- Successful treatment of resistant Burkholderia multivorans infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis using ceftazidime/avibactam plus aztreonam. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Apr 17
- blaNDM-21, a new variant of blaNDM in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate carrying blaCTX-M-55 and rmtB. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Jun 14
- CONCLUSIONS: A new NDM variant has been identified and blaNDM-21 has evolved from blaNDM-5 on an IncX3 plasmid.
- LMB-1, a novel family of class B3 MBLs from an isolate of Enterobacter cloacae. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Homologies of the MBL gene itself and another gene located on the same plasmid to genes detected in marine bacterial species strongly suggest that this novel MBL was transferred to E. cloacae from a marine bacterium. This underlines the importance of natural reservoirs supplying hitherto unknown resistance genes to clinically relevant bacterial species and the importance of ongoing surveillance and research.
- Trans-Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol Increase Acinetobacter baumannii Sensitivity to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2018; 9:1011
- Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is a major nosocomial pathogen causing a wide range of clinical conditions with significant mortality rates. A. baumannii strains are equipped with ...
Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is a major nosocomial pathogen causing a wide range of clinical conditions with significant mortality rates. A. baumannii strains are equipped with a multitude of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, rendering them resistant to most of the currently available antibiotics. Thus, there is a critical need to explore novel strategies for controlling antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii. This study investigated the efficacy of two food-grade, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) in decreasing A. baumannii's resistance to seven β-lactam antibiotics, including ampicillin, methicillin, meropenem, penicillin, aztreonam, amoxicillin, and piperacillin. Two MDR A. baumannii isolates (ATCC 17978 and AB 251847) were separately cultured in tryptic soy broth (∼6 log CFU/ml) containing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of TC or EG with or without the MIC of each antibiotic at 37°C for 18 h. A. baumannii strains not exposed to the PDAs or antibiotics served as controls. Following incubation, A. baumannii counts were determined by broth dilution assay. In addition, the effect of PDAs on the permeability of outer membrane and efflux pumps in A. baumannii was measured. Further, the effect of TC and EG on the expression of A. baumannii genes encoding resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (blaP), efflux pumps (adeABC), and multi-drug resistant protein (mdrp) was studied using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The experiment was replicated three times with duplicate samples of each treatment and control. The results from broth dilution assay indicated that both TC and EG in combination with antibiotics increased the sensitivity of A. baumannii to all the tested antibiotics (P < 0.05). The two PDAs inhibited the function of A. baumannii efflux pump, (AdeABC), but did not increase the permeability of its outer membrane. Moreover, RT-qPCR data revealed that TC and EG down-regulated the expression of majority of the genes associated with β-lactam antibiotic resistance, especially blaP and adeABC (P < 0.05). The results suggest that TC and EG could potentially be used along with β-lactam antibiotics for controlling MDR A. baumannii infections; however, their clinical significance needs to be determined using in vivo studies.
- Evaluation of Biofilm Formation and Frequency of Multidrug-resistant and Extended Drug-resistant Strain in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Patients in Isfahan. [Journal Article]
- ABAdv Biomed Res 2018; 7:61
- CONCLUSIONS: As a result, the findings of this survey indicated that PB and CAZ were the most effective antibiotics against P. aeruginosa, which of course indicate a serious problem about the emergence of the PDR strains. There was no relationship between the patterns of biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility, but high frequency of MDR/XDR and biofilm producer strains has been detected.
- Genetic and biochemical characterization of GES-16, a new GES-type β-lactamase with carbapenemase activity in Serratia marcescens. [Journal Article]
- DMDiagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 May 12
- We evaluated the genetic environment of blaGES-16 found in 2 carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens clinical isolates recovered from patients hospitalized at a tertiary hospital located in Rio de J...
We evaluated the genetic environment of blaGES-16 found in 2 carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens clinical isolates recovered from patients hospitalized at a tertiary hospital located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also compared the kinetics constants for GES-16 and GES-5 against several β-lactams. Both S. marcescens isolates showed identical PFGE pattern and carried the carbapenemase-encoding gene blaGES-16 and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoding gene blaOXA-10. The blaGES-16 was inserted at the first position of a defective class 1 integron, composed by a fragmented integrase gene that lacked its attI1 recombination site, followed by dfr22, aac(6')-IIc, and aadA1 genes. This integron was located on a 30-kb nonconjugative plasmid. The GES-16 showed 2 amino acid substitutions (Gln38Glu and Gly170Ser) compared to GES-1. Kinetic analysis showed that GES-16 presented hydrolytic activity against all β-lactams tested, except for aztreonam. Imipenem was the carbapenem more efficiently hydrolyzed (highest kcat/Km) by GES-16. The kinetic parameters of GES-16 were similar to those of GES-5. In conclusion, we identified a new GES-type enzyme with carbapenemase activity in S. marcescens. The increasing diversity of such resistance determinants confirms the ongoing evolution of these β-lactamases towards a broader spectrum of activity.
- Carbapenem Nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan: Dissemination and Increasing Resistance of Carbapenemase Producers During 2012-2015. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 May 31; 8(1):8468
- Before 2011, the prevalence rates of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP) among carbapenem nonsusceptible K. pneumoniae (CnSKP) isolates were below 10% in Taiwan. The study presents t...
Before 2011, the prevalence rates of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP) among carbapenem nonsusceptible K. pneumoniae (CnSKP) isolates were below 10% in Taiwan. The study presents the dissemination and increased antimicrobial resistance of CPKP from January 2012 to August 2015, as shown by Taiwanese multicenter surveillance. Isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of >1 μg/mL for imipenem or meropenem were collected, screened for various carbapenemase genes by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Among 1,457 CnSKP isolates, 1,250 were collected from medical centers. The CnSKP prevalence in medical centers increased by 1.7-fold during the study. Among all CnSKP isolates, 457 were CPKP. The CPKP rate among CnSKP increased by 1.5-fold and reached 36.8% in 2015. The CPKP nonsusceptibility rate to aztreonam, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides increased yearly. Six CPKP isolates carried dual carbapenemase genes. Three Ambler classes were identified in 451 isolates with a single carbapenemase: classes A (315 blaKPC-2, 2 blaKPC-3, 28 blaKPC-17, 2 blaKPC-34), B (26 blaIMP-8, 2 blaNDM-1, 36 blaVIM-1), and D (40 blaOXA-48). The blaOXA-48 rate among CPKP increased by 6-fold over three years. Most KPC and OXA-48 producers were ST11. CnSKP was increasingly prevalent, owing to CPKP dissemination. Additionally, CPKP became more resistant during the study period.
- Prevalence of Drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Iran: A Review Article. [Review]
- IJIran J Public Health 2018; 47(3):317-326
- CONCLUSIONS: There is a relatively high prevalence of drug resistant K. pneumoniae isolates in Iran. Thus, a high degree of awareness among physicians and microbiologists, active infection control committee, appropriate antimicrobial therapy, improvement of hygiene condition and monitoring of drug resistant isolates are urgently needed in order to better control the emergence and spread of drug-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates in hospital settings.
- Disruption of mpl Activates β-Lactamase Production in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 May 29
- The hyperproduction of chromosomally encoded β-lactamases is a key method of acquired resistance to ceftazidime, aztreonam, and when seen in backgrounds having reduced envelope permeability, carbapen...
The hyperproduction of chromosomally encoded β-lactamases is a key method of acquired resistance to ceftazidime, aztreonam, and when seen in backgrounds having reduced envelope permeability, carbapenems. Here we show that loss of Mpl, a UDP-muramic acid/peptide ligase, is a common and previously overlooked cause of chromosomally encoded β-lactamase hyperproduction in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, important pathogens notorious for their β-lactam resistant phenotypes.
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- Combination of aztreonam and cefotaxime against CTX-M-15 type β-lactamases: A mechanism based effective therapeutic approach. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 May 22; 116:1186-1195
- CTX-M-15 type β-lactamases are a class of enzymes which hydrolyzes cefotaxime and aztreonam (a monobactam) antibiotics. The emergence of CTX-M-15 producing Enterobacteriaceae member is a major threat...
CTX-M-15 type β-lactamases are a class of enzymes which hydrolyzes cefotaxime and aztreonam (a monobactam) antibiotics. The emergence of CTX-M-15 producing Enterobacteriaceae member is a major threat to public health. The objective of the study was to check the potency of aztreonam and cefotaxime in combination against β-lactamase producing strains and to monitor the mechanism behind their interaction. FICI results showed the synergistic effect of aztreonam-cefotaxime against CTX-M-15 producing strain. The expressed and purified CTX-M-15 protein was used as the source of enzyme. Kinetic studies confirmed that the catalytic efficiency of the CTX-M-15 enzyme was decreased to about 78% when it was treated with aztreonam then with cefotaxime in 5 and 10 times molar ratio, respectively, in comparison to the studies where efficiency was enhanced by 33% when cefotaxime was taken alone. Fluorescence study showed that aztreonam binding with CTX-M-15 was an endothermic and spontaneous process with Ka of the order of 104 M-1. CD spectroscopic study showed conformational changes upon aztreonam/aztreonam-cefotaxime binding with CTX-M-15. The study concludes that aztreonam in combination with cefotaxime synergistically inhibits CTX-M-15 efficiency significantly. Hence the combination of a monobactam and cephalosporin can be used as the potential therapeutic candidates against β-lactamase producing CTX-M-15 strains.