- Specific inter-stimulus interval effect of NMDA receptor activation in the insular cortex during conditioned taste aversion. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurobiol Learn Mem 2019 Jul 17; :107043
- Taste memory recognition is crucial for species survival; thus, the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) protects animals against consuming poisons or toxins. In nature, food and poison ar…
Taste memory recognition is crucial for species survival; thus, the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) protects animals against consuming poisons or toxins. In nature, food and poison are confined in the same edible item; however, in the laboratory these food constituents are usually presented separately for experimental analysis. The taste, or conditioned stimulus (CS), can be hours apart from the gastric malaise, or unconditioned stimulus (US); this extended inter-stimulus interval (ISI) allows the analysis of a particular learning phase. Evidence indicates a relevant function of glutamatergic activity in the insular cortex (IC) throughout the ISI. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are crucial during CTA acquisition and retrieval. However, the exact participation of NMDAR in the IC during the ISI has not been demonstrated. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of temporal NMDAR activation during four time frames throughout the ISI of conditioned sugar aversion with bilateral injections of NMDA at a physiological dose (1 µg/µl) in the IC, given 1) immediately before or 2) immediately after sugar presentation, or 3) immediately before or 4) immediately after LiCl i.p. injection. The results showed that NMDAR activation in the IC had a specific ISI effect during CTA acquisition, increasing aversive memory formation and delaying extinction only after CS presentation. Overall, these results demonstrate that NMDAR in the IC have a particular enhancing associative effect after CS and suggest that there is a precise coincidence in neurochemical events in the IC that correlates with the stimulus to be associated and the glutamate NMDAR activity that must be finely tuned in the ISI during CTA acquisition.
- Can positive income anticipations reverse the mental health impacts of negative income anxieties? [Journal Article]
- EHEcon Hum Biol 2019 Jun 29; 35:107-122
- Prospect theory suggests losses are more influential than equivalent sized gains in individual level decision-making. Extending this literature, we use longitudinal National Population Health Survey …
Prospect theory suggests losses are more influential than equivalent sized gains in individual level decision-making. Extending this literature, we use longitudinal National Population Health Survey data (2000-01 to 2010-11) to investigate whether experienced psychological distress impacts of greater economic insecurity for working age Canadians can be fully reversed by equal sized increases in security. Economic insecurity (security) is defined as the probability of an annual income decrease (increase) of 25 percent or more. Our identification strategy employs fixed effects estimation and a set of instruments to control for unobserved heterogeneity and reverse causality. Results suggest that an initial one standard deviation increase in economic insecurity predicts a rise in psychological distress of about 0.57 standard deviations for males and 0.54 standard deviations for females. Good economic news of a similar magnitude has considerably less impact, reducing psychological distress by 0.16 and 0.35 standard deviations for males and females respectively.
- Economic situation, the key to understanding the links between CEOs' personal traits and the financial structure of large private companies. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0218853
- Executives act based on their experiences, values, personality and personal interpretation of the situations which they face in their companies. Investigations in the field of Behavioral Corporate Fi…
Executives act based on their experiences, values, personality and personal interpretation of the situations which they face in their companies. Investigations in the field of Behavioral Corporate Finance have determined that there are some relations between CEOs' personal traits and financial decisions of large companies, but these results are based on indirect personal trait measurements and on public companies. To see whether such relations also exist between CEOs' personal traits and the financial structure of large private companies, we used psychometric tests to measure their level of optimism, risk attitude and affect heuristic, collected financial data for a period of fourteen years, and considered the economic situation of the country as a key factor in these relations. This paper reports the relationship of executives' personal traits with the financial structure of large Spanish companies for the period 2001-2014. We observed that executives' high optimism (and risk aversion attitude) is positively (negatively) related to long-term debt, whilst positive affect is directly associated to the financial leverage and short-term debt. This paper also reports a change of relations when taking into account the country's economic situation. In effect, by considering this new variable, executives' risk aversion is seen to be associated to financial leverage and short-term debt, whilst CEOs' positive affect is linked to long-term debt. These relations are strongly moderated and they become statistically significant in a contracting economic period. In conclusion, the links between CEOs' personal traits and financial structure of large private Spanish companies make sense when the effect of the economic situation is taken into account. Furthermore, the awareness of these links helps to understand the financial decisions taken within large Spanish companies.
- Using Adherence-Contingent Rebates on Chronic Disease Treatment Costs to Promote Medication Adherence: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- AHAppl Health Econ Health Policy 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that simultaneously leveraging several insights from behavioral economics can significantly improve medication adherence rates. The relatively low cost of the rebates and significant health and cost implications of medication non-adherence suggest that this strategy has the potential to cost-effectively improve health outcomes for many conditions.
- A critical rejoinder to "Life's End: Ethnographic Perspectives". [Journal Article]
- DSDeath Stud 2019 Jul 18; :1-8
- This article stands as a response to Goodwin-Hawkins and Dawson's (2018) article "Life's End: Ethnographic Perspectives" which was published in this journal as an Introduction to a Special Issue of e…
This article stands as a response to Goodwin-Hawkins and Dawson's (2018) article "Life's End: Ethnographic Perspectives" which was published in this journal as an Introduction to a Special Issue of ethnographies about end of life. We address three interwoven fallacies promoted in "Life's End." First, we begin by challenging the authors' central contention that there is no "rigorous body of anthropological work on the issue of dying." We then problematize the authors' conflation of anthropology and ethnography. Finally, we deconstruct their argument that there is an "anthropological aversion" to the study of dying stemming from the inherent "intimacy" of ethnographic methods, as well as their assumption that there is something uniquely emotionally challenging about studying dying. We argue that in framing their Introduction to ethnographies of dying as largely one of absence, Goodwin-Hawkins and Dawson ignore a rich history and diversity of research. In challenging the authors' obfuscation of our subdiscipline, we offer as a corrective a wide range of examples taken from a substantive canon of ethnographic research spanning almost 70 years. We conclude with a broader call for slow academia to ensure that important scholarly contributions are not erased from memory and history rewritten.
- Comparison of Physician Therapeutic Inertia for Management of Patients With Multiple Sclerosis in Canada, Argentina, Chile, and Spain. [Journal Article]
- JNJAMA Netw Open 2019 Jul 03; 2(7):e197093
- CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that Canadian participants had the lowest prevalence and magnitude of TI. Higher TI scores were associated with a lower expertise in MS care and with a greater tendency for aversion to ambiguity.
- Assessing Risk Aversion From the Investor's Point of View. [Review]
- FPFront Psychol 2019; 10:1490
- Throughout the financial literature, there is a great deal of debate about the nature of investors' risk preferences. In an ever-changing world, the main schools of knowledge discuss the constant or …
Throughout the financial literature, there is a great deal of debate about the nature of investors' risk preferences. In an ever-changing world, the main schools of knowledge discuss the constant or dynamic basis of these preferences. Based on an exhaustive review of the subject of risk aversion, this paper contributes to filling the gap that exists in the literature on the risk aversion parameter that best fits the investors' behavior toward risk. The main determinants of risk attitude are examined and the different and most novel methodologies and perspectives are carefully analyzed.
- Towards a biased mindset: An extended Theory of Planned Behaviour framework to predict farmers' intention to adopt a sustainable mange control approach. [Journal Article]
- PVPrev Vet Med 2019 Aug 01; 169:104695
- Resistance against macrocyclic lactones is emerging in Psoroptes ovis mites, the cause of psoroptic mange in sheep and cattle. Therefore, sustainable mange control approaches should be implemented to…
Resistance against macrocyclic lactones is emerging in Psoroptes ovis mites, the cause of psoroptic mange in sheep and cattle. Therefore, sustainable mange control approaches should be implemented to prevent or slow down resistance. To ensure a proper implementation of such approaches, it is crucial to understand the factors that may impede or facilitate adoption of these practices among farmers. A conceptual model that combines insights from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Ajzen, 1991) - a theory that predicts human behaviour -, with insights from behavioural economics (Camerer, 2004; Samson, 2016) - a theory that assumes that behavioural biases or reasoning errors are pervasive in decision-making -, was developed to predict farmers' adoption intention. In particular, this paper examines how behavioural economics can influence farmers' beliefs related to sustainable mange control and through which pathways these biased beliefs can predict adoption intention. A cross-sectional survey study amongst 174 Belgian Blue cattle farmers has been conducted and Structural Equation Modelling was used for analyses. In particular, the model shows that farmers' positive attitudes towards a sustainable mange control method (attitude) and their perceptions of how others evaluate the sustainable control methods (subjective norms) more strongly predict adoption intention than perceived behavioural control. Additionally, the model shows that adoption intention is explained by the bandwagon bias -the belief that other farmers have a positive opinion about the control method-, and availability bias - farmers who have the belief that mange occurs often on their farm - through the determinants of TPB. Although this bandwagon bias influences farmers adoption intention, the rather low presence of availability bias might explain why adoption intention of a sustainable mange control method is limited. Next, retaining to the default treatment (default bias) influences farmers' belief that they are capable of implementing control methods on their farm (perceived behavioural control), while the belief that implementing a control method is perceived as a cost for their farm rather than being beneficial (loss aversion bias) negatively influences attitude and perceived behavioural control. We further discuss important implications that can incite farmers' adoption intention.
- Selection of new chemicals to be used in conditioned aversion for non-lethal predation control. [Journal Article]
- BPBehav Processes 2019 Jul 13; :103905
- Globally, native predators and scavengers are threatened through the incidence of illegal poisoning due to increasing human-wildlife conflicts. The use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) may mitigat…
Globally, native predators and scavengers are threatened through the incidence of illegal poisoning due to increasing human-wildlife conflicts. The use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) may mitigate such conflicts. CTA is a robust learning paradigm that occurs when animals associate a food with a discomfort induced by a chemical, thereby avoiding that food in subsequent encounters. We reviewed the potential of 167 chemical compounds to be used in CTA, considering effects, margin of safety, accessibility, and detectability. After the review, 15 compounds fulfilled the required characteristics, but only five (thiabendazole, thiram, levamisole, fluconazole and fluralaner) were finally selected to be tested in CTA assays with dogs. Of the tested compounds, thiabendazole, thiram and levamisole caused target food rejection by dogs and reduced the time spent eating during post-conditioning. However, despite being microencapsulated, levamisole appeared to be detectable by dogs, whereas thiram and thiabendazole were not. Fluconazole and fluralaner did not produce any CTA effect. Thiabendazole, thiram and levamisole can therefore induce CTA, and thus are potential candidates as aversive compounds for wildlife management. Thiram is an undetectable, relatively safe and accessible compound that can induce CTA in canids, and opens new possibilities to develop methods of non-lethal predation control.
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- Dopaminergic cellular and circuit contributions to kappa opioid receptor mediated aversion. [Review]
- NINeurochem Int 2019 Jul 10; :104504
- Neural circuits that enable an organism to protect itself by promoting escape from immediate threat and avoidance of future injury are conceptualized to carry an "aversive" signal. One of the key mol…
Neural circuits that enable an organism to protect itself by promoting escape from immediate threat and avoidance of future injury are conceptualized to carry an "aversive" signal. One of the key molecular elements of these circuits is the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) and its endogenous peptide agonist, dynorphin. In many cases, the aversive response to an experimental manipulation can be eliminated by selective blockade of KOR function, indicating its necessity in transmitting this signal. The dopamine system, through its contributions to reinforcement learning, is also involved in processing of aversive stimuli, and KOR control of dopamine in the context of aversive behavioral states has been intensely studied. In this review, we have discussed the multiple ways in which the KORs regulate dopamine dynamics with a central focus on dopamine neurons and projections from the ventral tegmental area. At the neuronal level, KOR agonists inhibit dopamine neurons both in the somatodendritic region as well as at terminal release sites, through various signaling pathways and ion channels, and these effects are specific to different synaptic sites. While the dominant hypotheses are that aversive states are driven by decreases in dopamine and increases in dynorphin, reported exceptions to these patterns indicate these ideas require refinement. This is critical given that KOR is being considered as a target for development of new therapeutics for anxiety, depression, pain, and other psychiatric disorders.