- Pre-labelling versus direct labelling of anthrax proteins for imaging of matrix metalloproteinases activity using DOTA-GA. [Journal Article]
- NMNucl Med Biol 2019 Jul 18; 72-73:49-54
- CONCLUSIONS: 111In-radiolabelling of LFn results in a functional molecule that targets MMP-activity in cells when combined with PA-L1. [111In]In-LFn/PA-L1 is a promising MMP activity imaging agent for SPECT imaging.
- Characterization of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a polysaccharide-based bioflocculant from Bacillus subtilis F9. [Journal Article]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2019 Jul 19; :103642
- Microbial flocculants are versatile class of novel biomacromolecules with numerous potential industrial applications. This study sought to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflamm…
Microbial flocculants are versatile class of novel biomacromolecules with numerous potential industrial applications. This study sought to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential of a polysaccharide-based bioflocculant (PBB) extracted from Bacillus subtilis F9. To achieve this, the antioxidant activity of different PBB concentrations(100 μg/mL ̶ 1000 μg/mL) was first examined in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Further, the anti-inflammatory activity of PBB against lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/mL)-induced inflammatory mediators released from headkidney (HK)-derived macrophages of Labeo rohita was investigated. Our results revealed that the capacities of 800 μg/mL of PBB to scavenge DPPH, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radicals were 81.46 ± 1.37%, 66.34 ± 2.63%, and 78.03 ± 2.46%, respectively, which were slightly higher that observed following treatment with 400 μg/mL of the positive control (ascorbic acid). Further, the radical scavenging capacity of PBB was found to steadily increase with increasing concentrations of PBB. Pre-treatment with PBB also inhibited nitric oxide production in a dose-dependent manner. We next examined the effect of PBB on proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, and IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β) via qRT-PCR and ELISA. We found that PBB markedly inhibited the LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, while it significantly increased those of IL-10 and TGF-β. Further, PBB exhibited an antibacterial activity against multiple food-borne pathogens with minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 3 ̶ 11 mg/mL. Importantly, PBB exhibited negligible cytotoxic effects against HK macrophages. Taken together these results suggest that PBB may serve as a natural antioxidant for application in functional therapies and may also be exploited for its anti-inflammatory potential.
- Development of a rapid-viability PCR method for detection of Clostridioides difficile spores from environmental samples. [Journal Article]
- AAnaerobe 2019 Jul 19; :102077
- Clostridioides difficile is a common pathogen that is well known to survive for extended periods of time on environmental healthcare surfaces from fecal contamination. During epidemiological investig…
Clostridioides difficile is a common pathogen that is well known to survive for extended periods of time on environmental healthcare surfaces from fecal contamination. During epidemiological investigations of healthcare-associated infections, it is important to be able to detect whether or not there are viable spores of C. difficile on surfaces. Current methods to detect C. difficile can take up to 7 days for culture and in the case of detection by PCR, viability of the spores cannot be ascertained. Prevention of C. difficile infection in healthcare settings includes adequate cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces which increases the likelihood of detecting dead organisms from an environmental sample during an investigation. In this study, we were able to adapt a rapid-viability PCR (RV-PCR) method, first developed for detection of viable Bacillus anthracis spores, for the detection of viable C. difficile spores. RV-PCR uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to confirm the presence of live organisms. Using this modified method we were able to detect viable C. difficile after 22 h of anaerobic incubation in Cycloserine Cefoxitin Fructose Broth (CCFB). This method also used bead beating combined with the Maxwell 16 Casework kit for DNA extraction and purification and a real-time duplex PCR assay for toxin B and cdd3 genes to confirm the identity of the C. difficile spores. Spiked environmental sponge-wipes with and without added organic load were tested to determine the limit of detection (LOD). The LOD from spiked environmental sponge-wipe samples was 104 spores/mL but after incubation initial spore levels of 101 spores/mL were detected. Use of this method would greatly decrease the amount of time required to detect viable C. difficile spores; incubation of samples is only required for germination (22 h or less) instead of colony formation, which can take up to 7 days. In addition, PCR can then quickly confirm or deny the identity of the organism at the same time it would confirm viability. The presence of viable C. difficile spores could be detected at very low levels within 28 h total compared to the 2 to 10-day process that would be needed for culture, identification and toxin detection.
- Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Sugar Patches on Insecticide Resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. Adults. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Entomol 2019 Apr 27
- CONCLUSIONS: BSPs efficiently kill resistant mosquitoes that land on treated and untreated bed nets and thus could ultimately reduce the number of vector-borne malarial mosquitoes.
- Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Preference for Plant Structures, and Their Location, Within Bt Cotton Under Different Nitrogen and Irrigation Regimes. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Econ Entomol 2019 Apr 26
- Helicoverpa zea Boddie is a common economic pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), including transgenic cotton varieties that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Helicoverpa zea oviposition is simi…
Helicoverpa zea Boddie is a common economic pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), including transgenic cotton varieties that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Helicoverpa zea oviposition is similar in Bt and non-Bt cotton, but behavior of H. zea larvae can be different in the presence of Bt, with neonates moving away from terminals faster in single-toxin Bt than non-Bt cotton or avoiding Bt-treated diet in the lab. We quantified H. zea oviposition and larval distribution on structures within cotton plants in small plot experiments of Cry1Ac + Cry1F cotton for 2 yr under different irrigation and nitrogen treatments. More eggs were oviposited on plants receiving nitrogen application during 2016 and on leaves in the top section of irrigated plants during 2017, but other treatment effects on eggs or larvae were minimal. Helicoverpa zea eggs were most common on leaves in the top third of plants at position zero and middle section of cotton plants throughout the season, but some oviposition occurred on fruiting structures as well. First and second instars were more common on squares in the top section of plants during 2016 and bolls in the middle and lower sections during 2017 due to oviposition lower in the canopy during 2017. During both years, third through fifth instars were more common on bolls in the middle and lower section of plants closer to the main stem. These findings have resistance management implications as extended larval feeding on bolls could optimize nutrition, decrease Bt susceptibility, and potentially influence behavioral resistance.
- Evaluation of amicarbazone toxicity removal through degradation processes based on hydroxyl and sulfate radicals. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2019 Jul 22; :1-11
- The herbicide amicarbazone (AMZ), which appeared as a possible alternative to atrazine, presents moderate environmental persistence and is unlikely to be removed by conventional water treatment techn…
The herbicide amicarbazone (AMZ), which appeared as a possible alternative to atrazine, presents moderate environmental persistence and is unlikely to be removed by conventional water treatment techniques. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) driven by •OH and/or SO4•- radicals are then promising alternatives to AMZ-contaminated waters remediation, even though, in some cases, they can originate more toxic degradation products than the parent-compound. Therefore, assessing treated solutions toxicity prior to disposal is of extreme importance. In this study, the toxicity of AMZ solutions, before and after treatment with different •OH-driven and SO4•--driven AOPs, was evaluated for five different microorganisms: Vibrio fischeri, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetrahymena thermophila, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. In general, the toxic response of AMZ was greatly affected by the addition of reactants, especially when persulfate (PS) and/or Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes were added. The modifications of this response after treatment were correlated with AMZ intermediates, which were identified by mass spectrometry. Thus, low molecular weight by-products, resulting from fast degradation kinetics, were associated with increased toxicity to bacteria and trophic effects to microalgae. These observations were compared with toxicological predictions given by a Structure-Activity Relationships software, which revealed to be fairly compatible with our empirical findings.
- [Characterization of a novel bidirectional promoter in Bacillus subtilis]. [Journal Article]
- SWSheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2019 Jul 25; 35(7):1326-1334
- Based on the transcriptome analysis data of a Bacillus licheniformis, a novel bidirectional promoter was identified from the strain and its transcriptional strength was analyzed. The expression level…
Based on the transcriptome analysis data of a Bacillus licheniformis, a novel bidirectional promoter was identified from the strain and its transcriptional strength was analyzed. The expression level of a Bacillus clausii derived alkaline protease gene driven by the bidirectional promoter was studied by using the known strong constitutive promoter pShuttle-09 as a control. Three recombinant expression vectors and the corresponding recombinant bacteria were constructed. Under the control of the new promoter pLA and its reverse promoter pLB, the alkaline protease expression level respectively reached 164 U/mL and 111 U/mL. The results indicated that the transcription strength of pLA was significantly higher than that of pShuttle-09 and pLB, and both the pLA and pLB promoters could initiate the expression of the alkaline protease. Thus, it provides a new expression element for the heterogenous genes in Bacillus sp. and a new idea for the co-expression of two genes in one prokaryotic strain.
- Novel Diazenyl Containing Phenyl Styryl Ketone Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents. [Journal Article]
- AAAntiinfect Agents 2019; 17(1):28-38
- CONCLUSIONS: The results are quite promising which on further studies may lead to drug molecules against different microorganisms. Especially, 3EP can be considered as a broad spectrum agent due to its potent activity against different microorganisms like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans.
- Study on prevalence, clinical presentation, and associated bacterial pathogens of goat mastitis in Bauchi, Plateau, and Edo states, Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- VWVet World 2019; 12(5):638-645
- CONCLUSIONS: Mastitis continues to be recognized as one of the important health issues and leads to major economic losses to the dairy goats caused by many bacterial pathogens, and the effective measures need to be taken to control the disease.
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- Is Bacillus coagulans supplementation plus low FODMAP diet superior to low FODMAP diet in irritable bowel syndrome management? [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Nutr 2019 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the addition of probiotic supplement containing B. coagulans to the low FODMAP diet might be superior to low FODMAP diet in alleviating IBS symptoms.