- Aurothioglucose Does Not Improve Alveolarization or Elicit Sustained Nrf2 Activation in C57Bl/6 Models of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 Jan 25
- We previously showed that the thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) inhibitor aurothioglucose (ATG) improves alveolarization in hyperoxia-exposed newborn C3H/HeN mice. Our data supported a mechanism by whi...
We previously showed that the thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) inhibitor aurothioglucose (ATG) improves alveolarization in hyperoxia-exposed newborn C3H/HeN mice. Our data supported a mechanism by which the protective effects of ATG are mediated via sustained nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation in hyperoxia-exposed C3H/HeN mice 72 h after ATG administration. Given that inbred mouse strains have differential sensitivity and endogenous Nrf2 activation by hyperoxia, the present studies utilized two C57Bl/6 exposure models to evaluate the effects of ATG on lung development and Nrf2 activation. The first model (0-14 d) was used in our C3H/HeN studies and the 2nd model (4-14 d) is well characterized in C57Bl/6 mice. ATG significantly inhibited lung TrxR1 activity in both models; however, there was no effect on parameters of alveolarization in C57Bl/6 mice. In sharp contrast to C3H/HeN mice, there was no effect of ATG on pulmonary NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1) and heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1) at 72 h in either C57Bl/6 model. In conclusion, though ATG inhibited TrxR1 activity in the lungs of newborn C57Bl/6 mice; effects on lung development and sustained Nrf2-dependent pulmonary responses were blunted. These findings also highlight the importance of strain-dependent hyperoxic sensitivity when evaluating potential novel therapies.
- Selective inhibition of endogenous antioxidants with Auranofin causes mitochondrial oxidative stress which can be countered by selenium supplementation. [Journal Article]
- BPBiochem Pharmacol 2017 Dec 15; 146:42-52
- Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase ...
Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), resulting in oxidative stress and the initiation of a pro-apoptotic cascade. The effect of Auranofin exposure on TrxR and GPx, and the potential for cellular protection through selenium supplementation was examined in the non-cancerous human cell line Swan-71. Auranofin exposure resulted in a concentration dependent differential inhibition of selenoprotein antioxidants. Significant inhibition of TrxR was observed at 20nM Auranofin with inhibition of GPx from 10µM. Significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were associated with antioxidant inhibition at Auranofin concentrations of 100nM (TrxR inhibition) and 10µM (TrxR and GPx inhibition), respectively. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiration demonstrated significant reductions in routine and maximal respiration at both 100nM and 10μM Auranofin. Auranofin treatment at concentrations of 10μM and higher concentrations resulted in a ∼68% decrease in cellular viability and was associated with elevations in pro-apoptotic markers cytochrome c flux control factor (FCFc) at concentration of 100nM and mitochondrial Bax at 10μM. The supplementation of selenium (100nM) prior to treatment had a generalized protective affect through the restoration of antioxidant activity with a significant increase in TrxR and GPx activity, a significant reduction in ROS and associated improvement in mitochondrial respiration and cellular viability (10µM ∼48% increase). Selenium supplementation reduced the FCFc at low doses of Auranofin (<10μM) however no effect was noted on either FCFc or Bax at concentrations above 10μM. The inhibition of antioxidant systems in non-cancerous cells by Auranofin is strongly dose dependent, and this inhibition can be altered by selenium exposure. Therefore, Auranofin dose and the selenium status of patients are important considerations in the therapeutic use of Auranofin as an agent of chemosensitization.
- Thioredoxin reductase 1 and NADPH directly protect protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B from inactivation during H2O2 exposure. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2017 Sep 01; 292(35):14371-14380
- Regulation of growth factor signaling involves reversible inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) through the oxidation and reduction of their active site cysteine. However, there is lim...
Regulation of growth factor signaling involves reversible inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) through the oxidation and reduction of their active site cysteine. However, there is limited mechanistic understanding of these redox events and their co-ordination in the presence of cellular antioxidant networks. Here we investigated interactions between PTP1B and the peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2)/thioredoxin 1 (Trx1)/thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) network. We found that Prx2 becomes oxidized in PDGF-treated fibroblasts, but only when TrxR1 has first been inhibited. Using purified proteins, we also found that PTP1B is relatively insensitive to inactivation by H2O2 but found no evidence for a relay mechanism in which Prx2 or Trx1 facilitates PTP1B oxidation. Instead, these proteins prevented PTP1B inactivation by H2O2 Intriguingly, we discovered that TrxR1/NADPH directly protects PTP1B from inactivation when present during the H2O2 exposure. This protection was dependent on the concentration of TrxR1 and independent of Trx1 and Prx2. The protection was blocked by auranofin and required an intact selenocysteine residue in TrxR1. This activity likely involves reduction of the sulfenic acid intermediate form of PTP1B by TrxR1 and is therefore distinct from the previously described reactivation of end-point oxidized PTP1B, which requires both Trx1 and TrxR1. The ability of TrxR1 to directly reduce an oxidized phosphatase is a novel activity that can help explain previously observed increases in PTP1B oxidation and PDGF receptor phosphorylation in TrxR1 knockout cells. The activity of TrxR1 is therefore of potential relevance for understanding the mechanisms of redox regulation of growth factor signaling pathways.
- Mononuclear gold(III) complexes with phenanthroline ligands as efficient inhibitors of angiogenesis: A comparative study with auranofin and sunitinib. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Inorg Biochem 2017; 174:156-168
- Gold(III) complexes with 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthroline ligands, [AuCl3(1,7-phen-κN7)] (1) and [AuCl3(4,7-phen-κN4)] (2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, IR and UV-...
Gold(III) complexes with 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthroline ligands, [AuCl3(1,7-phen-κN7)] (1) and [AuCl3(4,7-phen-κN4)] (2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, IR and UV-vis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In these complexes, 1,7- and 4,7-phenanthrolines are monodentatedly coordinated to the Au(III) ion through the N7 and N4 nitrogen atoms, respectively. In comparison to the clinically relevant anti-angiogenic compounds auranofin and sunitinib, gold(III)-phenanthroline complexes showed from 1.5- to 20-fold higher anti-angiogenic potential, and 13- and 118-fold lower toxicity. Among the tested compounds, complex 1 was the most potent and may be an excellent anti-angiogenic drug candidate, since it showed strong anti-angiogenic activity in zebrafish embryos achieving IC50 value (concentration resulting in an anti-angiogenic phenotype at 50% of embryos) of 2.89μM, while had low toxicity with LC50 value (the concentration inducing the lethal effect of 50% embryos) of 128μM. Molecular docking study revealed that both complexes and ligands could suppress angiogenesis targeting the multiple major regulators of angiogenesis, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2), the matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1), where the complexes showed higher binding affinity in comparison to ligands, and particularly to auranofin, but comparable to sunitinib, an anti-angiogenic drug of clinical relevance.
- Synergistic induction of apoptosis by combination treatment with mesupron and auranofin in human breast cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- APArch Pharm Res 2017; 40(6):746-759
- Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) has been validated as a predictive or prognostic biomarker protein, and mesupron is considered the first-in-class anticancer agent to inhibit uPA activity i...
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) has been validated as a predictive or prognostic biomarker protein, and mesupron is considered the first-in-class anticancer agent to inhibit uPA activity in human breast cancer. In the present study, we showed that the synergism between mesupron and auranofin, a thioredoxin reductase inhibitor, for inducing of apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that mesupron and auranofin significantly lead to inhibition of the cancer cells proliferation; cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase of the cell cycle, and apoptosis as indicated by caspase 3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and annexin V staining. Isobologram analyses of MCF-7 cells showed a clear synergism between mesupron and auranofin. This combined treatment decreased the levels of mitochondrial anti-apoptotic factors, such as BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1 and caused nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ) was found to be strongly disrupted in combination-treated cells. In addition, combination treatment significantly enhanced the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which was rescued by N-acetylcysteine treatment. The combination treatment suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, thus contributing to apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that the use of mesupron in combination with auranofin may be important in achieving high anticancer synergy.
- Host oxidative folding pathways offer novel anti-chikungunya virus drug targets with broad spectrum potential. [Journal Article]
- ARAntiviral Res 2017; 143:246-251
- Alphaviruses require conserved cysteine residues for proper folding and assembly of the E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, and likely depend on host protein disulfide isomerase-family enzymes (PDI) to...
Alphaviruses require conserved cysteine residues for proper folding and assembly of the E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, and likely depend on host protein disulfide isomerase-family enzymes (PDI) to aid in facilitating disulfide bond formation and isomerization in these proteins. Here, we show that in human HEK293 cells, commercially available inhibitors of PDI or modulators thereof (thioredoxin reductase, TRX-R; endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin-1, ERO-1) inhibit the replication of CHIKV chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Further, the TRX-R inhibitor auranofin inhibited Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and the flavivirus Zika virus replication in vitro, while PDI inhibitor 16F16 reduced replication but demonstrated notable toxicity. 16F16 significantly altered the viral genome: plaque-forming unit (PFU) ratio of CHIKV in vitro without affecting relative intracellular viral RNA quantities and inhibited CHIKV E1-induced cell-cell fusion, suggesting that PDI inhibitors alter progeny virion infectivity through altered envelope function. Auranofin also increased the extracellular genome:PFU ratio but decreased the amount of intracellular CHIKV RNA, suggesting an alternative mechanism of action. Finally, auranofin reduced footpad swelling and viremia in the C57BL/6 murine model of CHIKV infection. Our results suggest that targeting oxidative folding pathways represents a potential new anti-alphavirus therapeutic strategy.
- Cystatin SN inhibits auranofin-induced cell death by autophagic induction and ROS regulation via glutathione reductase activity in colorectal cancer. [Journal Article]
- CDCell Death Dis 2017 Mar 16; 8(3):e2682
- Cystatin SN (CST1) is a specific inhibitor belonging to the cystatin superfamily that controls the proteolytic activities of cysteine proteases such as cathepsins. Our previous study showed that high...
Cystatin SN (CST1) is a specific inhibitor belonging to the cystatin superfamily that controls the proteolytic activities of cysteine proteases such as cathepsins. Our previous study showed that high CST1 expression enhances tumor metastasis and invasiveness in colorectal cancer. Recently, auranofin (AF), a gold(I)-containing thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) inhibitor, has been used clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis. AF is a proteasome-associated deubiquitinase inhibitor and can act as an anti-tumor agent. In this study, we investigated whether CST1 expression induces autophagy and tumor cell survival. We also investigated the therapeutic effects of AF as an anti-tumor agent in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We found that CRC cells expressing high levels of CST1 undergo increased autophagy and exhibit chemotherapeutic resistance to AF-induced cell death, while those expressing low levels of CST1 are sensitive to AF. We also observed that knockdown of CST1 in high-CST1 CRC cells using CST1-specific small interfering RNAs attenuated autophagic activation and restored AF-induced cell mortality. Conversely, the overexpression of CST1 increased autophagy and viability in cells expressing low levels of CST1. Interestingly, high expression of CST1 attenuates AF-induced cell death by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as demonstrated by the fact that the blockage of ROS production reversed AF-induced cell death in CRC cells. In addition, upregulation of CST1 expression increased cellular glutathione reductase (GR) activity, reducing the cellular redox state and inducing autophagy in AF-treated CRC cells. These results suggest that high CST1 expression may be involved in autophagic induction and protects from AF-induced cell death by inhibition of ROS generation through the regulation of GR activity.
- Auranofin, an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase, induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells by generation of reactive oxygen species. [Journal Article]
- GPGen Physiol Biophys 2017; 36(2):117-128
- Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) plays a vital role in restoring cellular redox balance disrupted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage. Here, we evaluated whether au...
Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) plays a vital role in restoring cellular redox balance disrupted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage. Here, we evaluated whether auranofin, a selective inhibitor of TrxR, could serve as a potential anti-cancer agent through its selective targeting of TrxR activity in Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Auranofin treatment reduced the TrxR activity of these cells and induced apoptosis, which were accompanied by up-regulation of death receptors (DRs) and activation of caspases, as well as promotion of proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. Treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor reversed the auranofin-induced apoptosis and growth suppression, indicating that auranofin may induce apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mechanism involving both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Auranofin also significantly altered mitochondrial function, promoting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins; these events were accompanied by an accumulation of ROS. Inhibition of ROS generation with the ROS quencher significantly attenuated the inactivation of TrxR in auranofin-treated cells and almost completely suppressed the auranofin-induced up-regulation of DRs and activation of caspases, thereby preventing auranofin-induced apoptosis and loss of cell viability. Taken together, these findings indicate that auranofin inhibition of TrxR activity in Hep3B cells activates ROS- and caspase-dependent apoptotic signaling pathways and triggers cancer cell death.
- Repurposing Approach Identifies Auranofin with Broad Spectrum Antifungal Activity That Targets Mia40-Erv1 Pathway. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Infect Microbiol 2017; 7:4
- Current antifungal therapies have limited effectiveness in treating invasive fungal infections. Furthermore, the development of new antifungal is currently unable to keep pace with the urgent demand ...
Current antifungal therapies have limited effectiveness in treating invasive fungal infections. Furthermore, the development of new antifungal is currently unable to keep pace with the urgent demand for safe and effective new drugs. Auranofin, an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inhibits growth of a diverse array of clinical isolates of fungi and represents a new antifungal agent with a previously unexploited mechanism of action. In addition to auranofin's potent antifungal activity against planktonic fungi, this drug significantly reduces the metabolic activity of Candida cells encased in a biofilm. Unbiased chemogenomic profiling, using heterozygous S. cerevisiae deletion strains, combined with growth assays revealed three probable targets for auranofin's antifungal activity-mia40, acn9, and coa4. Mia40 is of particular interest given its essential role in oxidation of cysteine rich proteins imported into the mitochondria. Biochemical analysis confirmed auranofin targets the Mia40-Erv1 pathway as the drug inhibited Mia40 from interacting with its substrate, Cmc1, in a dose-dependent manner similar to the control, MB-7. Furthermore, yeast mitochondria overexpressing Erv1 were shown to exhibit resistance to auranofin as an increase in Cmc1 import was observed compared to wild-type yeast. Further in vivo antifungal activity of auranofin was examined in a Caenorhabditis elegans animal model of Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Auranofin significantly reduced the fungal load in infected C. elegans. Collectively, the present study provides valuable evidence that auranofin has significant promise to be repurposed as a novel antifungal agent and may offer a safe, effective, and quick supplement to current approaches for treating fungal infections.
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- Ect2-Dependent rRNA Synthesis Is Required for KRAS-TRP53-Driven Lung Adenocarcinoma. [Journal Article]
- CCCancer Cell 2017 Feb 13; 31(2):256-269
- The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (Ect2) has been implicated in cancer. However, it is not clear how Ect2 causes transformation and whether Ect2 is ...
The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (Ect2) has been implicated in cancer. However, it is not clear how Ect2 causes transformation and whether Ect2 is necessary for tumorigenesis in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that nuclear Ect2 GEF activity is required for Kras-Trp53 lung tumorigenesis in vivo and that Ect2-mediated transformation requires Ect2-dependent rDNA transcription. Ect2 activates rRNA synthesis by binding the nucleolar transcription factor upstream binding factor 1 (UBF1) on rDNA promoters and recruiting Rac1 and its downstream effector nucleophosmin (NPM) to rDNA. Protein kinase Cι (PKCι)-mediated Ect2 phosphorylation stimulates Ect2-dependent rDNA transcription. Thus, Ect2 regulates rRNA synthesis through a PKCι-Ect2-Rac1-NPM signaling axis that is required for lung tumorigenesis.