the complexes showed higher binding affinity in comparison to ligands, and particularly to auranofin, but comparable to sunitinib, an anti-angiogenic drug of clinical relevance.