- Molecular Specialization of GABAergic Synapses on the Soma and Axon in Cortical and Hippocampal Circuit Function and Dysfunction. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Mol Neurosci 2019; 12:154
- The diversity of inhibitory interneurons allows for the coordination and modulation of excitatory principal cell firing. Interneurons that release GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) onto the soma and axon ex…
The diversity of inhibitory interneurons allows for the coordination and modulation of excitatory principal cell firing. Interneurons that release GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) onto the soma and axon exert powerful control by virtue of proximity to the site of action potential generation at the axon initial segment (AIS). Here, we review and examine the cellular and molecular regulation of soma and axon targeting GABAergic synapses in the cortex and hippocampus. We also describe their role in controlling network activity in normal and pathological states. Recent studies have demonstrated a specific role for postsynaptic dystroglycan in the formation and maintenance of cholecystokinin positive basket cell terminals contacting the soma, and postsynaptic collybistin in parvalbumin positive chandelier cell contacts onto the AIS. Unique presynaptic molecular contributors, LGI2 and FGF13, expressed in parvalbumin positive basket cells and chandelier cells, respectively, have also recently been identified. Mutations in the genes encoding proteins critical for somatic and AIS inhibitory synapses have been associated with human disorders of the nervous system. Dystroglycan dysfunction in some congenital muscular dystrophies is associated with developmental brain malformations, intellectual disability, and rare epilepsy. Collybistin dysfunction has been linked to hyperekplexia, epilepsy, intellectual disability, and developmental disorders. Both LGI2 and FGF13 mutations are implicated in syndromes with epilepsy as a component. Advancing our understanding of the powerful roles of somatic and axonic GABAergic contacts in controlling activity patterns in the cortex and hippocampus will provide insight into the pathogenesis of epilepsy and other nervous system disorders.
- Market Basket Survey of Arsenic Species in the Top Ten Most Consumed Seafoods in the United States. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2019 Jul 11
- The study focused on the determination of arsenic species in the top ten most consumed seafoods in the United States. Fifty-four samples were collected from local supermarkets, and their species iden…
The study focused on the determination of arsenic species in the top ten most consumed seafoods in the United States. Fifty-four samples were collected from local supermarkets, and their species identities were confirmed by DNA barcoding. The total arsenic in the samples varied greatly in the range of 8-22200 ng/g (wet mass). Speciation analysis based on extraction of water-soluble and nonpolar arsenic showed that inorganic arsenic (iAs) was found only in clams and crabs, while arsenobetaine (AsB) predominates in most samples. Among the other arsenicals, trimethylarsoniopropionate (TMAP) was found in most matrices with higher concentrations in crabs, and arsenosugars existed in most clams and crabs. Nonpolar arsenic accounted for 1-46% of the total arsenic in the samples. The accuracy of the analytical results was evaluated using standard reference materials and spike recovery tests. The survey showed that the iAs concentrations in America's most consumed seafood products are much lower than the tolerable intake set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee, even at the highest levels found in this study.
- The Safety and Efficacy of Single-Operator Cholangioscopy in the Treatment of Difficult Common Bile Duct Stones after Failed Conventional ERCP. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Can Assoc Gastroenterol 2018; 1(4):181-190
- CONCLUSIONS: SOPOC with lithotripsy is highly effective and safe for the treatment of difficult common bile duct stones. In addition, significant cost savings may be realized by avoiding surgical bile duct exploration.
- On the encapsulation and assembly of anticancer drugs in a cooperative fashion. [Journal Article]
- CSChem Sci 2019 Jun 14; 10(22):5678-5685
- In this study, we report the remarkable recognition and assembly characteristics of D 3h symmetric basket 1 6- containing two adjoining and nonpolar cavities with six biocompatible GABA residues at t…
In this study, we report the remarkable recognition and assembly characteristics of D 3h symmetric basket 1 6- containing two adjoining and nonpolar cavities with six biocompatible GABA residues at their northern and southern termini. From the results of experimental (1H NMR, fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopies) and computational (MM-MC/OPLS3e) investigations, we deduced that hexaanionic 1 6- captured two molecules of anticancer drug doxorubicin 2 + in water and accommodated them in its two deep cavities. The formation of stable 1 6-⊂2 2 2+ (K a = 3 × 1012 M-2) was accompanied by the exceptional homotopic cooperativity (α = 4K 2/K 1 = 112) in which K 1 = 3.2 ± 0.8 × 105 M-1 and K 2 = 9 ± 1 × 106 M-1. Furthermore, bolaamphiphilic 1 6-⊂2 2 2+ assembled into spherical nanoparticles (DLS, cryo-TEM and TEM) possessing 41% drug loading. The preorganization of abiotic receptor 1 6- and its complementarity to 2 + have been proposed to play a part in the positive cooperativity in which ten favorable noncovalent contacts (i.e. hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, C-H···π and π-π contacts) are formed between doxorubicin and the dual-cavity host. In the case of topotecan 3 +, however, the absence of multiple and favorable basket⊂drug interactions resulted in the predominant formation of a binary 1 6- ⊂ 3 + complex (K 1 = 2.12 ± 0.01 × 104 M-1) and the negative homotopic allostery (α ≪ 1). To summarize, our study lays out a roadmap for creating a family of novel, accessible and multivalent hosts capable of complexing anticancer agents in a cooperative manner. As basket⊂drug complexes organize into highly loaded nanoparticles, the reported soft material is amenable to the bottom-up construction of stimuli-responsive nanomedicine capable of effective scavenging and/or delivery of drugs.
- Hybrid solution combining osteosynthesis and endoprosthesis for double column acetabular fractures in the elderly provide more stability with finite element model. [Journal Article]
- EHEklem Hastalik Cerrahisi 2019; 30(2):106-11
- CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid method combining osteosynthesis and prosthesis implantation provide more stability in biomechanical models in the treatment of double column fractures in elderly.
- Parvalbumin Interneuron Plasticity for Consolidation of Reinforced Learning. [Journal Article]
- CSCold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 2019 Jul 09
- Parvalbumin (PV) basket cells are widespread local interneurons that inhibit principal neurons and each other through perisomatic boutons. They enhance network function and regulate local ensemble ac…
Parvalbumin (PV) basket cells are widespread local interneurons that inhibit principal neurons and each other through perisomatic boutons. They enhance network function and regulate local ensemble activities, particularly in the γ range. Organized network activity is critically important for long-term memory consolidation during a late time window 11-15 h after acquisition. Here, we discuss the role of learning-related plasticity in PV neurons for long-term memory consolidation. The plasticity can lead to enhanced (high-PV) or reduced (low-PV) expression of PV/GAD67. High-PV plasticity is induced upon definite reinforced learning in early-born PV basket cells, whereas low-PV plasticity is induced upon provisional reinforced learning in late-born PV basket cells. The plasticity is first detectable 6 h after acquisition, at the end of a time window for memory specification through experience, and is critically important 11-15 h after acquisition for enhanced network activity and long-term memory consolidation. High- and low-PV plasticity appear to regulate activity in distinct local networks of principal neurons and PV basket cells. These findings suggest how flexibility and stability in learning and memory might be implemented through parallel circuits and networks.
- Dusting versus fragmentation for renal stones during flexible ureteroscopy. [Journal Article]
- AJArab J Urol 2019; 17(2):138-142
- CONCLUSIONS: During fURS for renal stones, the dusting technique had a significantly shorter operation time, whilst the fragmentation technique led to a significantly better SFR. Both techniques have comparable safety, hospital stay, and requirement for secondary procedures. Abbreviations: fURS: flexible ureteroscopy/ureteroscope; ICU: intensive care unit; KUB: plain abdominal radiograph of the kidney, ureter and bladder; NCCT: non-contrast CT; SFR: stone-free rate; SWL: shockwave lithotripsy; UAS: ureteric access sheath.
- Land sharing in South Patagonia: Conservation of above-ground beetle diversity in forests and non-forest ecosystems. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jul 01; 690:132-139
- Land-sharing strategies, as variable retention silvicultural proposals, are useful to mitigate harmful effects of economic activities on forest biodiversity; benefits have been reported worldwide for…
Land-sharing strategies, as variable retention silvicultural proposals, are useful to mitigate harmful effects of economic activities on forest biodiversity; benefits have been reported worldwide for several organisms. However, we suggest that this approach could be useful to improve beetle conservation not only in forests but also in other ecosystem types, based on the results from Southern Patagonia (Argentina). We studied above-ground beetle communities using pitfall traps in Nothofagus pumilio forests, Mulguraea tridens shrublands, and magellanic steppes. The forests were located in Tierra del Fuego Province, while the shrublands and the steppes were in Santa Cruz Province. In forests and shrublands, we compared retention approaches (aggregated/dispersed retention harvesting in forests, and managed cut and retention strips in shrublands) vs. control situations (without harvesting/cuttings). In dry and humid steppes, both impacted by livestock, we evaluated grazed and exclusion paddocks, comparable to structural retentions (reference areas without grazing do not exist). Richness, abundance, frequency, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou evenness indices, and similarity among assemblages were evaluated using univariate and multivariate statistical tests. In forests and shrublands, retention approaches (aggregated/dispersed and strips) allowed the partial or total maintenance of beetle community richness, preserving them similar to natural and non-impacted ecosystems. In dry and humid steppes, exclusion areas presented significantly different richness, abundance and diversity of arthropod assemblages, but with inverse trends: lower values in grazed areas than in exclusions in dry steppe, and higher values in grazed areas than in exclusions in humid steppe. We concluded that land-sharing could be implemented in forests and non-forest ecosystems to preserve beetle communities, being the variable retention approaches and the grazing exclusion areas good alternatives for private or public lands. Likewise, we consider that legislation to promote conservation (like National Law 26331) should not be only applicable for and implemented in forests, but also in non-forest ecosystems.
- Application of cholangioscope-compatible retrieval basket. [Journal Article]
- EEndoscopy 2019 Jul 05
New Search Next
- Flower Basket Retrieval: Utilization of a Device with a Unique Design for Endoscopic Rescue in Cases Involving Proximal Migration of Pancreatic Duct Stents. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Endosc 2019 Jul 05