- Moderate altitude impacts birth weight: 30 years retrospective sibling analyses using record linkage data. [Journal Article]
- PRPediatr Res 2019 May 21
- CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a longitudinal negative effect of altitude on birth weight within the same mother from first and second birth. This association is likely to be casual. Relocation of mothers within low-to-medium altitude level may have profound effects on infants' birth weight.
- Fraction of Inspired Oxygen as a Predictor of CPAP Failure in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Prospective Multicenter Study. [Journal Article]
- NNeonatology 2019 May 21; :1-8
- CONCLUSIONS: FiO2 in the second hour of life is a significantpredictor of CPAP failure. The threshold of 0.29 best discriminates the CPAP outcome. Nonresponders to CPAP have a remarkably higher incidence of complications and a higher mortality rate.
- Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Is Associated with Altered Brain Volumes and White Matter Microstructure in Preterm Infants. [Journal Article]
- NNeonatology 2019 May 21; :1-8
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the potential impairing influence of BPD on WM and cerebellar development in preterm infants compared with those without BPD at term-equivalent age, suggesting its clinical significance for neurodevelopment in BPD infants.
- Declined care and discrimination during the childbirth hospitalization. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Med 2019 May 10; 232:270-277
- Many studies have documented poorer patient-provider interactions among people of color compared to Whites, including lower-quality patient-provider communication, less involvement in decision making…
Many studies have documented poorer patient-provider interactions among people of color compared to Whites, including lower-quality patient-provider communication, less involvement in decision making, and higher chances of perceived discrimination in healthcare encounters. In maternity care, where overuse of medical interventions such as cesarean delivery is a concern, women may try to exert agency by declining procedures. However, declining procedures may brand these women as uncooperative or non-compliant patients. The potential consequences of this are likely worse for women of color, who already expend more effort to manage their image during healthcare encounters in order to avoid stereotypes (e.g. the "angry Black woman"). Using a national sample of women who gave birth in U.S. hospitals in 2011-2012, we examined the relationship between declining procedures and discrimination during the childbirth hospitalization. We found that women who reported having declined care for themselves or their infant during the childbirth hospitalization were more likely to report "poor treatment" based on race and ethnicity, insurance status or having a difference of opinion with a healthcare provider. Moreover, the increase in odds of perceived discrimination due to a difference of opinion with a healthcare provider was significantly larger in magnitude for Black women compared to White women. These results suggest that in the context of childbirth care, women pay a penalty for exhibiting behavior that may be perceived as uncooperative, and this penalty may be greater for Black women.
- Motion or emotion: Infants discriminate emotional biological motion based on low-level visual information. [Journal Article]
- IBInfant Behav Dev 2019 May 18; 57:101324
- Infants' ability to discriminate emotional facial expressions and tones of voice is well-established, yet little is known about infant discrimination of emotional body movements. Here, we asked if 10…
Infants' ability to discriminate emotional facial expressions and tones of voice is well-established, yet little is known about infant discrimination of emotional body movements. Here, we asked if 10-20-month-old infants rely on high-level emotional cues or low-level motion related cues when discriminating between emotional point-light displays (PLDs). In Study 1, infants viewed 18 pairs of angry, happy, sad, or neutral PLDs. Infants looked more at angry vs. neutral, happy vs. neutral, and neutral vs. sad. Motion analyses revealed that infants preferred the PLD with more total body movement in each pairing. Study 2, in which infants viewed inverted versions of the same pairings, yielded similar findings except for sad-neutral. Study 3 directly paired all three emotional stimuli in both orientations. The angry and happy stimuli did not significantly differ in terms of total motion, but both had more motion than the sad stimuli. Infants looked more at angry vs. sad, more at happy vs. sad, and about equally to angry vs. happy in both orientations. Again, therefore, infants preferred PLDs with more total body movement. Overall, the results indicate that a low-level motion preference may drive infants' discrimination of emotional human walking motions.
- Correlation between cardiorespiratory events and gastro-esophageal reflux in preterm and term infants: Analysis of predisposing factors. [Journal Article]
- EHEarly Hum Dev 2019 May 18; 134:14-18
- CONCLUSIONS: GER and CRE were associated in <11% of patients. The evaluation of ponderal growth might be helpful in predicting such an association.
- The impact of cross-border IVF on maternal and neonatal outcomes in multiple pregnancies: Experience from a UK fetal medicine service. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2019 May 02; 238:63-67
- CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-eight women had IVF overseas; they were older and had more pre-existing medical conditions. Eleven pregnancies used donor embryos, of which ten were from overseas treatment. 75% of women treated overseas conceived a triplet or higher order pregnancy compared to fewer than 10% of women who conceived in the UK. Almost half of all women treated overseas had more than two embryos transferred. Overseas IVF pregnancies had poorer obstetric and neonatal outcomes: 24% of live born babies died in the neonatal period compared to 0% in the UK group. The average neonatal costs per baby born from overseas IVF were £20, 600: two-and-a-half times higher than for those whose mothers conceived in the UK. Higher order multiple pregnancies are greatly over-represented by those undergoing IVF in overseas clinics. These are associated with poorer obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Perhaps paradoxically, improving NHS provision of fertility services might improve outcomes for the mother and babies while reducing the long-term burden to both fertility patients and the NHS.
- Topological correction of infant white matter surfaces using anatomically constrained convolutional neural network. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroimage 2019 May 18
- Reconstruction of accurate cortical surfaces without topological errors (i.e., handles and holes) from infant brain MR images is very important in early brain development studies. However, infant bra…
Reconstruction of accurate cortical surfaces without topological errors (i.e., handles and holes) from infant brain MR images is very important in early brain development studies. However, infant brain MR images typically suffer extremely low tissue contrast and dynamic imaging appearance patterns. Thus, it is inevitable to have large amounts of topological errors in the segmented infant brain tissue images, which lead to inaccurately reconstructed cortical surfaces with topological errors. To address this issue, inspired by recent advances in deep learning, we propose an anatomically constrained network for topological correction on infant cortical surfaces. Specifically, in our method, we first locate regions of potential topological defects by leveraging a topology-preserving level set method. Then, we propose an anatomically constrained network to correct those candidate voxels in the located regions. Since infant cortical surfaces often contain large and complex handles or holes, it is difficult to completely correct all errors using one-shot correction. Therefore, we further enroll these two steps into an iterative framework to gradually correct large topological errors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to introduce deep learning approach for topological correction of infant cortical surfaces. We compare our method with the state-of-the-art methods on both simulated topological errors and real topological errors in human infant brain MR images. Moreover, we also validate our method on the infant brain MR images of macaques. All experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method.
- Effectiveness of the prevention of HIV mother -to-child transmission (PMTCT) program via early infant diagnosis (EID) data in Senegal. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0215941
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PMTCT interventions in Senegal but indicates also that increased efforts should be continued to reduce the MTCT rate to less than 2%.
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- Evolution of circulating thyroid hormone levels in preterm infants during the first week of life: perinatal influences and impact on neurodevelopment. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2019 May 21
- Background For several decades, transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THOP) has been a topic of debate. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood and consensus on the therapeutic approach i…
Background For several decades, transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THOP) has been a topic of debate. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood and consensus on the therapeutic approach is lacking. This study aimed at gaining a better insight into the pathogenesis by studying the trends in thyroid hormone (TH) levels during the first week of life. Methods This single-center prospective observational study analyzed the plasma levels of total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and T4-binding globulin (TBG) in cord blood and at the end of the first week of life in 120 preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <37 weeks). The change over time was calculated (delta, ∆). The impact of perinatal and subsequently postnatal variables on ∆ was studied by hierarchical multiple regression. The impact of ∆ on the neurodevelopmental outcome at the corrected ages of 9 and 24 months, measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)-II, was assessed by logistic regression. Results ∆fT4 levels were negatively affected by GA and use of dopamine, whereas only GA was associated with low ∆T3 levels. Negative ∆fT4 levels were present in 75% of the extremely low-for-gestational-age infants, whereas 23.5% had a negative ∆T3 level. There was an increased risk for an abnormal mental developmental score (<85) with decreasing ∆T3 at 9 months, corrected age, but not at 24 months. Conclusions A negative evolution in circulating TH levels is principally an immaturity phenomenon, whereas dopamine can further suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. There is at least a temporary negative effect of this evolution on the infants' neurodevelopment.