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- [Progress on PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Inhibitors in Lung Cancer]. [Journal Article]
- ZFZhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2019 Jun 20; 22(6):369-379
- In recent years, research on immunotherapy has made great progress. Currently, immunotherapy has made significant breakthrough, especially programmed death 1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) ch…
In recent years, research on immunotherapy has made great progress. Currently, immunotherapy has made significant breakthrough, especially programmed death 1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors (e.g, Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab, Atezolizumab, Durvalumab and Avelumab, etc.) have brought clinical benefits to patients with various pathological types of lung cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer. In this paper, the application value and current status of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer were comprehensively analyzed by reviewing and interpreting representative clinical studies. Based on the results of various large-scale clinical trials results, the indications of immunotherapy in lung cancer have been continuously broadened, and the details of immunotherapy have also been constantly optimized. However, immunotherapy still faces many challenges, such as the selection of immune combination strategies, the exploration of biomarkers, the management of adverse events, the feasibility of application of driver gene mutation population and so on. In this article, we made a systematic review about the latest progress of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer, in order to provide cutting-edge reference for the clinical workers. .
- Profile of pembrolizumab in the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. [Review]
- CMCancer Manag Res 2019; 11:4519-4528
- The prognosis of patients with unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) is poor. Platinum-based chemotherapy has been the standard first-line treatment in these patients for the past deca…
The prognosis of patients with unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) is poor. Platinum-based chemotherapy has been the standard first-line treatment in these patients for the past decade; however, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate is only 13-22%. Recent advances in cancer immunology research have highlighted the pivotal role of the immune system in cancer development and progression, and new immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated efficacy in a large variety of tumors including UC. Currently, five ICIs, including two anti-PD-1 antibodies (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and three anti-PD-L1 antibodies (atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab), have been granted approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients with unresectable or metastatic UC who recurred or progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy. Among these agents, only pembrolizumab is supported by strong evidence from a large randomized Phase III trial (KEYNOTE-045). This trial demonstrated statistically significant improvements in OS for patients assigned to the pembrolizumab arm compared with the chemotherapy arm, both in the total population (HR 0.73; P=0.002) and in the population with high PD-L1 expression (HR 0.57; P=0.005). For patients with cisplatin-ineligible UC, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab were approved based on Phase II studies, with limitations on the use of these agents in patients with high tumor PD-L1 expression later imposed by the FDA. In conclusion, pembrolizumab may be a potential first-choice second-line therapy for unresectable or metastatic UC patients following platinum-based chemotherapy. Several Phase III trials are ongoing to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination therapies of ICIs with chemotherapy, and ICIs with other ICIs with or without chemotherapy as first-line therapy. The results of these trials might redirect treatment strategies for patients with unresectable or metastatic UC.
- Budget impact model of avelumab in patients with metastatic merkel cell carcinoma in the US. [Journal Article]
- COClinicoecon Outcomes Res 2019; 11:349-359
- CONCLUSIONS: The model results indicate that the adoption of avelumab as a treatment option for mMCC would likely result in minimal budget impact from a US health plan perspective. Patients with mMCC, a rare condition with a poor prognosis and high unmet need, may benefit greatly from recently approved immunotherapies.
- Immune-related adverse events associated with programmed cell death protein-1 and programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitors for non-small cell lung cancer: a PRISMA systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Cancer 2019 Jun 10; 19(1):558
- CONCLUSIONS: The specificity of irAEs was closely associated with the mechanism of PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies involved in restarting anticancer immune attacks. Comprehensive understanding, timely detection, and effective management could improve the compliance of patients and guide the interruption of treatment.
- Rheumatic immune related adverse events in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors for immunotherapy of cancer. [Review]
- ARAutoimmun Rev 2019 Jun 06
- Immune checkpoints are small molecules expressed by immune cells that play critical roles in maintaining immune homeostasis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are new cancer drugs that target self…
Immune checkpoints are small molecules expressed by immune cells that play critical roles in maintaining immune homeostasis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are new cancer drugs that target self-tolerance pathways exploited by tumors to escape immune destruction, such a such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1). Several ICPIs have been approved by Food and Drug Administration, increasing overall survival with different cancers. However, their use can determine development of many different inflammatory side effects, that are defined immune-related adverse effects (irAEs); among others, rheumatological irAEs can develop in these patients. To date, we have limited data about these adverse effects; particularly few evidence come from clinical trials about patients with pre-existing autoimmune diseases because they were excluded from them. Therefore we analysed the existing scientific literature dealing with this issue, in order to answer to different clinical questions. According to all reviewed data, rheumatological irAEs are not infrequent, in both previously diseased and undiseased patients, but they are often mild and reversible. Close monitoring and interdisciplinary management and monitoring is necessary in order to ensure best care. Many questions remain unanswered or not completely answered; further data are necessary to implement our data and standardize and optimize clinical practice.
- Diffuse lichen planus-like keratoses and clinical pseudo-progression associated with avelumab treatment for Merkel cell carcinoma, a case report. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Cancer 2019 Jun 04; 19(1):539
- CONCLUSIONS: Diffuse LPLK is a distinct immune-related reaction pattern associated with PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint blockade. This is an important side effect to be aware of as LPLK frequently mimic keratinocytic neoplasms. Further observation is needed to assess the prevalence and significance of this immune therapy-associated adverse reaction.
- From Clinical Trials to Real-life Clinical Practice: The Role of Immunotherapy with PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma. [Review]
- EUEur Urol Oncol 2018; 1(6):486-500
- CONCLUSIONS: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors represent a major step forward in the management of advanced UC, although several questions remain regarding their optimal use in routine clinical practice. A validated predictive biomarker of response is yet to be defined, and this is perhaps the most significant unmet need for currently available drugs.
- Phase II study of avelumab in multiple relapsed/refractory germ cell cancer. [Journal Article]
- INInvest New Drugs 2019 Jun 01
- Background Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are highly curable diseases; however, not all patients can be cured. Patients in their second relapse have especially poor prognoses. PD-L1 expression is significan…
Background Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are highly curable diseases; however, not all patients can be cured. Patients in their second relapse have especially poor prognoses. PD-L1 expression is significantly higher in GCTs than in normal testicular tissue, and high PD-L1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of avelumab, a PD-L1 inhibitor, in patients with GCTs. Methods In this phase 2 study, patients with multiple relapsed and/or refractory GCTs were treated with avelumab at a dose of 10 mg/kg administered biweekly until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was 12-week progression-free survival (PFS). Fifteen evaluable patients had to be enrolled in the first cohort, and if <8 of 15 patients had 12-week PFS, the study was to be terminated. Here, we report the results of the first stage of the trial. Results From November 2017 to January 2018, 8 patients with a median age of 29 years (range, 22 to 52 months) were enrolled. Patients were pretreated with a median of 5 (range, 1 to 6) previous lines of platinum-based therapies; 5 tumors (62.5%) were absolutely refractory to cisplatin, and 5 patients (62.5%) had visceral nonpulmonary metastases. At a median follow-up period of 2.6 months (range, 0.3 to 14.4), all the patients experienced disease progression, and 7 patients (87.5%) died. The twelve-week PFS was 0%, median PFS was 0.9 months (95% CI 0.5-1.9), and median OS was 2.7 months (95% CI 1.0-3.3). Avelumab was well tolerated, and no severe adverse events were observed. Conclusions This study failed to achieve its primary endpoint. Our data suggest a lack of avelumab efficacy in unselected multiple relapsed/refractory GCTs.
- Autoimmune Endocrine Dysfunctions Associated with Cancer Immunotherapies. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 May 24; 20(10)
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors block the checkpoint molecules. Different types of cancer immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved recently: CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies (as ipilimumab); anti-PD-…
Immune checkpoint inhibitors block the checkpoint molecules. Different types of cancer immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved recently: CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies (as ipilimumab); anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (as pembrolizumab and nivolumab); and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (as atezolizumab, avelumab, and durmalumab). We collect recent published results about autoimmune endocrine dysfunctions associated with cancer antibody immunotherapies. These agents cause a raised immune response leading to immune-related adverse events (irAEs), varying from mild to fatal, based on the organ system and severity. Immune-related endocrine toxicities are usually irreversible in 50% of cases, and include hypophysitis, thyroid dysfunctions, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and adrenal insufficiency. Anti-PD-1-antibodies are more frequently associated with thyroid dysfunctions (including painless thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, or thyroid storm), while the most frequent irAE related to anti-CTLA-4-antibodies is hypophysitis. The combination of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies is associated with a 30% chance of irAEs. Symptoms and clinical signs vary depending on the target organ. IrAEs are usually managed by an oncological therapist, but in more challenging circumstances (i.e., for new onset insulin-dependent diabetes, hypoadrenalism, gonadal hormones dysfunctions, or durable hypophysitis) an endocrinologist is needed.
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- Toxicity patterns associated with chemotherapy/immune checkpoint inhibitor combinations: a meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- IImmunotherapy 2019; 11(6):543-554
- CONCLUSIONS: Addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to chemotherapy backbone does not increase the risk of high-grade hematological or gastrointestinal toxicities (except for high-grade diarrhea).