- Deubiquitinase Inhibitor Auranofin Attenuated Cardiac Hypertrophy by Blocking NF-κB Activation. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018; 45(6):2421-2430
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that Aur blocks the development of left ventricular hypertrophy induced by abdominal aortic constriction. This phenomenon might be attributed to inhibition of the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinase that can lead to aggregation of IκBα and inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. Thus, Aur could be a potential anti-cardiac hypertrophy agent.
- Aurothioglucose does not improve alveolarization or elicit sustained Nrf2 activation in C57BL/6 models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 May 01; 314(5):L736-L742
- We previously showed that the thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) inhibitor aurothioglucose (ATG) improves alveolarization in hyperoxia-exposed newborn C3H/HeN mice. Our data supported a mechanism by whi...
We previously showed that the thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) inhibitor aurothioglucose (ATG) improves alveolarization in hyperoxia-exposed newborn C3H/HeN mice. Our data supported a mechanism by which the protective effects of ATG are mediated via sustained nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation in hyperoxia-exposed C3H/HeN mice 72 h after ATG administration. Given that inbred mouse strains have differential sensitivity and endogenous Nrf2 activation by hyperoxia, the present studies utilized two C57BL/6 exposure models to evaluate the effects of ATG on lung development and Nrf2 activation. The first model (0-14 days) was used in our C3H/HeN studies and the 2nd model (4-14 days) is well characterized in C57BL/6 mice. ATG significantly inhibited lung TrxR1 activity in both models; however, there was no effect on parameters of alveolarization in C57BL/6 mice. In sharp contrast to C3H/HeN mice, there was no effect of ATG on pulmonary NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 ( Nqo1) and heme oxygenase-1 ( Hmox1) at 72 h in either C57BL/6 model. In conclusion, although ATG inhibited TrxR1 activity in the lungs of newborn C57BL/6 mice, effects on lung development and sustained Nrf2-dependent pulmonary responses were blunted. These findings also highlight the importance of strain-dependent hyperoxic sensitivity in evaluation of potential novel therapies.
- Targeting redox homeostasis in rhabdomyosarcoma cells: GSH-depleting agents enhance auranofin-induced cell death. [Journal Article]
- CDCell Death Dis 2017 Oct 05; 8(10):e3067
- Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells have recently been reported to be sensitive to oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated whether concomitant inhibition of the two main antioxidant defense pathways, t...
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells have recently been reported to be sensitive to oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated whether concomitant inhibition of the two main antioxidant defense pathways, that is, the thioredoxin (TRX) and the glutathione (GSH) systems, presents a new strategy to trigger cell death in RMS. In this study, we discover that GSH-depleting agents, i.e. γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter inhibitor erastin (ERA), synergize with thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) inhibitor auranofin (AUR) to induce cell death in RMS cells. Interestingly, AUR causes accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins when combined with BSO or ERA, in line with recent reports showing that AUR inhibits the proteasome besides TrxR. Consistently, AUR/BSO or AUR/ERA cotreatment increases ubiquitination and expression of the short-lived proteins NOXA and MCL-1, accompanied by increased binding of NOXA to MCL-1. Notably, NOXA knockdown significantly rescues RMS cells from AUR/BSO- or AUR/ERA-induced cell death. In addition, AUR acts together with BSO or ERA to stimulate BAX/BAK and caspase activation. Of note, BSO or ERA abolish the AUR-stimulated increase in GSH levels, leading to reduced GSH levels upon cotreatment. Although AUR/BSO or AUR/ERA cotreatment enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, only thiol-containing antioxidants (i.e., N-acetylcysteine (NAC), GSH), but not the non-thiol-containing ROS scavenger α-Tocopherol consistently suppress AUR/BSO- and AUR/ERA-stimulated cell death in both cell lines. Importantly, re-supply of GSH or its precursor NAC completely prevents AUR/ERA- and AUR/BSO-induced accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, NOXA upregulation and cell death, indicating that GSH depletion rather than ROS production is critical for AUR/BSO- or AUR/ERA-mediated cell death. Thus, by demonstrating that GSH-depleting agents enhance the antitumor activity of AUR, we highlight new treatment options for RMS by targeting the redox homeostasis.
- Selective inhibition of endogenous antioxidants with Auranofin causes mitochondrial oxidative stress which can be countered by selenium supplementation. [Journal Article]
- BPBiochem Pharmacol 2017 Dec 15; 146:42-52
- Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase ...
Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), resulting in oxidative stress and the initiation of a pro-apoptotic cascade. The effect of Auranofin exposure on TrxR and GPx, and the potential for cellular protection through selenium supplementation was examined in the non-cancerous human cell line Swan-71. Auranofin exposure resulted in a concentration dependent differential inhibition of selenoprotein antioxidants. Significant inhibition of TrxR was observed at 20nM Auranofin with inhibition of GPx from 10µM. Significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were associated with antioxidant inhibition at Auranofin concentrations of 100nM (TrxR inhibition) and 10µM (TrxR and GPx inhibition), respectively. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiration demonstrated significant reductions in routine and maximal respiration at both 100nM and 10μM Auranofin. Auranofin treatment at concentrations of 10μM and higher concentrations resulted in a ∼68% decrease in cellular viability and was associated with elevations in pro-apoptotic markers cytochrome c flux control factor (FCFc) at concentration of 100nM and mitochondrial Bax at 10μM. The supplementation of selenium (100nM) prior to treatment had a generalized protective affect through the restoration of antioxidant activity with a significant increase in TrxR and GPx activity, a significant reduction in ROS and associated improvement in mitochondrial respiration and cellular viability (10µM ∼48% increase). Selenium supplementation reduced the FCFc at low doses of Auranofin (<10μM) however no effect was noted on either FCFc or Bax at concentrations above 10μM. The inhibition of antioxidant systems in non-cancerous cells by Auranofin is strongly dose dependent, and this inhibition can be altered by selenium exposure. Therefore, Auranofin dose and the selenium status of patients are important considerations in the therapeutic use of Auranofin as an agent of chemosensitization.
- Influence of the Linker Length on the Cytotoxicity of Homobinuclear Ruthenium(II) and Gold(I) Complexes. [Journal Article]
- ICInorg Chem 2017 Aug 21; 56(16):9617-9633
- Dinuclear metal complexes have emerged as a promising class of anticancer compounds with the ability to cross-link biomolecular targets. Here, we describe two novel series of phosphine-linked dinucle...
Dinuclear metal complexes have emerged as a promising class of anticancer compounds with the ability to cross-link biomolecular targets. Here, we describe two novel series of phosphine-linked dinuclear ruthenium(II) p-cymene and gold(I) complexes, in which the length of the connecting poly(ethylene glycol) chain has been systematically modified. The impact of the multinuclearity, lipophilicity, and linker length on the antiproliferative activity of the compounds on tumorigenic (A2780 and A2780cisR) and nontumorigenic (HEK-293) cell lines was assessed. The dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes were considerably more cytotoxic than their mononuclear counterparts, and a correlation between the lipophilicity of the linker and the cytotoxicity was observed, whereas the cytotoxicity of the gold(I) series is independent of these factors.
- Thioredoxin reductase 1 and NADPH directly protect protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B from inactivation during H2O2 exposure. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2017 Sep 01; 292(35):14371-14380
- Regulation of growth factor signaling involves reversible inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) through the oxidation and reduction of their active site cysteine. However, there is lim...
Regulation of growth factor signaling involves reversible inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) through the oxidation and reduction of their active site cysteine. However, there is limited mechanistic understanding of these redox events and their co-ordination in the presence of cellular antioxidant networks. Here we investigated interactions between PTP1B and the peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2)/thioredoxin 1 (Trx1)/thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) network. We found that Prx2 becomes oxidized in PDGF-treated fibroblasts, but only when TrxR1 has first been inhibited. Using purified proteins, we also found that PTP1B is relatively insensitive to inactivation by H2O2 but found no evidence for a relay mechanism in which Prx2 or Trx1 facilitates PTP1B oxidation. Instead, these proteins prevented PTP1B inactivation by H2O2 Intriguingly, we discovered that TrxR1/NADPH directly protects PTP1B from inactivation when present during the H2O2 exposure. This protection was dependent on the concentration of TrxR1 and independent of Trx1 and Prx2. The protection was blocked by auranofin and required an intact selenocysteine residue in TrxR1. This activity likely involves reduction of the sulfenic acid intermediate form of PTP1B by TrxR1 and is therefore distinct from the previously described reactivation of end-point oxidized PTP1B, which requires both Trx1 and TrxR1. The ability of TrxR1 to directly reduce an oxidized phosphatase is a novel activity that can help explain previously observed increases in PTP1B oxidation and PDGF receptor phosphorylation in TrxR1 knockout cells. The activity of TrxR1 is therefore of potential relevance for understanding the mechanisms of redox regulation of growth factor signaling pathways.
- Novel Gold(I) Thiolate Derivatives Synergistic with 5-Fluorouracil as Potential Selective Anticancer Agents in Colon Cancer. [Journal Article]
- ICInorg Chem 2017 Jul 17; 56(14):8562-8579
- New gold(I) thiolate complexes have been synthesized and characterized, and their physicochemical properties and anticancer activity have been tested. The coordination of PTA derivatives provides opt...
New gold(I) thiolate complexes have been synthesized and characterized, and their physicochemical properties and anticancer activity have been tested. The coordination of PTA derivatives provides optimal hydrophilicity/lipophilicity properties to the complexes, which present high solution stability. Moreover, the complexes show a high anticancer activity against Caco-2 cells, comparable to that of auranofin, and a very low cytotoxic activity against enterocyte-like differentiated cells. Their activity has been shown to produce cell death by apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle because of interaction with the reductase enzymes and consequent reactive oxygen species production. Some of these new complexes are also able to decrease the necessary dose of 5-fluorouracil, a drug used for the treatment of colon cancer, by a synergistic mechanism.
- Mononuclear gold(III) complexes with phenanthroline ligands as efficient inhibitors of angiogenesis: A comparative study with auranofin and sunitinib. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Inorg Biochem 2017; 174:156-168
- Gold(III) complexes with 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthroline ligands, [AuCl3(1,7-phen-κN7)] (1) and [AuCl3(4,7-phen-κN4)] (2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, IR and UV-...
Gold(III) complexes with 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthroline ligands, [AuCl3(1,7-phen-κN7)] (1) and [AuCl3(4,7-phen-κN4)] (2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, IR and UV-vis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In these complexes, 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthrolines are monodentatedly coordinated to the Au(III) ion through the N7 and N4 nitrogen atoms, respectively. In comparison to the clinically relevant anti-angiogenic compounds auranofin and sunitinib, gold(III)-phenanthroline complexes showed from 1.5- to 20-fold higher anti-angiogenic potential, and 13- and 118-fold lower toxicity. Among the tested compounds, complex 1 was the most potent and may be an excellent anti-angiogenic drug candidate, since it showed strong anti-angiogenic activity in zebrafish embryos achieving IC50 value (concentration resulting in an anti-angiogenic phenotype at 50% of embryos) of 2.89μM, while had low toxicity with LC50 value (the concentration inducing the lethal effect of 50% embryos) of 128μM. Molecular docking study revealed that both complexes and ligands could suppress angiogenesis targeting the multiple major regulators of angiogenesis, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2), the matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1), where the complexes showed higher binding affinity in comparison to ligands, and particularly to auranofin, but comparable to sunitinib, an anti-angiogenic drug of clinical relevance.
- Synergistic induction of apoptosis by combination treatment with mesupron and auranofin in human breast cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- APArch Pharm Res 2017; 40(6):746-759
- Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) has been validated as a predictive or prognostic biomarker protein, and mesupron is considered the first-in-class anticancer agent to inhibit uPA activity i...
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) has been validated as a predictive or prognostic biomarker protein, and mesupron is considered the first-in-class anticancer agent to inhibit uPA activity in human breast cancer. In the present study, we showed that the synergism between mesupron and auranofin, a thioredoxin reductase inhibitor, for inducing of apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that mesupron and auranofin significantly lead to inhibition of the cancer cells proliferation; cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase of the cell cycle, and apoptosis as indicated by caspase 3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and annexin V staining. Isobologram analyses of MCF-7 cells showed a clear synergism between mesupron and auranofin. This combined treatment decreased the levels of mitochondrial anti-apoptotic factors, such as BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1 and caused nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was found to be strongly disrupted in combination-treated cells. In addition, combination treatment significantly enhanced the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which was rescued by N-acetylcysteine treatment. The combination treatment suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, thus contributing to apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that the use of mesupron in combination with auranofin may be important in achieving high anticancer synergy.
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- Differential redox sensitivity of cathepsin B and L holds the key to autophagy-apoptosis interplay after Thioredoxin reductase inhibition in nutritionally stressed SH-SY5Y cells. [Journal Article]
- FRFree Radic Biol Med 2017; 108:819-831
- Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for induction of protective autophagy, however unexpected rise in cellular ROS levels overpowers the cellular defense and therefore promotes the programmed...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for induction of protective autophagy, however unexpected rise in cellular ROS levels overpowers the cellular defense and therefore promotes the programmed apoptotic cell death. We recently reported that inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in starving SH-SY5Y cells interrupted autophagy flux by induction of lysosomal deficiency and promoted apoptosis. (Free Radic Biol Med. 2016: 101:53-70). Here, we aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms during autophagy-apoptosis interplay, and focused on regulation of cathepsin B (CTSB) and L (CTSL), the pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagy cathepsins respectively. Inhibition of TrxR by Auranofin, caused lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) that was associated with a significant upregulation of CTSB activity, despite no significant changes in CTSB protein level. Conversely, a significant rise in CTSL protein levels was observed without any apparent change in CTSL activity. Using thiol-trapping techniques to examine the differential sensitivity of cathepsins to oxidative stress, we discovered that Auranofin-mediated oxidative stress interferes with CTSL processing and thereby interrupts its pro-autophagy function. No evidence of CTSB susceptibility to oxidative stress was observed. Our data suggest that cellular fate in these conditions is mediated by two concurrent systems: while oxidative stress prevents the protective autophagy by inhibition of CTSL processing, concomitantly, apoptosis is induced by increasing lysosomal membrane permeability and leakage of CTSB into cytoplasm. Inhibition of CTSB in these conditions inhibited apoptosis and increased cell viability. To our knowledge this is the first report uncovering the impact of redox environment on autophagy-apoptosis interplay in neuronal cells.