- Hyaluronan Production by Renomedullary Interstitial Cells: Influence of Endothelin, Angiotensin II and Vasopressin. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2017 Dec 13; 18(12)
- The content of hyaluronan (HA) in the interstitium of the renal medulla changes in relation to body hydration status. We investigated if hormones of central importance for body fluid homeostasis affe…
The content of hyaluronan (HA) in the interstitium of the renal medulla changes in relation to body hydration status. We investigated if hormones of central importance for body fluid homeostasis affect HA production by renomedullary interstitial cells in culture (RMICs). Simultaneous treatment with vasopressin and angiotensin II (Ang II) reduced HA by 69%. No change occurred in the mRNA expressions of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) or hyaluronidases (Hyals), while Hyal activity in the supernatant increased by 67% and CD44 expression reduced by 42%. The autocoid endothelin (ET-1) at low concentrations (10-10 and 10-8 M) increased HA 3-fold. On the contrary, at a high concentration (10-6 M) ET-1 reduced HA by 47%. The ET-A receptor antagonist BQ123 not only reversed the reducing effect of high ET-1 on HA, but elevated it to the same level as low concentration ET-1, suggesting separate regulating roles for ET-A and ET-B receptors. This was corroborated by the addition of ET-B receptor antagonist BQ788 to low concentration ET-1, which abolished the HA increase. HAS2 and Hyal2 mRNA did not alter, while Hyal1 mRNA was increased at all ET-1 concentrations tested. Hyal activity was elevated the most by high ET-1 concentration, and blockade of ET-A receptors by BQ123 prevented about 30% of this response. The present study demonstrates an important regulatory influence of hormones involved in body fluid balance on HA handling by RMICs, thereby supporting the concept of a dynamic involvement of interstitial HA in renal fluid handling.
- Neuroprotectin D1 inhibits retinal ganglion cell death following axotomy. [Journal Article]
- PLProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2008; 79(6):201-7
- Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a docosahexaenoic acid-derived autacoid, is an endogenous neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mediator that is generated in the retina and brain. The effects of exogenous …
Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a docosahexaenoic acid-derived autacoid, is an endogenous neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mediator that is generated in the retina and brain. The effects of exogenous NPD1 on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and the role of 12/15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in retina were evaluated after optic nerve transection (ONT). Treatment with NPD1 was associated with significant protection against RGC death. The percentage of RGC survival in NPD1-treated group was 30% at 2 weeks after ONT as compared with 12% of RGC survival in the ONT group without treatment. Endogenous NPD1 was a predominant lipid autocoid in uninjured and axotomized retinas. Alox15 mRNA expression was upregulated in retinas following ONT suggesting that amplification of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) may represent a neuroprotective response in the rat retina. The density of RGCs was higher in the normal retina of 12/15-LOX-deficient mice as compared with congenic controls. Hence, the resident NPD1 has a potential role in the physiological and pathophysiological responses of the retina.
- Cyclooxygenase enzymes: regulation and function. [Review]
- CPCurr Pharm Des 2004; 10(6):577-88
- The cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, catalyze the formation of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and levuloglandins. The prostaglandins are autocoid mediators that affect virtually all known ph…
The cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, catalyze the formation of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and levuloglandins. The prostaglandins are autocoid mediators that affect virtually all known physiological and pathological processes via their reversible interaction with G-protein coupled membrane receptors. The levuloglandins are a newer class of products that appear to act via irreversible, covalent attachment to numerous proteins. COX enzymes are clinically important because they are inhibited by aspirin and numerous other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This inhibition of COX confers relief from inflammatory, pyretic, thrombotic, neurodegenerative and oncological maladies. About one hundred years have elapsed since Hoffman designed and synthesized acetylsalicylic (aspirin) as an agent intended to lessen the gastrointestinal irritation of salicylates while maintaining their efficacy. During the past forty years systematic advances in our understanding of the structure, regulation and function of COX isoenzymes have enabled the design and synthesis of COX-2 selective inhibitors as agents intended to lessen the gastrointestinal irritation of aspirin and non-selective NSAIDs. This review discusses: 1) how two separate catalytic processes in COX - peroxidase and prostaglandin synthase - act in an integrated fashion manner to generate prostaglandins; 2) why irreversible inactivation of COX is important constitutively and pharmacologically; 3) how cells have managed to use two closely related, almost identical enzymes in ways that discriminate their physiological versus pathological roles; 4) how investigators have used these advances to formulate and test medically important uses for old drugs (i.e. aspirin) and create new ones that still seek to achieve Hoffman's original goal.
- Efffect of noscapine, the antitussive opioid alkaloid, on bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the isolated ileum of the guinea-pig. [Journal Article]
- APActa Physiol Hung 2001; 88(3-4):231-7
- Bradykinin (BK) and related kinins are autocoid peptides that play integral roles in many pathophysiological processes such as cough. In this study, the inhibitory effect of noscapine, the antitussiv…
Bradykinin (BK) and related kinins are autocoid peptides that play integral roles in many pathophysiological processes such as cough. In this study, the inhibitory effect of noscapine, the antitussive opioid alkaloid, on BK receptors, was tested in the guinea-pig ileum. Contractions of the isolated ileum of the guinea-pig in response to BK were inhibited by noscapine (10-1,000 nM) in a concentration-dependent manner. Concentration-response curves (CRCs) to BK were slightly shifted to the right with a concomitant decrease in the maximum effect. A pA2 value of 6.68 was calculated for noscapine. The slope of the Schild plot of the antagonism was found to be 0.56. Noscapine had no effect on contractions induced by KCl, acetylcholine, histamine, 5-hydroxy tryptamine or angiotensin II. In conclusion, noscapine has a specific antagonistic effect on BK receptors and the mode of inhibition was found to be non-competitive.
- Are cysteinyl leukotrienes involved in allergic responses in human skin? [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Allergy 2002; 32(7):1013-9
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that inflammatory cells recruited to the site of allergen injection are not activated to release detectable amounts of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Hence, it is unlikely that the late-phase erythematous induration is mediated by this autocoid.
- Endothelial cell PAF synthesis following thrombin stimulation utilizes Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2). [Journal Article]
- BBiochemistry 2001 Dec 11; 40(49):14921-31
- Platelet activating factor (PAF) is a potent lipid autocoid that is rapidly synthesized and presented on the surface of endothelial cells following thrombin stimulation. PAF production may occur via …
Platelet activating factor (PAF) is a potent lipid autocoid that is rapidly synthesized and presented on the surface of endothelial cells following thrombin stimulation. PAF production may occur via de novo synthesis or by the combined direct action of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and acetyl-CoA:lyso-PAF acetyltransferase or via the remodeling pathway. This study was undertaken to define the role of PLA(2) and plasmalogen phospholipid hydrolysis in PAF synthesis in thrombin-treated human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAEC). Basal PLA(2) activity in HUAEC was primarily found to be Ca(2+)-independent (iPLA(2)), membrane-associated, and selective for arachidonylated plasmenylcholine substrate. Thrombin stimulation of HUAEC resulted in a preferential 3-fold increase in membrane-associated iPLA(2) activity utilizing plasmenylcholine substrates with a minimal increase in activity with alkylacyl glycerophospholipids. No change in cystolic iPLA(2) activity in thrombin-stimulated HUAEC was observed. The thrombin-stimulated activation of iPLA(2) and associated hydrolysis of plasmalogen phospholipids was accompanied by increased levels of arachidonic acid (from 1.1 +/- 0.1 to 2.8 +/- 0.1%) and prostacyclin release (from 38 +/- 12 to 512 +/- 24%) as well as an increased level of production of lysoplasmenylcholine (from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 2.1 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg of protein), lysophosphatidylcholine (from 0.3 +/- 0.1 to 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol/mg of protein), and PAF (from 790 +/- 108 to 3380 +/- 306 dpm). Inhibition of iPLA(2) with bromoenol lactone resulted in inhibition of iPLA(2) activity, plasmalogen phospholipid hydrolysis, production of choline lysophospholipids, and PAF synthesis. These data indicate that PAF production requires iPLA(2) activation in thrombin-stimulated HUAEC and may occur through the CoA-independent transacylase remodeling pathway rather than as a direct result of the PLA(2)-catalyzed hydrolysis of membrane alkylacyl glycerophosphocholine.
- Prostaglandin E(2) enhances chemical and mechanical sensitivities of pulmonary C fibers in the rat. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162(2 Pt 1):528-33
- It has been recently reported that pulmonary reflex responses to injection or inhalation challenge of capsaicin are enhanced by exogenous Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The present study was carried ou…
It has been recently reported that pulmonary reflex responses to injection or inhalation challenge of capsaicin are enhanced by exogenous Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The present study was carried out to determine whether PGE(2) enhances the stimulatory effects of chemical stimulants and lung inflation on vagal pulmonary C fibers, and if so, whether the excitabilities of other types of lung afferents are also augmented by PGE(2). In anesthetized, open-chest rats, administration of PGE(2) (1.5 microgram/kg/min for 2 min) did not significantly change the baseline activity of vagal pulmonary C fibers, but it markedly enhanced the stimulatory effects of both low (0.25 microgram/kg) and high doses (0.5 microgram/kg) of capsaicin on these fibers. Similarly, potentiating effects of PGE(2) were found on the pulmonary C-fiber responses to injections of lactic acid and adenosine, although considerable variability existed in the degrees of potentiation between the different stimulants. Furthermore, PGE(2) infusion also significantly enhanced the C-fiber response to constant-pressure lung inflation (tracheal pressure [Pt] = 30 cm H(2)O). In contrast, PGE(2) did not alter the responses of either slowly adapting pulmonary receptors or rapidly adapting pulmonary receptors to lung inflation. In summary, these results show that the sensitivity of pulmonary C-fiber afferents to both mechanical and chemical stimuli is enhanced by PGE(2), suggesting that endogenous release of this autocoid may play a part in the airway irritation and dyspneic sensation associated with airway inflammation.
- Localization of the platelet-activating factor receptor to rat pancreatic microvascular endothelial cells. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Pathol 1999; 154(5):1353-8
- Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent lipid autocoid involved in numerous inflammatory processes. Although PAF plays a key role as a mediator of inflammation in acute pancreatitis, the site(s)…
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent lipid autocoid involved in numerous inflammatory processes. Although PAF plays a key role as a mediator of inflammation in acute pancreatitis, the site(s) of action of PAF in the pancreas remains unknown. One of the aims of this study was to identify cell types within the pancreas expressing the PAF receptor using immunohistochemical protocols. Additionally, pancreatic microvascular endothelial cells were isolated and examined for the PAF receptor using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and intracellular calcium responses to PAF exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic slices using an antibody directed toward the N-terminus of the PAF receptor revealed specific localization to the vascular endothelium with no localization to other pancreatic cell types. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of RNA isolated from cultured pancreatic islet endothelial cells yielded the predicted amplicon for the PAF receptor. Cultured pancreatic islet endothelial cells responded to PAF as measured by a transient increase in intracellular calcium, which was ameliorated in the presence of a PAF receptor antagonist. The results demonstrate the localization of PAF receptors on the pancreatic vascular endothelium. The presence of PAF receptors on the pancreatic vascular endothelium provides a defined, highly localized target for therapeutic intervention.
- Gadolinium blocks rat Kupffer cell calcium channels: relevance to calcium-dependent prostaglandin E2 synthesis and septic mortality. [Journal Article]
- HepHepatology 1999; 29(3):756-65
- Hepatic Kupffer cells (KC), the major tissue macrophage population, produce the septic response mediators, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and have been shown to …
Hepatic Kupffer cells (KC), the major tissue macrophage population, produce the septic response mediators, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and have been shown to internalize gadolinium chloride (GD), a rare earth metal of the lanthanide series. Because GD pretreatment of rats has been shown to inhibit the mortality of sepsis, we studied the secretory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by KC isolated from rats injected with either saline or GD (7 mg/kg, intravenously) on the 2 days before KC isolation. Using culture conditions modified to reflect the intrasinusoidal milieu of arginine (RPMI-1640 media with 10 or 100 micromol/L arginine), KC from GD-treated rats responded to LPS (0. 0025 microg/mL) with significantly (P <.01) reduced PGE2 release. In contrast, TNF-alpha release by treated KC was significantly (P <.05) enhanced, consistent with the loss of PGE2 autocoid inhibition of TNF-alpha. Calcium flux is an early signaling event in eicosanoid synthesis, and GD is known to block calcium channels. Therefore, KC were loaded with fura-2-AM to study the effect of GD on KC calcium flux. GD prevented ionomycin and platelet-activating factor (PAF)-mediated [Ca++]i increase and calcium-dependent PGE2 synthesis, while GD did not affect PGE2 synthesis when protein kinase C (PKC) was directly activated with tetradecanoylphorbolacetate (TPA). The inhibition of calcium flux and calcium-dependent PGE2 synthesis in the major cell of the monocytic phagocytic system by GD may explain the previously reported ability of this lanthanide to prevent the mortality of endotoxemia.
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- Localization, quantification, and activation of platelet-activating factor receptor in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle: PAF stimulates NO, VEGF, and FAKpp125. [Journal Article]
- FJFASEB J 1998; 12(10):831-43
- Implantation is characterized by an inflammatory-like response with expansion of extracellular fluid volume, increased vascular permeability, and vasodilatation. These effects are believed to be medi…
Implantation is characterized by an inflammatory-like response with expansion of extracellular fluid volume, increased vascular permeability, and vasodilatation. These effects are believed to be mediated at the paracrine level by prostaglandin E2 and platelet-activating factor (PAF), but the cellular mechanism (or mechanisms) remains largely unknown. We demonstrate that PAF receptor (PAF-R) immunoreactivity and mRNA are detected in proliferative and secretory endometrial glands, however, the responsiveness of endometrium to physiological concentrations of PAF is confined predominantly to the secretory endometrium. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that PAF-R transcript levels were highest in the mid-late proliferative and late secretory phases of the cycle. Interaction of PAF with its receptor resulted in the rapid release of nitric oxide (NO), increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and activation of FAKpp125, a focal adhesion kinase, demonstrating that the PAF-R is functionally active. Inhibition of NO synthesis by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine produced dose-dependent attenuation of PAF-evoked NO release, indicating NOS activation; the dependency of PAF-evoked NO release on PKC and extracellular Ca2+ was confirmed by PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 and by the removal of extracellular Ca2+. PAF up-regulated VEGF gene expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion in human endometrial epithelial cell lysates. Transcription of VEGF was rapidly followed by secretion of the protein. These data support our premise that this autocoid acts as an angiogenic mediator in the regeneration of the endometrium after menses and as a vasodilator to promote blastocyst attachment during the implantation process.