- Interpopulation spread of a parasitic B chromosome is unlikely through males in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. [Journal Article]
- HHeredity (Edinb) 2019 Jul 08
- The near-neutral model of B chromosome evolution predicts that population invasion is quite fast. To test this prediction, in 1994, we introduced males of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans from a…
The near-neutral model of B chromosome evolution predicts that population invasion is quite fast. To test this prediction, in 1994, we introduced males of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans from a B-carrying population into a B-lacking population and monitored the evolution of B-chromosome frequency up to 2013. We observed fluctuating very low B frequency across years but, remarkably, the B chromosome introduced (the B2 variant) was found up to 1996 only, whereas the B1 variant was present from 1996 onwards, presumably introduced by fishermen using E. plorans males as bait. Effective introgression of genetic material from the donor population was evidenced by the presence of a satellite DNA on autosome 9 (up to 1999) and the presence of one individual in 2006 showing an ISSR marker profile being highly similar to that found in the donor population. This indicated that the males introduced by us effectively mated with resident females, but donor genes rapidly decreased in frequency after this non-recurrent migration event. Taken together, our results indicated: (i) that the non-recurrent migration event had a slight, transient genetic effect on the recipient population, which was diluted in only a few generations; and (ii) that even with recurrent migration (forced by fishermen) the B chromosome failed to increase in frequency. Bearing in mind that B chromosomes in this species drive through females only, we hypothesize that B chromosomes most likely failed invasion in both migration events because the migrating sex shows no B-drive.
- Toxicity mechanism of sevoflurane in neural stem cells of rats through DNA methylation. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2019; 18(1):237-241
- The present study investigated the influence of sevoflurane on the cytotoxicity of neural stem cells of rats and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, and analyzed the correlation between degree o…
The present study investigated the influence of sevoflurane on the cytotoxicity of neural stem cells of rats and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, and analyzed the correlation between degree of methylation and neurotoxicity of sevoflurane. Ten healthy Sprague-Dawley rats aged 6-8 weeks were randomly selected. The neural stem cells in the hippocampus of rats were isolated, followed by multiplication culture and induced differentiation. The nerve-related factors were observed and detected under a microscope. Moreover, the neural stem cells were treated with sevoflurane in different concentrations. Three wells were only added with the normal medium as the control group (C0), 3 wells were added with the low-concentration sevoflurane (0.2 g/ml) prepared by the medium as the low-concentration group (C1), 3 wells were added with the moderate-concentration of sevoflurane (0.5 g/ml) as the moderate-concentration group (C2), and 3 wells were added with the high-concentration sevoflurane (1 g/ml) as the high-concentration group (C3). The apoptosis rate was detected and calculated via Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, the content of genomic DNA methylation in neural stem cells in each group was detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the distribution of methylation in the chromosome in each group was compared. During the culture, neurospheres were produced, and the expression levels of four neural markers were increased. With the increase of sevoflurane concentration and the prolongation of time, the apoptosis rate of stem cells was increased. The content of methylation in cells treated with sevoflurane in a higher concentration was higher than that in other groups (P<0.05). According to the Pearsons correlation analysis, the content of methylation in neural stem cells was directly proportional to the concentration of sevoflurane. Methylation mostly occurred in the autosome, and the content of methylation in the high-concentration group was higher than those in the moderate-concentration, low-concentration and control groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, the concentration of sevoflurane can affect the degree of methylation in neural stem cells of rats and produce certain cytotoxicity.
- Unbalanced Y;7 Translocation between Two Low-Similarity Sequences Leading to SRY-Positive 45,X Testicular Disorders of Sex Development. [Journal Article]
- CGCytogenet Genome Res 2019 Jul 03
- Unbalanced translocations of Y-chromosomal fragments harboring the sex-determining region Y gene (SRY) to the X chromosome or an autosome result in 46,XX and 45,X testicular disorders of sex developm…
Unbalanced translocations of Y-chromosomal fragments harboring the sex-determining region Y gene (SRY) to the X chromosome or an autosome result in 46,XX and 45,X testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), respectively. Of these, Y;autosome translocation is an extremely rare condition. Here, we identified a 20-year-old man with a 45,X,t(Y;7)(q11.21;q35) karyotype, who exhibited unilateral cryptorchidism, small testis, intellectual disability, and various congenital anomalies. The fusion junction of the translocation was blunt, and the breakpoint-flanking regions shared only 50% similarity. These results indicate that Y;autosome translocations can occur between 2 low-similarity sequences, probably via nonhomologous end joining. Furthermore, translocations of a Ypterq11.21 fragment to 7q35 likely result in normal or only mildly impaired male-type sexual development, along with various clinical features of 7q deletion syndrome, although their effects on adult testicular function remain to be studied.
- A simple method to allow for guanine-cytosine amplification error in prenatal DNA screening for trisomy 18. [Journal Article]
- CCClin Chim Acta 2019 Jun 15; 496:13-17
- CONCLUSIONS: Consideration can be given to using the ratio of chromosome 18 DNA fragment counts to chromosome 8 DNA fragment counts in cell-free DNA prenatal screening for trisomy 18, avoiding the need for more complex methods of making a correction for the GC content currently used.
- Binding of an X-Specific Condensin Correlates with a Reduction in Active Histone Modifications at Gene Regulatory Elements. [Journal Article]
- GGenetics 2019; 212(3):729-742
- Condensins are evolutionarily conserved protein complexes that are required for chromosome segregation during cell division and genome organization during interphase. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a spe…
Condensins are evolutionarily conserved protein complexes that are required for chromosome segregation during cell division and genome organization during interphase. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a specialized condensin, which forms the core of the dosage compensation complex (DCC), binds to and represses X chromosome transcription. Here, we analyzed DCC localization and the effect of DCC depletion on histone modifications, transcription factor binding, and gene expression using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and mRNA sequencing. Across the X, the DCC accumulates at accessible gene regulatory sites in active chromatin and not heterochromatin. The DCC is required for reducing the levels of activating histone modifications, including H3K4me3 and H3K27ac, but not repressive modification H3K9me3. In X-to-autosome fusion chromosomes, DCC spreading into the autosomal sequences locally reduces gene expression, thus establishing a direct link between DCC binding and repression. Together, our results indicate that DCC-mediated transcription repression is associated with a reduction in the activity of X chromosomal gene regulatory elements.
- Comparison of Y-chromosome-linked TSPY, TSPY2, and PRAMEY genes in Taurus cattle, yaks, and interspecific hybrid bulls. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2019; 102(7):6263-6275
- Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) and domestic Taurus cattle (Bos taurus) are closely related. An interesting phenomenon in interspecific crossings is male sterility in the F1 hybrid (yattle) and F2 back…
Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) and domestic Taurus cattle (Bos taurus) are closely related. An interesting phenomenon in interspecific crossings is male sterility in the F1 hybrid (yattle) and F2 backcross, with no late meiotic cells or spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. The mammalian Y chromosome is crucial for spermatogenesis and male fertility. This study investigated the copy number variations and mRNA of Y-transitional region genes TSPY2 (testis specific protein, Y-linked 2 and testis-specific Y-encoded protein 3-like) and PRAMEY (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma, Y-linked), and Y-ampliconic region genes TSPY (testis-specific Y-encoded protein 1-like), ZNF280BY (zinc finger protein 280B, Y-linked) and HSFY (heat-shock transcription factor, Y-linked) in mature testes from Taurus cattle, yaks, and yattle. Phylogenetic trees divided 33 copies of TSPY into major 2 types (TSPY-T1 and TSPY-T2), 19 copies of TSPY2 into 2 types (TSPY2-T1 and T2), and 8 copies of PRAMEY into 4 types (PRAMEY-T1 to T4). Searching by the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of the TSPY2 coding sequences in GenBank revealed that TSPY2 was conserved in Bovidae. The TSPY2-T2 sequences were absent, whereas PRAMEY-T2 and PRAMEY-T4 were ampliﬁed on the yak Y chromosome. The average copy numbers of TSPY-T2 and ZNF280BY were significantly different between cattle and yaks. The TSPY-T2, TSPY2, PRAMEY, ZNF280BY, and HSFY genes were uniquely or predominantly expressed in testes. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR showed that the TSPY-T2, PRAMEY-T2, HSFY, ZNF280BY, protamine 1 (PRM1), and protamine 2 (PRM2) genes were almost not expressed in yattle. The PRM1 and PRM2 genes are used as positive markers for spermatozoa. Thus, our results showed that the genomic structure of the Y-transitional and Y-ampliconic region differed between Taurus cattle and yaks. Dysregulated expression of Y-ampliconic region genes TSPY-T2, HSPY, ZNF280BY, and Y-transitional region gene PRAMEY-T2 may be associated with hybrid male sterility in yattle.
- Causes and consequences of reciprocal translocations on sex chromosomes. [News]
- MEMol Ecol 2019; 28(8):1863-1865
- Under XY sex determination, the Y chromosome is only inherited via males, whereas the X chromosome is predominantly found in females. Thus, it is favourable when alleles with high male fitness become…
Under XY sex determination, the Y chromosome is only inherited via males, whereas the X chromosome is predominantly found in females. Thus, it is favourable when alleles with high male fitness become associated with the Y chromosome and when alleles with high female fitness become associated with the X chromosome. These favourable associations can be strengthened through linkage. Rearrangements, such as inversions and sex chromosome-autosome fusions, can increase linkage and thereby become favoured (Charlesworth, 2017). In a From the Cover article in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Toups, Rodrigues, Perrin, and Kirkpatrick (2019) present the first genomic analysis of a sex chromosome reciprocal translocation, a particularly dramatic chromosomal rearrangement that modifies linkage with the sex chromosome. As a result of reciprocal translocation, one studied population of the common frog (Rana temporaria, Figure 1) displays a remarkable sex-determining system in which there are two physically unlinked sex chromosomes that are exclusively cotransmitted (Figure 2a).
- Specific Interactions Between Autosome and X Chromosomes Cause Hybrid Male Sterility in Caenorhabditis Species. [Journal Article]
- GGenetics 2019; 212(3):801-813
- Hybrid male progeny from interspecies crosses are more prone to sterility or inviability than hybrid female progeny, and the male sterility and inviability often demonstrate parent-of-origin asymmetr…
Hybrid male progeny from interspecies crosses are more prone to sterility or inviability than hybrid female progeny, and the male sterility and inviability often demonstrate parent-of-origin asymmetry. However, the underlying genetic mechanism of asymmetric sterility or inviability remains elusive. We previously established a genome-wide hybrid incompatibility (HI) landscape between Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni by phenotyping a large collection of C. nigoni strains each carrying a C. briggsae introgression. In this study, we systematically dissect the genetic mechanism of asymmetric sterility and inviability in both hybrid male and female progeny between the two species. Specifically, we performed reciprocal crosses between C . briggsae and different C. nigoni strains that each carry a GFP-labeled C. briggsae genomic fragment referred to as introgression, and scored the HI phenotypes in the F1 progeny. The aggregated introgressions cover 94.6% of the C. briggsae genome, including 100% of the X chromosome. Surprisingly, we observed that two C. briggsae X fragments that produce C. nigoni male sterility as an introgression rescued hybrid F1 sterility in males fathered by C. briggsae Subsequent backcrossing analyses indicated that a specific interaction between the X-linked interaction and one autosome introgression is required to rescue the hybrid male sterility. In addition, we identified another two C. briggsae genomic intervals on chromosomes II and IV that can rescue the inviability, but not the sterility, of hybrid F1 males fathered by C. nigoni, suggesting the involvement of differential epistatic interactions in the asymmetric hybrid male fertility and inviability. Importantly, backcrossing of the rescued sterile males with C. nigoni led to the isolation of a 1.1-Mb genomic interval that specifically interacts with an X-linked introgression, which is essential for hybrid male fertility. We further identified three C. briggsae genomic intervals on chromosome I, II, and III that produced inviability in all F1 progeny, dependent on or independent of the parent-of-origin. Taken together, we identified multiple independent interacting loci that are responsible for asymmetric hybrid male and female sterility, and inviability, which lays a foundation for their molecular characterization.
- Sexual conflict through mother's curse and father's curse. [Journal Article]
- TPTheor Popul Biol 2019 May 02
- In contrast with autosomes, lineages of sex chromosomes reside for different amounts of time in males and females, and this transmission asymmetry makes them hotspots for sexual conflict. Similarly, …
In contrast with autosomes, lineages of sex chromosomes reside for different amounts of time in males and females, and this transmission asymmetry makes them hotspots for sexual conflict. Similarly, the maternal inheritance of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) means that mutations that are beneficial in females can spread in a population even if they are deleterious in males, a form of sexual conflict known as Mother's Curse. While both Mother's Curse and sex chromosome induced sexual conflict have been well studied on their own, the interaction between mitochondrial genes and genes on sex chromosomes is poorly understood. Here, we use analytical models and computer simulations to perform a comprehensive examination of how transmission asymmetries of nuclear, mitochondrial, and sex chromosome-linked genes may both cause and resolve sexual conflicts. For example, the accumulation of male-biased Mother's Curse mtDNA mutations will lead to selection in males for compensatory nuclear modifier loci that alleviate the effect. We show how the Y chromosome, being strictly paternally transmitted provides a particularly safe harbor for such modifiers. This analytical framework also allows us to discover a novel kind of sexual conflict, by which Y chromosome-autosome epistasis may result in the spread of male beneficial but female deleterious mutations in a population. We christen this phenomenon Father's Curse. Extending this analytical framework to ZW sex chromosome systems, where males are the heterogametic sex, we also show how W-autosome epistasis can lead to a novel kind of nuclear Mother's Curse. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive framework to understand how genetic transmission asymmetries may both cause and resolve sexual conflicts.
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- Sex Chromosome Turnover in Moths of the Diverse Superfamily Gelechioidea. [Journal Article]
- GBGenome Biol Evol 2019 04 01; 11(4):1307-1319
- Sex chromosomes play a central role in genetics of speciation and their turnover was suggested to promote divergence. In vertebrates, sex chromosome-autosome fusions resulting in neo-sex chromosomes …
Sex chromosomes play a central role in genetics of speciation and their turnover was suggested to promote divergence. In vertebrates, sex chromosome-autosome fusions resulting in neo-sex chromosomes occur frequently in male heterogametic taxa (XX/XY), but are rare in groups with female heterogamety (WZ/ZZ). We examined sex chromosomes of seven pests of the diverse lepidopteran superfamily Gelechioidea and confirmed the presence of neo-sex chromosomes in their karyotypes. Two synteny blocks, which correspond to autosomes 7 (LG7) and 27 (LG27) in the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype exemplified by the linkage map of Biston betularia (Geometridae), were identified as sex-linked in the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Gelechiidae). Testing for sex-linkage performed in other species revealed that while LG7 fused to sex chromosomes in a common ancestor of all Gelechioidea, the second fusion between the resulting neo-sex chromosome and the other autosome is confined to the tribe Gnoreschemini (Gelechiinae). Our data accentuate an emerging pattern of high incidence of neo-sex chromosomes in Lepidoptera, the largest clade with WZ/ZZ sex chromosome system, which suggest that the paucity of neo-sex chromosomes is not an intrinsic feature of female heterogamety. Furthermore, LG7 contains one of the major clusters of UDP-glucosyltransferases, which are involved in the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites. Sex chromosome evolution in Gelechioidea thus supports an earlier hypothesis postulating that lepidopteran sex chromosome-autosome fusions can be driven by selection for association of Z-linked preference or host-independent isolation genes with larval performance and thus can contribute to ecological specialization and speciation of moths.